Astronomy 104: Second Exam

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1 Astronomy 104: Second Exam Stephen Lepp October 29, 2014 Each question is worth 2 points. Write your name on this exam and on the scantron. Short Answer A The Sun is powered by converting hydrogen to what? Helium B Cold dark regions on the Sun s surface are called? Sunspots Multiple Choice 1. Why does the Sun shine? (a) It is on fire. (b) chemical energy (c) gravitational energy (d) nuclear fusion (e) nuclear fission 1

2 2. What kind of radiation is produced during fusion in the core? (a) Radio (b) Gamma Rays (c) X-rays (d) visible (e) ultraviolet 3. By the time the radiation is emitted at the surface of the sun it is mostly? (a) Radio (b) Gamma-rays (c) X-rays (d) visible (e) ultraviolet 4. A star s life is a struggle between??????? wanting to crush it, and??????? wanting to expand it. (a) gravity, nuclear fusion (b) nuclear forces, hot gases (c) gravity, convection (d) gravity, radiation (e) gas pressure, radiation 5. A star leaves the main sequence when (a) it becomes hot enough for nuclear fusion (b) it runs out of hydrogen in the core (c) it runs out of hydrogen everywhere (d) it runs out of helium everywhere (e) in never leaves the main sequence 2

3 6. What conditions are required for nuclear fusion of hydrogen to occur? (a) a temperature of millions Kelvin (b) high density (c) the presence of uranium (d) all of the above (e) A and B 7. How can you tell the temperature of a star (a) color hottest stars are red (b) color hottest stars are blueish white (c) spectral type (d) a and c (e) b and c 8. Why can t a star with less then 0.08 solar mass become a star (a) not enough fuel for main sequence (b) gravity is too weak to start collapse (c) never reaches temperature needed for fusion (d) will form a white dwarf instead (e) radiation pressure will blow away excess gas 9. Why don t stars larger then about 150 solar mass form (a) radiation pressure blows it apart (b) gravity is too weak at these sizes (c) never reaches temperature for nuclear fusion (d) too large for main sequence (e) none of the above 3

4 10. What provides the energy to heat a collapsing protostar (a) chemical energy (b) gravitational potential (c) fission (d) fusion (e) none of the above 11. What stops the contraction of a protostar (a) nuclear fission (b) nuclear fusion (c) degeneracy pressure (d) density (e) all of the above 12. Compared to our sun how common are massive stars - above 20 solar masses (a) much more common (b) more common (c) about the same (d) less common (e) much less common 13. If you could look inside the core of our sun the fraction of helium compared to when it was born is (a) much less helium (b) less helium (c) about the same (d) more helium 4

5 14. Why is the sun dense inside (a) denser material sank to the center (b) it formed from denser material (c) the same (d) nuclear fusion increases the density by changing hydrogen to helium (e) the pressure of the overlying gas keeps the density high 15. What is a hydrogen nucleus (a) an electron (b) a proton (c) a neutron (d) two protons and two neutrons (e) none of the above 16. What is a helium nucleus (a) an electron (b) a proton (c) a neutron (d) two protons and two neutrons (e) none of the above 17. If we can t see the Sun s interior, how do we know what it is like? (a) observations of sunquakes (b) observations of neutrinos (c) mathematical models of stellar interiors (d) all of the above (e) none of the above 5

6 18. On the HR diagram, objects at the same luminosity would fall on a line which is (a) vertical (b) horizontal (c) diagonal (sloped upward) (d) diagonal (sloped downward) (e) there are no such lines 19. On the HR diagram, objects at the same radius would fall on a line which is (a) vertical (b) horizontal (c) diagonal (sloped upward) (d) diagonal (sloped downward) (e) there are no such lines 20. On the HR diagram, objects at the same temperature would fall on a line which is (a) vertical (b) horizontal (c) diagonal (sloped upward) (d) diagonal (sloped downward) (e) there are no such lines 21. On the HR diagram, objects at the same age would fall on a line which is (a) vertical (b) horizontal (c) diagonal (sloped upward) (d) diagonal (sloped downward) (e) there are no such lines 6

