LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR"

Transcription

1 LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR

2 First stage = Protostar PROTOSTAR Cloud of gas and dust many light-years across Gravity tries to pull the materials together Eventually, at the center of the ball of dust and gas, the pressure causes the temperature to increase to 10 million Kelvin (15 million Celsius) When temperatures are that hot, nuclear fusion begins!

3 Proton Cycle and Carbon Cycle are the main sources of thermonuclear energy within the sun PROTON & CNO CYCLE Proton Cycle four hydrogen nuclei combine to form one helium nucleus Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen Cycle four protons fuse using carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen as catalysts to create one helium nucleus

4 MAIN SEQUENCE STAR Second stage = Main-sequence star Energy from fusion reactions push outward from the core creating a balance between the gravity pulling the gas together and the pressure from the fusion reactions Longest phase millions to billions of years Depending on how much gas and dust is collected, the size of the star ranges from about half the size of our sun to 20 times the sun s size Average star (0.4 to 3.4 times the mass of our sun) Massive star (5 times or more the mass of our sun)

5 The color and brightness of the star give us information about the star Color Surface temperature of the star Brightness (luminosity) amount of energy produced in the core STAR COLOR & TEMPERATURE

6 RED GIANTS Third Stage: Average star = Red Giant Massive star = Red Supergiant Stars take millions to billions of years to burn through all of the hydrogen When the hydrogen is gone, helium fusion begins and the star moves into a new stage Star first begins to collapse in size which then causes helium fusion which creates more heat and the star expands in size

7 HELIUM FUSION

8 Fourth Stage: Average star = White Dwarf DWARFS White Dwarf Average size stars shed their outer layers and only about 20% of the initial mass remains and over time it continues to shrink and cool Eventually becomes a Black Dwarf (theoretical) Final result of an average star Lump of matter that was once a star but has ceased to give off radiation Universe isn t old enough for any of the white dwarfs to have become black dwarfs yet

9 Fourth Stage: Massive star = Supernovae 8 times the sun s mass SUPERNOVAE Supernovae Core of the star begins to shrink becoming hotter and denser creating the elements of the periodic table through iron and fusion ceases. The core becomes over 1 billion degrees C and the repulsive forces of the nuclei causes a HUGE explosion The explosion causes the formation of the rest of the elements of the periodic table and radioactive isotopes

10 After a supernovae, a star can then become a black hole or a neutron star Depends on the mass of the star BEYOND SUPERNOVAE Black hole Gravity is so intense, nothing can escape from inside it Very massive star (~25x mass of our sun) Neutron star Small radius, high density mass composed mostly of closely packed neutrons 10-25x the mass of our sun

11 ELEMENT CREATION

12 ELEMENT CREATION

13 SPECTRAL LINES Spectral line fingerprint of light that can be used to identify the atoms, elements or molecules in a star, galaxy or gas cluster Light source is separated using a prism and a spectrum of colors with discrete lines shows up Absorption lines an atom, element or molecule absorbs energy causing an excited electron Elements have absorbed the light Emission lines an atom, element or molecule releases absorbed energy falling back to the ground state

14 SPECTRAL LINES OF OUR SUN The composition of our sun is shown by the absorption spectrum Our sun is mostly composed of hydrogen and helium, but the presence of Na, Ca and Fe are noted These elements all exist in the solar atmosphere because the elements have absorbed the light

15 LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR

LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR

LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR First stage = Protostar PROTOSTAR Cloud of gas and dust many light-years across Gravity tries to pull the materials together Eventually, at the center of the ball of dust and gas,

More information

They developed a graph, called the H-R diagram, that relates the temperature of a star to its absolute magnitude.

They developed a graph, called the H-R diagram, that relates the temperature of a star to its absolute magnitude. Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell noticed that stars with higher temperatures and large sizes also have brighter absolute magnitudes the actual amount of light given off by a star. (also referred to

More information

Life Cycle of a Star - Activities

Life Cycle of a Star - Activities Name: Class Period: Life Cycle of a Star - Activities A STAR IS BORN STAGES COMMON TO ALL STARS All stars start as a nebula. A nebula is a large cloud of gas and dust. Gravity can pull some of the gas

More information

Stellar Evolution Notes

Stellar Evolution Notes Name: Block: Stellar Evolution Notes Stars mature, grow old and die. The more massive a star is, the shorter its life will be. Our Sun will live about 10 billion years. It is already 5 billion years old,

More information

*Generally speaking, there are two main life cycles for stars. *The factor which determines the life cycle of the star is its mass.

