the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes

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1

2 the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes

3 The spectral lines of stars tell us their approximate composition Remember last year in Physics?

4 Birth of a Star

5 Nebulae Latin for cloud stellar nurseries Raw materials for stars Explosions from old dying stars (supernova) trigger the power to create new stars in these Nebulas.

6 Orion Nebula

7 Ant Nebula

8 Cat s Eye Nebula

9 Ring Nebula

10 Gravitational attraction causes gas and dust to condense and spin.

11 1 st STEP OF STAR FORMATION Contraction of the gases causes temp to reach 10,000 K. Density increases Protostar

12 There are no nuclear reactions inside the protostar, not a star yet!

13 If there is not enough MASS to create a protostar Brown Dwarf forms! *Some astronomers consider Jupiter a Brown Dwarf *60 x more mass Jupiter would have been a star!

14 Eventually the gas shrinks enough that its temperature and density become high enough, that a nuclear fusion reaction starts in its core! -- It becomes a giant Hydrogen Bomb!

15 At 10 million K... Hydrogen begins nuclear fusion to form helium. Star begins to shine First appearance on H-R diagram

16

17 the process by which two or more atomic nuclei fuse to form a single heavier nucleus.

18 Where did we get all our elements? Scientists believe it s leftovers from a Massive Explosion" giant Supernova

19 Energy is released from stars created by the transformation of hydrogen into helium.

20 The energy from fusion produces enough pressure outward to balance the inward force of gravity -- a Main Sequence Star is born Whole process (to make a sun sized star) takes about 50 million years

21 Hydrostatic Equilibrium outward pressure of hot gas exactly balances the inward pull of gravity. Star is stable

22 Does each nebula make only one star??? No - most stars form in clusters

23 Cloud Fragmentation - gravitational instabilities cause cloud to fragment into smaller pieces, eventually cloud can form many hundreds of separate stars.

24 Star Characteristics

25 Characteristics that distinguish stars: 1. Temperature 2. Luminosity 3. Size 4. Life span

26 ALL OF THESE FACTORS DEPEND ALMOST ENTIRELY ON ONE FACTOR.. MASS

27 Temperature as objects are heated, they start to glow stars of different colors have different surface temperatures

28 Luminosity the total amount of energy emitted by a star

29 Size million Earths to fill up the Sun More than 100 Suns would fill up the biggest Star

30 Life Span *Varies by type of star Our Sun ~ 10 Billion years

31 How long and how hot the star burns is determined by the star s MASS but...

32 Eventually, stars begin to run out of their fuel... Hydrogen

33 Problem: Pressure out decreases, but gravity stays the same => causing contraction, which raises pressure which increases temp!

34 Core continues to shrink and heat up, outer layers continue to expand and cool => RED GIANT

35 Nuclear reaction rates increase, temp rises rapidly... HELIUM FLASH - burning of helium becomes explosive

36 Outer layers of red giant are ejected (not an explosion) Ejected envelope called a PLANETARY NEBULA Lasts about 10,000 years!!!

37 Core becomes visible as the envelope recedes It is now a WHITE DWARF

38 White Dwarf- - small, dim but hot - shines only on stored heat, *no nuclear reactions - dying star - slowly cooling off - roughly the size of Earth

39

40 A NOVA is a white dwarf star Large amounts of material are dumped onto a white dwarf igniting another round of nuclear reactions on the surface of the star causing a sudden enormous increase in brightness, but then it slowly fades back to its original luminosity.

41 Star Classifications

42 Remember... Oh Boy, A Fine Girl Kissed Me Spectral classes of stars

43 Temperature & Color O - Deep Blue - >30,000 K B - Blue - 20,000 K A - White - 10,000 K F - Yellow/White - 7,000 K G - Yellow - 6,000 K K - Orange - 4,000 K M - Red - 3,000 K

44 The Hertzprung-Russell Diagram (H-R Diagram) plotted star s surface temp vs. luminosity

45

46

47 - Main Sequence Stars - (strip from top left to bottom right) 90% of stars. Ordinary Stars. Our Sun is a main sequence star.

48 Our Sun is a main sequence star. Type G. Will most likely evolve to a White Dwarf Star

49 - Red Giants - (upper right) cool, large stars. Very bright. - Supergiants - (top right) cool, larger, and brighter than Red Giant - White Dwarfs - (lower left) small but hot. Very faint (similar mass to our Sun)

50 Red dwarfs are very low mass stars with no more than 40% of the mass of the Sun. Consequently they have relatively low temperatures in their cores and energy is generated at a slow rate through nuclear fusion

51 Distribution of Stars

52 It turns out that most stars are in multiple systems! 48 % of stars are single. 36 % of stars are binary. 12 % of stars in triple systems. 4 % of stars are in quadruple systems.

53 Binary Star Systems - 2 Stars physically linked to one another by gravity - size and orbit depends on mass of stars

54

55

56 Proxima Centauri is the closest star to us, at a distance of approximately 4.2 light years. (Proxima is Latin for "next to" or "nearest to") Alpha Centauri is the closest star system to us at a distance of approximately 4.3 light years

57 Death Of a Star

58

59 Now Stable Star Our sun is predicted to gradually get bigger, brighter and warm It will become a Red Giant. Then it will eventually become a white dwarf.

60 Super Nova Huge violent explosion! Rich in all sorts of heavy elements (heavier than iron) can lead to the formation of successive generation stars and planets (thought to what made our solar system)

61 Our Star will eventually fuel new stars and maybe our leftovers will form a planet like Earth!

62 TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA - when white dwarf in a binary system gains mass from companion star and explodes!

63 TYPE II SUPERNOVA - when massive red giant explodes - rich in all sorts of heavy elements (elements heavier than Iron) that were created in the explosion

64 After supernova, two possibilities: 1) Intense pressure in the core causes electrons to fuse with protons creating neutrons => NEUTRON STAR

65 NEUTRON STARdensest visible object known Teaspoon of: - Our Sun = lbs - Earth = lbs - White Dwarf = 6310 lbs - Neutron Star = x lbs

66 Neutron Stars are not much larger than many of Earth s major cities. In this fanciful comparison, a typical neutron star sits alongside Manhattan Island

67 Sometimes Neutron Stars pulse due to electrons accelerating near the magnetic poles => called PULSARS

68 Or 2) However, if the star was about 15 times as massive as our Sun... => BLACK HOLES

69 Black Holes- - gravitational pull so great nothing can escape it not even light! -black-holes-facts-formationdiscovery-sdcmp.html

70

71 - Black hole distorts space around it

72 How do we know black holes are real?

73 The gravitational bending of light around the edges of a small, massive black hole makes it impossible to observe the hole as a black dot superimposed against the bright background of its stellar companion.

74

75 h?v=f5-2y--n2mi

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