AN INTRODUCTIONTO MODERN ASTROPHYSICS

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1 AN INTRODUCTIONTO MODERN ASTROPHYSICS Second Edition Bradley W. Carroll Weber State University DaleA. Ostlie Weber State University PEARSON Addison Wesley San Francisco Boston New York Cape Town Hong Kong London Madrid Mexico City Montreal Munich Paris Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto

2 Contents Preface v I THE TOOLS OFASTRONOMY 1 1 The Celestial Sphere The Greek Tradition The Copernican Revolution Positions on the Celestial Sphere Physics and Astronomy 19 2 Celestial Mechanics Elliptical Orbits Newtonian Mechanics Kepler's Laws Derived The Virial Theorem 50 3 The Continuous Spectrum of Light Stellar Parallax The Magnitude Scale The Wave Nature of Light Blackbody Radiation The Quantization of Energy The Color Index 75 4 The Theory of Special Relativity The Failure of the Galilean Transformations The Lorentz Transformations Time and Space in Special Relativity Relativistic Momentum and Energy 102 xi

3 xii Contents 5 The Interaction of Light and Matter Spectral Lines Photons The B ohr Model of the Atom Quantum Mechanics and Wave-Particle Duality Telescopes Basic Optics Optical Telescopes Radio Telescopes Infrared, Ultraviolet, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy All-Sky Surveys and Virtual Observatories 170 II THE NATURE OF STARS Binary Systems and Stellar Parameters The Classification of Binary Stars Mass Determination Using Visual Binaries Eclipsing, Spectroscopic Binaries The Search for Extrasolar Planets The Classification of Stellar Spectra The Formation of Spectral Lines The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram Stellar Atmospheres The Description of the Radiation Field Stellar Opacity Radiative Transfer The Transfer Equation The Profiles of Spectral Lines The Interiors of Stars Hydrostatic Equilibrium Pressure Equation of State Stellar Energy Sources Energy Transport and Thermodynamics Stellar Model Building The Main Sequence 340

4 Contents xiii 11 The Sun The Solar Interior The Solar Atmosphere The Solar Cycle The Interstellar Medium and Star Formation Interstellar Dust and Gas The Formation of Protostars Pre-Main-Sequence Evolution Main Sequence and Post-Main-Sequence Stellar Evolution Evolution on the Main Sequence Late Stages of Stellar Evolution Stellar Clusters Stellar Pulsation Observations of Pulsating Stars The Physics of Stellar Pulsation Modeling Stellar Pulsation Nonradial Stellar Pulsation Helioseismology and Asteroseismology The Fate of Massive Stars Post-Main-Sequence Evolution of Massive Stars The Classification of Supernovae Core-Collapse Supernovae Gamma-Ray Bursts Cosmic Rays The Degenerate Remnants of Stars The Discovery of Sirius B White Dwarfs The Physics of Degenerate Matter The Chandrasekhar Limit The Cooling of White Dwarfs Neutron Stars Pulsars 586

5 xiv Contents 17 General Relativity and Black Holes The General Theory of Relativity Intervals and Geodesics Black Holes Close Binary Star Systems Gravity in a Close Binary Star System Accretion Disks A Survey of Interacting Binary Systems White Dwarfs in Semidetached Binaries Type Ia Supernovae Neutron Stars and Black Holes in Binaries 689 III THE SOLAR SYSTEM Physical Processes in the Solar System ABriefSurvey Tidal Forces The Physics of Atmospheres TheTerrestrial Planets Mercury Venus Earth The Moon Mars The Realms of the Giant Planets The Giant Worlds The Moons of the Giants Planetary Ring Systems Minor Bodies of the Solar System Pluto and Charon Comets and Kuiper Belt Objects Asteroids Meteorites 838

6 Contents XV 23 Formation of Planetary Systems Characteristics of Extrasolar Planetary Systems Planetary System Formation and Evolution 857 IV GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE The Milky Way Galaxy Counting the Stars in the Sky The Morphology of the Galaxy The Kinematics of the Milky Way The Galactic Center The Nature of Galaxies The Hubble Sequence Spiral and Irregulär Galaxies Spiral Structure Elliptical Galaxies Galactic Evolution Interactions of Galaxies The Formation of Galaxies The Structure of the Universe The Extragalactic Distance Scale The Expansion of the Universe Clusters of Galaxies Active Galaxies Observations of Active Galaxies A Unified Model of Active Galactic Nuclei Radio Lobes and Jets Using Quasars to Probe the Universe Cosmology Newtonian Cosmology The Cosmic Microwave Background Relativistic Cosmology Observational Cosmology 1199

7 xvi Contents 30 The Early Universe 30.1 The Very Early Universe and Inflation The Origin of Structure A Astronomical and Physical Constants B Unit Conversions C Solar System Data D The Constellations E The Brightest Stars F The Nearest Stars G Stellar Data H The Messier Catalog I Constants, A Programming Module J Orbit, A Planetary Orbit Code K TwoStars, A Binary Star Code L StatStar, A Stellar Structure Code M Galaxy, A Tidal Interaction Code N WMAP Data Suggested Reading Index Inside Front Cover Inside Back Cover A-1 A-3 A-5 A-7 A-9 A-13 A-16 A-17 A-18 A-23 A-26 A-29 A

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