*Generally speaking, there are two main life cycles for stars. *The factor which determines the life cycle of the star is its mass. Generally speaking, there are two main life cycles for stars. The factor which determines the life cycle of the star is its mass. 1 solar mass = size of our Sun Any star less than about three solar masses

More information

Star Formation A cloud of gas and dust, called a nebula, begins spinning & heating up. Eventually, it gets hot enough for fusion to take place, and a

Star Formation A cloud of gas and dust, called a nebula, begins spinning & heating up. Eventually, it gets hot enough for fusion to take place, and a Stars Star- large ball of gas held together by gravity that produces tremendous amounts of energy and shines Sun- our closest star Star Formation A cloud of gas and dust, called a nebula, begins spinning

More information

Life of a Star. Pillars of Creation

Life of a Star. Pillars of Creation Life of a Star Life of a Star Pillars of Creation Life of a Star Pillars of Creation Stars form from massive clouds of gas that primarily consist of hydrogen. Life of a Star Gravity causes gas to contract

More information

What is a star? A body of gases that gives off tremendous amounts of energy in the form of light & heat. What star is closest to the earth?

What is a star? A body of gases that gives off tremendous amounts of energy in the form of light & heat. What star is closest to the earth? Stars What is a star? A body of gases that gives off tremendous amounts of energy in the form of light & heat. What star is closest to the earth? Answer: The SUN It s about 150,000,000 km from earth =

More information

NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS

NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS 2 BASIC ASTRONOMY, AND STARS AND THEIR EVOLUTION Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics CSUSB COURSE WEBPAGE: http://physics.csusb.edu/~karen MOTIONS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

More information

1. What is the primary difference between the evolution of a low-mass star and that of a high-mass star?

1. What is the primary difference between the evolution of a low-mass star and that of a high-mass star? FYI: The Lives of Stars E3:R6b 1. Read FYI: The Lives of Stars As you read use the spaces below to write down any information you find especially interesting. Also define the bold terms used in the text.

More information

Notepack 23 12/19/2014 Stellar Evolution: Aim: The Life Cycle of a Star

Notepack 23 12/19/2014 Stellar Evolution: Aim: The Life Cycle of a Star Notepack 23 12/19/2014 Stellar Evolution: Aim: The Life Cycle of a Star Do Now: Where do stars come from? What are they made of? What is a Star? What is a Star? A star is a massive ball of gas that has

More information

Missing words: mass hydrogen burning electrostatic repulsion. gravitationally hydrogen temperature protostar

Missing words: mass hydrogen burning electrostatic repulsion. gravitationally hydrogen temperature protostar Instructions Fill in the blanks of each frame using the list of missing words given. Cut out each frame and arrange them on your page in order, then stick them down. The first two frames are already in

More information

High Mass Stars. Dr Ken Rice. Discovering Astronomy G

High Mass Stars. Dr Ken Rice. Discovering Astronomy G High Mass Stars Dr Ken Rice High mass star formation High mass star formation is controversial! May form in the same way as low-mass stars Gravitational collapse in molecular clouds. May form via competitive

More information

Low-mass Stellar Evolution

Low-mass Stellar Evolution Low-mass Stellar Evolution The lives of low-mass stars And the lives of massive stars The Structure of the Sun Let s review: The Sun is held together by? The inward force is balanced by? Thinking about

More information

Birth and Death of Stars. Birth of Stars. Gas and Dust Clouds. Astronomy 110 Class 11

Birth and Death of Stars. Birth of Stars. Gas and Dust Clouds. Astronomy 110 Class 11 Birth and Death of Stars Astronomy 110 Class 11 Birth of Stars Start in cloud of gas and dust Contraction and Fragmentation Gravitational collapse and heating Protostar and disk Main Sequence Star Gas

More information

Instructions. Students will underline the portions of the PowerPoint that are underlined.

Instructions. Students will underline the portions of the PowerPoint that are underlined. STARS Instructions Students will underline the portions of the PowerPoint that are underlined. Nuclear Furnace 1. A star is like a gigantic nuclear furnace. 2. The nuclear reactions inside convert hydrogen

More information

A Star Becomes a Star

A Star Becomes a Star A Star Becomes a Star October 28, 2002 1) Stellar lifetime 2) Red Giant 3) White Dwarf 4) Supernova 5) More massive stars Review Solar winds/sunspots Gases and Dust Molecular clouds Protostars/Birth of

More information

Ch. 29 The Stars Stellar Evolution

Ch. 29 The Stars Stellar Evolution Ch. 29 The Stars 29.3 Stellar Evolution Basic Structure of Stars Mass effects The more massive a star is, the greater the gravity pressing inward, and the hotter and more dense the star must be inside

More information

Astronomy 1504 Section 002 Astronomy 1514 Section 10 Midterm 2, Version 1 October 19, 2012

Astronomy 1504 Section 002 Astronomy 1514 Section 10 Midterm 2, Version 1 October 19, 2012 Astronomy 1504 Section 002 Astronomy 1514 Section 10 Midterm 2, Version 1 October 19, 2012 Choose the answer that best completes the question. Read each problem carefully and read through all the answers.