7 22. Why do we think that clouds of gas and dust form stars? (a) We see young star clusters with gas and dust around them. (b) Infrared and microwave telescopes let us see protostars inside dust clouds. (c) Computer models predict that if a cloud has enough mass, it will contract, heat up, and form a star. (d) The Hubble Telescope lets us watch stars form before our eyes. (e) All but d. 23. A group of hundreds of stars is an (a) open cluster (b) closed cluster (c) globular cluster (d) none of these 24. A group of hundreds of thousands of stars, mostly old stars, is an (a) open cluster (b) closed cluster (c) globular cluster (d) none of these 25. Why are neutrino s so hard to detect (a) to short a wavelength (b) to long a wavelength (c) hardly interact with matter (d) all Electromagnetic radiation is hard to detect (e) they are easy to detect 7

8 26. A star near the top of the main sequence is how many times more luminous? (a) 10,000 (b) 100 (c) 10 (d) 5 (e) The lifetime of one of the most massive stars is (a) much longer then the Sun s (b) longer then the Sun s (c) much shorter then the Sun s (d) shorter then the Sun s (e) about the same as the Sun s 28. Which of these spectral types is the hottest (a) O (b) A (c) B (d) G (e) K 29. Which of the following is correct order for spectral types from hot to cold (a) ABCDEFG (b) OBAFGKM (c) KMBAFGO (d) ABFGKMO (e) MOBAFGK 8

9 30. Why do O and B stars show only few absorptions lines (a) the elements are used up (b) they were formed in a time before heavy elements (c) they are to cold for spectral line absorption (d) many atoms in the atmosphere are ionized (e) actually O and B have the most absorption lines 31. If a star were moved twice as far it would appear how many times as bright (a) twice (b) four times (c) the same (d) a half as bright (e) a fourth as bright 32. If a star were moved twice as far away, it s color temperature would be (a) about twice as hot (b) about four times as hot (c) about the same (d) about half the temperature (e) about one quarter the temperature 33. The sunspot cycle is about how long (a) 11 days (b) 11 weeks (c) 11 months (d) 11 years (e) 11 centuries 9

10 34. We can detect black holes by (a) observing matter emitting as it falls in. (b) inferring a mass from motion of objects near it. (c) observing emission from matter after it falls in (d) observing light that falls in (e) a and b 35. If beamed radiation from a spinning neutron star hits Earth, and we observed it, (a) we would call it a nova. (b) we would call it a supernova. (c) we would call it a gamma ray burst. (d) we would call it a pulsar. (e) we would all be dead. 36. If electro-magnetic radiation from a massive star after it undergoes iron core collapse hits Earth, (a) we would call it a nova. (b) we would call it a supernova. (c) we would call it a gamma ray burst. (d) we would call it a pulsar. (e) we would all be dead. 37. If light from a white dwarfs atmosphere which ignites fusion of hydrogen to helium were observed on Earth, (a) we would call it a nova. (b) we would call it a supernova. (c) we would call it a gamma ray burst. (d) we would call it a pulsar. (e) we would all be dead. 10

11 38. In a red giant star, three helium nuclei fuse to form (a) a hydrogen nuclei (b) a carbon nuclei (c) an oxygen nuclei (d) an iron nuclei (e) none of these 39. The most tightly bound nuclei are (a) hydrogen (b) helium (c) carbon (d) oxygen (e) iron 40. After the Sun becomes a red giant and makes a carbon core, why will it not make heavier elements? (a) it will not be hot enough (b) it will have run out of fuel (c) it is near the end of the Sun s life (d) the heavier elements are used up making planets (e) a and b 41. After the sun becomes a red giant it will shed much of its atmosphere in a (a) stellar nebula (b) post-stellar nebula (c) planetary nebula (d) post-planetary nebula (e) supernova 11

12 42. With increasing mass a white dwarfs radius (a) increases (b) stays the same (c) decreases then increases (d) increases then decreases (e) decreases 43. When the Sun dies it will leave a white dwarf behind. (a) true (b) false 44. If the Sun were twice as massive it would leave a brown dwarf when it dies. (a) true (b) false 45. Sunspots peak at Solar Maximum. (a) true (b) false 46. High mass stars form quicker and live shorter on the main sequence. (a) true (b) false 47. The y axis on the HR diagram is luminosity. (a) true (b) false 48. When a white dwarf accretes enough mass to supernova it leaves behind a black hole. (a) true (b) false 12

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