More information

Low mass stars. Sequence Star Giant. Red. Planetary Nebula. White Dwarf. Interstellar Cloud. White Dwarf. Interstellar Cloud. Planetary Nebula.

Low mass stars. Sequence Star Giant. Red. Planetary Nebula. White Dwarf. Interstellar Cloud. White Dwarf. Interstellar Cloud. Planetary Nebula. Low mass stars Interstellar Cloud Main Sequence Star Red Giant Planetary Nebula White Dwarf Interstellar Cloud Main Sequence Star Red Giant Planetary Nebula White Dwarf Low mass stars Interstellar Cloud

More information

The Life Cycle of Stars. : Is the current theory of how our Solar System formed.

The Life Cycle of Stars. : Is the current theory of how our Solar System formed. Life Cycle of a Star Video (5 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pm9cqdlqi0a The Life Cycle of Stars Solar Nebula Theory : Is the current theory of how our Solar System formed. This theory states that

More information

Life and Death of a Star 2015

Life and Death of a Star 2015 Life and Death of a Star 2015 Name Date 1. In the main-sequence, the core is slowly shrinking because A. the mass of the star is slowly increasing B. hydrogen fusing to helium makes the core more dense

More information

Review: HR Diagram. Label A, B, C respectively

Review: HR Diagram. Label A, B, C respectively Stellar Evolution Review: HR Diagram Label A, B, C respectively A C B a) A: White dwarfs, B: Giants, C: Main sequence b) A: Main sequence, B: Giants, C: White dwarfs c) A: Main sequence, B: White Dwarfs,

More information

The Formation of Stars

The Formation of Stars The Formation of Stars A World of Dust The space between the stars is not completely empty, but filled with very dilute gas and dust, producing some of the most beautiful objects in the sky. We are interested

More information

8.8A describe components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, galaxies and use models such as HR diagrams for classification

8.8A describe components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, galaxies and use models such as HR diagrams for classification 8.8A describe components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, galaxies and use models such as HR diagrams for classification 8.8B recognize that the Sun is a medium-sized star near the edge of a

More information

Protostars on the HR Diagram. Lifetimes of Stars. Lifetimes of Stars: Example. Pressure-Temperature Thermostat. Hydrostatic Equilibrium

Protostars on the HR Diagram. Lifetimes of Stars. Lifetimes of Stars: Example. Pressure-Temperature Thermostat. Hydrostatic Equilibrium Protostars on the HR Diagram Once a protostar is hot enough to start, it can blow away the surrounding gas Then it is visible: crosses the on the HR diagram The more the cloud, the it will form stars Lifetimes

More information

Stars and their properties: (Chapters 11 and 12)

Stars and their properties: (Chapters 11 and 12) Stars and their properties: (Chapters 11 and 12) To classify stars we determine the following properties for stars: 1. Distance : Needed to determine how much energy stars produce and radiate away by using

More information

Life Cycle of a Star Worksheet

Life Cycle of a Star Worksheet Life Cycle of a Star Worksheet A STAR IS BORN STAGES COMMON TO ALL STARS All stars start as a nebula. A nebula is a large cloud of gas and dust. Gravity can pull some of the gas and dust in a nebula together.

More information

Chapter 12: The Life Cycle of Stars (contʼd) How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/9/09 Habbal Astro Lecture 25 1

Chapter 12: The Life Cycle of Stars (contʼd) How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/9/09 Habbal Astro Lecture 25 1 Chapter 12: The Life Cycle of Stars (contʼd) How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/9/09 Habbal Astro 110-01 Lecture 25 1 12.3 Life as a High-Mass Star Learning Goals What are the life stages of a

More information

To infinity, and beyond!

To infinity, and beyond! stars The night sky is filled with stars that shine at different levels of brightness. The brightness of the stars we observe can be related to the size of the star or its distance from Earth. In order

More information

Daily Science 03/30/2017

Daily Science 03/30/2017 Daily Science 03/30/2017 The atmospheres of different planets contain different gases. Which planet is most likely Earth? a. planet 1 b. planet 2 c. planet 3 d. planet 4 KeslerScience.com Can you name

More information

Chapters 12 and 13 Review: The Life Cycle and Death of Stars. How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/1/2009 Habbal Astro Lecture 27 1

Chapters 12 and 13 Review: The Life Cycle and Death of Stars. How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/1/2009 Habbal Astro Lecture 27 1 Chapters 12 and 13 Review: The Life Cycle and Death of Stars How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/1/2009 Habbal Astro 110-01 Lecture 27 1 Stars are born in molecular clouds Clouds are very cold:

More information

Explain how the sun converts matter into energy in its core. Describe the three layers of the sun s atmosphere.

Explain how the sun converts matter into energy in its core. Describe the three layers of the sun s atmosphere. Chapter 29 and 30 Explain how the sun converts matter into energy in its core. Describe the three layers of the sun s atmosphere. Explain how sunspots are related to powerful magnetic fields on the sun.

More information

Planetary Nebulae White dwarfs

Planetary Nebulae White dwarfs Life of a Low-Mass Star AST 101 Introduction to Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies Planetary Nebulae White dwarfs REVIEW END STATE: PLANETARY NEBULA + WHITE DWARF WHAS IS A WHITE DWARF? Exposed core of a low-mass

More information

1. Star: A object made of gas found in outer space that radiates.

1. Star: A object made of gas found in outer space that radiates. 1. Star: A object made of gas found in outer space that radiates. 2. Stars produce extremely great quantities of energy through the process of. The chemical formula for nuclear fusion looks like this:

More information

Astronomy 104: Second Exam

Astronomy 104: Second Exam Astronomy 104: Second Exam Stephen Lepp October 29, 2014 Each question is worth 2 points. Write your name on this exam and on the scantron. Short Answer A The Sun is powered by converting hydrogen to what?

More information

Beyond the Solar System 2006 Oct 17 Page 1 of 5

Beyond the Solar System 2006 Oct 17 Page 1 of 5 I. Stars have color, brightness, mass, temperature and size. II. Distances to stars are measured using stellar parallax a. The further away, the less offset b. Parallax angles are extremely small c. Measured

More information

What do the Roman numerals mean and how do stars die

What do the Roman numerals mean and how do stars die What do the Roman numerals mean and how do stars die What is luminosity? Luminosity is the energy emitted from a star, or basically how bright it is compared to our Sun The higher the luminosity, the higher

More information

Stars. The composition of the star It s temperature It s lifespan

Stars. The composition of the star It s temperature It s lifespan Stars Stars A star is a ball of different elements in the form of gases The elements and gases give off electromagnetic radiation (from nuclear fusion) in the form of light Scientists study the light coming

More information

Guiding Questions. Stellar Evolution. Stars Evolve. Interstellar Medium and Nebulae

Guiding Questions. Stellar Evolution. Stars Evolve. Interstellar Medium and Nebulae Guiding Questions Stellar Evolution 1. Why do astronomers think that stars evolve? 2. What kind of matter exists in the spaces between the stars? 3. What steps are involved in forming a star like the Sun?

More information

Unit 1: Space. Section 2- Stars

Unit 1: Space. Section 2- Stars Unit 1: Space Section 2- Stars Stars Recall: stars are celestial bodies of hot gas that give off heat and light Stars The milky way contains hundreds of billions of stars and is only one of hundreds of

More information

Stars & Galaxies. Chapter 27, Section 1. Composition & Temperature. Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Characteristics of Stars

Stars & Galaxies. Chapter 27, Section 1. Composition & Temperature. Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Characteristics of Stars Stars & Galaxies Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Chapter 27, Section 1 27.1 Characteristics of Stars Composition & Temperature Scientists use the following tools to study stars Telescope Observation Spectral

More information

SOLAR SYSTEM, STABILITY OF ORBITAL MOTIONS, SATELLITES

SOLAR SYSTEM, STABILITY OF ORBITAL MOTIONS, SATELLITES SOLAR SYSTEM, STABILITY OF ORBITAL MOTIONS, SATELLITES Q1. The figure below shows what scientists over 1000 years ago thought the solar system was like. Give one way that the historical model of the solar

More information

How Do Stars Appear from Earth?

How Do Stars Appear from Earth? How Do Stars Appear from Earth? Magnitude: the brightness a star appears to have from Earth Apparent Magnitude depends on 2 things: (actual intrinsic brightness) The color of a star is related to its temperature:

More information

Birth & Death of Stars

Birth & Death of Stars Birth & Death of Stars Objectives How are stars formed How do they die How do we measure this The Interstellar Medium (ISM) Vast clouds of gas & dust lie between stars Diffuse hydrogen clouds: dozens of

More information

The Life Cycles of Stars. Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC

The Life Cycles of Stars. Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC STARS I. Stellar Evolution The Life Cycles of Stars Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC A. Nebula- cloud of gas and dust B. Protostar- spinning disk C. Main Sequence 1. When the protostar reaches 15 million C,

More information

December 18, What do you know about the life of a star?

December 18, What do you know about the life of a star? December 18, 2013 What do you know about the life of a star? Bellwork December 18, 2014 What determines the life cycle and life time of a star? Scale 4 3 2 1 0 I am a 3 and can apply the stages to the

More information

1 The Life Cycle of a Star

1 The Life Cycle of a Star CHAPTER 1 The Life Cycle of a Star Describe the life cycle of various size stars. Rings of glowing gas encircling Supernova 1987A, about 179,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud, one of the

More information

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Beyond Our Solar System Earth Science, 13e Chapter 24 Stanley C. Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College Properties of stars Distance Distances to the stars are very

More information

CONTENT EXPECTATIONS

CONTENT EXPECTATIONS THE SUN & THE STARS CONTENT EXPECTATIONS STARS What are stars? Are they all the same? What makes them different? What is our nearest star? THE SUN Why is it important? provides heat and light that we need

More information

Life and Death of a Star. Chapters 20 and 21

Life and Death of a Star. Chapters 20 and 21 Life and Death of a Star Chapters 20 and 21 90 % of a stars life Most stars spend most of their lives on the main sequence. A star like the Sun, for example, after spending a few tens of millions of years

More information

chapter 31 Stars and Galaxies

chapter 31 Stars and Galaxies chapter 31 Stars and Galaxies Day 1:Technology and the Big Bang Studying the Stars A. Telescopes - Electromagnetic radiation emitted by stars and other objects include light, radio, and X-ray Space telescopes

More information

the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes

the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes The spectral lines of stars tell us their approximate composition Remember last year in Physics?

More information

10/26/ Star Birth. Chapter 13: Star Stuff. How do stars form? Star-Forming Clouds. Mass of a Star-Forming Cloud. Gravity Versus Pressure

10/26/ Star Birth. Chapter 13: Star Stuff. How do stars form? Star-Forming Clouds. Mass of a Star-Forming Cloud. Gravity Versus Pressure 10/26/16 Lecture Outline 13.1 Star Birth Chapter 13: Star Stuff How do stars form? Our goals for learning: How do stars form? How massive are newborn stars? Star-Forming Clouds Stars form in dark clouds

More information

A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars.

A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars. A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars. They radiate energy (electromagnetic radiation) from a

More information

Classifying Stars. Scientists classify stars by: 1. Temperature 2. Brightness

Classifying Stars. Scientists classify stars by: 1. Temperature 2. Brightness STARS Classifying Stars Scientists classify stars by: 1. Temperature 2. Brightness Star Temperature 1. The color of a star tells us about its temperature. Blue stars are the hottest, 7500 C- 40,000 C.

More information

Chapter 33 The History of a Star. Introduction. Radio telescopes allow us to look into the center of the galaxy. The milky way

Chapter 33 The History of a Star. Introduction. Radio telescopes allow us to look into the center of the galaxy. The milky way Chapter 33 The History of a Star Introduction Did you read chapter 33 before coming to class? A. Yes B. No You can see about 10,000 stars with the naked eye. The milky way Radio telescopes allow us to

More information

Stars & Galaxies. Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science

Stars & Galaxies. Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Stars & Galaxies Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Chapter 27, Section 1 27.1 Characteristics of Stars How do astronomers determine the composition and surface temperature of a star? Composition & Temperature

More information

Exam #2 Review Sheet. Part #1 Clicker Questions

Exam #2 Review Sheet. Part #1 Clicker Questions Exam #2 Review Sheet Part #1 Clicker Questions 1) The energy of a photon emitted by thermonuclear processes in the core of the Sun takes thousands or even millions of years to emerge from the surface because

More information

Why Do Stars Leave the Main Sequence? Running out of fuel

Why Do Stars Leave the Main Sequence? Running out of fuel Star Deaths Why Do Stars Leave the Main Sequence? Running out of fuel Observing Stellar Evolution by studying Globular Cluster HR diagrams Plot stars in globular clusters in Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

More information

Position 1 Position 2 6 after position 1 Distance between positions 1 and 2 is the Bigger = bigger parallax (Ɵ)

Position 1 Position 2 6 after position 1 Distance between positions 1 and 2 is the Bigger = bigger parallax (Ɵ) STARS CHAPTER 10.1 the solar neighborhood The distances to the nearest stars can be measured using Parallax => the shift of an object relative to some distant background as the observer s point of view

More information

Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 4

Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 4 Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 4 Chapter 15 1. Emission nebulas emit light because a) they absorb high energy radiation (mostly UV) from nearby bright hot stars and re-emit it in visible wavelengths.

More information

Stellar Evolution and the HertzsprungRussell Diagram 7/14/09. Astronomy 101

Stellar Evolution and the HertzsprungRussell Diagram 7/14/09. Astronomy 101 Stellar Evolution and the HertzsprungRussell Diagram 7/14/09 Astronomy 101 Astronomy Picture of the Day Astronomy 101 Outline for Today Astronomy Picture of the Day News Articles Business Return Lab 5

More information

The physics of stars. A star begins simply as a roughly spherical ball of (mostly) hydrogen gas, responding only to gravity and it s own pressure.

The physics of stars. A star begins simply as a roughly spherical ball of (mostly) hydrogen gas, responding only to gravity and it s own pressure. Lecture 4 Stars The physics of stars A star begins simply as a roughly spherical ball of (mostly) hydrogen gas, responding only to gravity and it s own pressure. X-ray ultraviolet infrared radio To understand

More information

Stars and Galaxies. Evolution of Stars

Stars and Galaxies. Evolution of Stars chapter 13 3 Stars and Galaxies section 3 Evolution of Stars Before You Read What makes one star different from another? Do you think the Sun is the same as other stars? Write your ideas on the lines below.

More information

The Life and Death of Stars

The Life and Death of Stars The Life and Death of Stars What is a Star? A star is a sphere of plasma gas that fuses atomic nuclei in its core and so emits light The name star can also be tagged onto a body that is somewhere on the

More information

Stars and Galaxies. Evolution of Stars

Stars and Galaxies. Evolution of Stars Stars and Galaxies Evolution of Stars What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with the statement

More information

Study Guide Chapter 2

Study Guide Chapter 2 Section: Stars Pages 32-38 Study Guide Chapter 2 Circle the letter of the best answer for each question. 1. What do scientists study to learn about stars? a. gravity c. space b. starlight d. colors COLOR

More information

Selected Questions from Minute Papers. Outline - March 2, Stellar Properties. Stellar Properties Recap. Stellar properties recap

Selected Questions from Minute Papers. Outline - March 2, Stellar Properties. Stellar Properties Recap. Stellar properties recap Black Holes: Selected Questions from Minute Papers Will all the material in the Milky Way eventually be sucked into the BH at the center? Does the star that gives up mass to a BH eventually get pulled

More information

The Universe. is space and everything in it.

The Universe. is space and everything in it. The Universe is space and everything in it. Galaxies A galaxy is a supercluster of stars, gas, and dust that are held together by gravity. There are three main types of galaxies: Irregular Elliptical Spiral

More information

Stars and Galaxies 1

Stars and Galaxies 1 Stars and Galaxies 1 Characteristics of Stars 2 Star - body of gases that gives off great amounts of radiant energy as light and heat 3 Most stars look white but are actually different colors Antares -

More information

Astronomy Stars, Galaxies and Cosmology Exam 3. Please PRINT full name

Astronomy Stars, Galaxies and Cosmology Exam 3. Please PRINT full name Astronomy 132 - Stars, Galaxies and Cosmology Exam 3 Please PRINT full name Also, please sign the honor code: I have neither given nor have I received help on this exam The following exam is intended to

More information

[11] SD4.1 The student demonstrates an understanding of the theories regarding the origin and evolution of the

[11] SD4.1 The student demonstrates an understanding of the theories regarding the origin and evolution of the A STAR IS BORN Overview: Students will research the four stages of the life cycle of a star then further research the ramifications of the stage of the sun on Earth. Objectives: The student will: research,

More information

Recall what you know about the Big Bang.

Recall what you know about the Big Bang. What is this? Recall what you know about the Big Bang. Most of the normal matter in the universe is made of what elements? Where do we find most of this normal matter? Interstellar medium (ISM) The universe

More information

25.2 Stellar Evolution. By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star.

25.2 Stellar Evolution. By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star. 25.2 Stellar Evolution By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star. Star Birth The birthplaces of stars are dark, cool interstellar clouds,

More information

Stellar energy generation on the main sequence

Stellar energy generation on the main sequence Stellar energy generation on the main sequence Once fusion reactions begin at the center of a cloud of gas, we call the object a star. For the bulk of its lifetime, a star fuses hydrogen into helium in

More information

Galaxies Galore. Types of Galaxies: Star Clusters. Spiral spinning wit arms Elliptical roundish Irregular no set pattern

Galaxies Galore. Types of Galaxies: Star Clusters. Spiral spinning wit arms Elliptical roundish Irregular no set pattern Stars Studying Stars Astronomers use a spectroscope to study the movement of stars Blue shift towards earth Red shift away from earth Change in a wavelength moving toward or away from earth is the Doppler

More information

Phys 100 Astronomy (Dr. Ilias Fernini) Review Questions for Chapter 9

Phys 100 Astronomy (Dr. Ilias Fernini) Review Questions for Chapter 9 Phys 0 Astronomy (Dr. Ilias Fernini) Review Questions for Chapter 9 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. We know that giant stars are larger in diameter than the sun because * a. they are more luminous but have about the

More information

Announcements. L! m 3.5 BRIGHT FAINT. Mass Luminosity Relation: Why? Homework#3 will be handed out at the end of this lecture.

Announcements. L! m 3.5 BRIGHT FAINT. Mass Luminosity Relation: Why? Homework#3 will be handed out at the end of this lecture. Announcements BRIGHT Homework#3 will be handed out at the end of this lecture. Due October 14 (next Thursday) Review of Mid-term exam will be handed out Tuesday. Mid-term exam will be variants (if not

More information

Chapter 12: The Lives of Stars. How do we know it s there? Three Kinds of Nebulae 11/7/11. 1) Emission Nebulae 2) Reflection Nebulae 3) Dark Nebulae

Chapter 12: The Lives of Stars. How do we know it s there? Three Kinds of Nebulae 11/7/11. 1) Emission Nebulae 2) Reflection Nebulae 3) Dark Nebulae 11/7/11 Chapter 12: The Lives of Stars Space is Not Empty The Constellation Orion The Orion Nebula This material between the stars is called the Interstellar Medium It is very diffuse and thin. In fact

More information

Properties of Stars. Characteristics of Stars

Properties of Stars. Characteristics of Stars Properties of Stars Characteristics of Stars A constellation is an apparent group of stars originally named for mythical characters. The sky contains 88 constellations. Star Color and Temperature Color

More information

The Night Sky. The Universe. The Celestial Sphere. Stars. Chapter 14

The Night Sky. The Universe. The Celestial Sphere. Stars. Chapter 14 The Night Sky The Universe Chapter 14 Homework: All the multiple choice questions in Applying the Concepts and Group A questions in Parallel Exercises. Celestial observation dates to ancient civilizations

More information

Directed Reading A. Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS THE LIFE CYCLE OF SUNLIKE STARS A TOOL FOR STUDYING STARS.

Directed Reading A. Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS THE LIFE CYCLE OF SUNLIKE STARS A TOOL FOR STUDYING STARS. Skills Worksheet Directed Reading A Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS (pp. 444 449) 1. Besides by mass, size, brightness, color, temperature, and composition, how are stars classified? a.

More information

Outline - March 18, H-R Diagram Review. Protostar to Main Sequence Star. Midterm Exam #2 Tuesday, March 23

Outline - March 18, H-R Diagram Review. Protostar to Main Sequence Star. Midterm Exam #2 Tuesday, March 23 Midterm Exam #2 Tuesday, March 23 Outline - March 18, 2010 Closed book Will cover Lecture 8 (Special Relativity) through Lecture 14 (Star Formation) only If a topic is in the book, but was not covered

More information

Last time: looked at proton-proton chain to convert Hydrogen into Helium, releases energy.

Last time: looked at proton-proton chain to convert Hydrogen into Helium, releases energy. Last time: looked at proton-proton chain to convert Hydrogen into Helium, releases energy. Last time: looked at proton-proton chain to convert Hydrogen into Helium, releases energy. Fusion rate ~ Temperature

More information

7/9. What happens to a star depends almost completely on the mass of the star. Mass Categories: Low-Mass Stars 0.2 solar masses and less

7/9. What happens to a star depends almost completely on the mass of the star. Mass Categories: Low-Mass Stars 0.2 solar masses and less 7/9 What happens to a star depends almost completely on the mass of the star. Mass Categories: Low-Mass Stars 0.2 solar masses and less Medium-Mass Stars 0.2 solar masses up to between 2 and 3 solar masses.

More information

Ch. 25 In-Class Notes: Beyond Our Solar System

Ch. 25 In-Class Notes: Beyond Our Solar System Ch. 25 In-Class Notes: Beyond Our Solar System ES2a. The solar system is located in an outer edge of the disc-shaped Milky Way galaxy, which spans 100,000 light years. ES2b. Galaxies are made of billions

More information

17.3 Life as a High-Mass Star

17.3 Life as a High-Mass Star 17.3 Life as a High-Mass Star Our goals for learning: What are the life stages of a high-mass star? How do high-mass stars make the elements necessary for life? How does a high-mass star die? What are

More information

ASTR Midterm 1 Phil Armitage, Bruce Ferguson

ASTR Midterm 1 Phil Armitage, Bruce Ferguson ASTR 1120-001 Midterm 1 Phil Armitage, Bruce Ferguson FIRST MID-TERM EXAM FEBRUARY 16 th 2006: Closed books and notes, 1 hour. Please PRINT your name and student ID on the places provided on the scan sheet.

More information

Stellar Evolution. The lives of low-mass stars. And the lives of massive stars

Stellar Evolution. The lives of low-mass stars. And the lives of massive stars Stellar Evolution The lives of low-mass stars And the lives of massive stars The Structure of the Sun Let s review: The Sun is held together by what force? The inward force is balanced by what other force?

More information

Reading and Announcements. Read Chapter 14.1, 14.2 Homework #6 due Tuesday, March 26 Exam #2, Thursday, March 28

Reading and Announcements. Read Chapter 14.1, 14.2 Homework #6 due Tuesday, March 26 Exam #2, Thursday, March 28 Reading and Announcements Read Chapter 14.1, 14.2 Homework #6 due Tuesday, March 26 Exam #2, Thursday, March 28 The life of the Sun The Sun started as a cloud of gas. Gravity caused the cloud to collapse.

More information

The Life Cycles of Stars. Modified from Information provided by: Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC

The Life Cycles of Stars. Modified from Information provided by: Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC The Life Cycles of Stars Modified from Information provided by: Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star... What do you see? How I Wonder What You Are... Stars have: Different Colors -

More information

Today. Stars. Evolution of High Mass Stars. Nucleosynthesis. Supernovae - the explosive deaths of massive stars

Today. Stars. Evolution of High Mass Stars. Nucleosynthesis. Supernovae - the explosive deaths of massive stars Today Stars Evolution of High Mass Stars Nucleosynthesis Supernovae - the explosive deaths of massive stars 1 Another good job on exam! Class average was 71% Given the difficulty of the exam, this was

More information

Mar 22, INSTRUCTIONS: First ll in your name and social security number (both by printing

Mar 22, INSTRUCTIONS: First ll in your name and social security number (both by printing ASTRONOMY 0089: EXAM 2 Class Meets M,W,F, 1:00 PM Mar 22, 1996 INSTRUCTIONS: First ll in your name and social security number (both by printing and by darkening the correct circles). Sign your answer sheet

More information

8/30/2010. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars

8/30/2010. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars Classifying Stars In the early 1900s, Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell made some important observations. They noticed that, in general, stars with higher temperatures also have brighter absolute magnitudes.

More information

Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti

Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking

More information

Abundance of Elements. Relative abundance of elements in the Solar System

Abundance of Elements. Relative abundance of elements in the Solar System Abundance of Elements Relative abundance of elements in the Solar System What is the origin of elements in the universe? Three elements formed in the first minutes after the big bang (hydrogen, helium

More information

Star Stuff. Star Formation. Star Formation. Stars form in the interstellar medium

Star Stuff. Star Formation. Star Formation. Stars form in the interstellar medium Star Stuff Star Formation Stars form in the interstellar medium Nebula in Scorpius Star Formation Stars form in the interstellar medium This contains very cold, dark clouds of dusty molecular gas Pillars

More information

Chapter 11 Review. 1) Light from distant stars that must pass through dust arrives bluer than when it left its star. 1)

Chapter 11 Review. 1) Light from distant stars that must pass through dust arrives bluer than when it left its star. 1) Chapter 11 Review TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 1) Light from distant stars that must pass through dust arrives bluer than when it left its star. 1)

More information

STARS AND GALAXIES STARS

STARS AND GALAXIES STARS STARS AND GALAXIES STARS enormous spheres of plasma formed from strong gravitational forces PLASMA the most energetic state of matter; responsible for the characteristic glow emitted by these heavenly

More information