INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal, Hyderabad AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK : AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.

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1 Course Name Course Code Class Branch INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal, Hyderabad AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING : Mechanics of Fluids : A00 : II-I- B. Tech Year : 0 0 Course Coordinator Course Faculty OBJECTIVES QUESTION BANK : AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING : C.Satya Sandeep : C.Satya Sandeep, A. Balaji Himakar, P. Dileep The objectives of the course are to enable the student; I. To understand the basic principles of fluid mechanics II. To identify various types of flows III. To understand boundary layer concepts and flow through pipes IV. To the performance of hydraulic turbines V. To understand the functioning and characteristic curves of pumps. Group - A (Short Answer Questions) S. No Question UNIT-I Course DIMENSIONS AND UNITS Define density, weight density. Define specific volume and specific gravity. Define Newton s laws of viscosity. Define surface tension. P a g e

2 Define compressibility. Define viscosity. Define vapor pressure. Define atmospheric gauge and vacuum pressure. Define compressible and incompressible fluid. 0 Define and classify the manometers. UNIT-II FLUID KINEMATICS Define path line, stream line, stream tube and streak line. Define steady and unsteady flows. Define rotational and irrotational flows. Define uniform and non-uniform flows. Define and state the applications of momentum equation. Define laminar and turbulent flows. Define compressible and incompressible flows. Define the equation of continuity. Define the terms velocity potential and stream functions. Define the terms vertex, free vortex flows and forced vortex flows. 0 P a g e

3 UNIT-III FLUID DYNAMICS Name the different forces present in a fluid flow. understanding What is Euler s equation of motion? understanding What is ventuimeter? understanding Define an orifice meter. understanding What is a pilot tube? Define moment of momentum equation. understanding Define continuity and Bernoulli s equation. Remembering What is a free jet of a liquid? What are the different forms of energy in a flowing fluid? 0 Explain different types of pivot tubes. Evaluate UNIT-IV BOUNDARY LAYER THEORY What do you understand by the terms boundary layer theory. understanding What is meant by boundary layer? understanding What do you mean by boundary layer separation? Define displacement thickness. What are the different methods of preventing the separation of boundary layers? understanding What is the effect of pressure gradient on boundary layer separation. Define laminar boundary layer and turbulent boundary layer. understanding Define laminar sub layer and boundary layer thickness. Define the terms drag, lift and momentum thickness. Define Magnus effect. 0 P a g e

4 UNIT-V CLOSED CONDUIT FLOW Define Reynolds s experiment. 0 What are the characteristics of laminar flows? Remembering 0 What are the characteristics of laminar flows? Remembering 0 What is the flow between parallel lines? Remembering What are the laws of fluid friction? Define Darcy s equation. What are minor losses in pipes in series? 0 What are minor losses in pipes in parallel? What is energy line? Remembering 0 What is hydraulic gradient line? P a g e

5 . Group - II (Long Answer Questions) S. No Question UNIT-I DIMENSIONS AND UNITS State Newton s law viscosity and explain how viscosity varies with temperature for liquids and gases Derive an expression for surface tension on a liquid jet. analyze Derive an expression for surface tension on a liquid droplet. analyze How do you measure the pressure by using manometers and mechanical gauges? Prove that volumetric strain of a cylindrical rod which is subjected to an axial tensile load is equal to the strain in the length minus twice the strain if diameter. 0 Why does the viscosity of a gas increases with the increases in temperature while that of a liquid decreases with increase in temperature? Calculate density, specific weight and weight of liter of petrol of specific gravity 0. Explain the phenomenon of capillarity.obtain an expression for capillarity rise of a fluid. Develop the expression for the relation between gauge pressures P inside a droplet of liquid and the surface tension. UNIT-II FLUID KINEMATICS Sketch the flow pattern of an ideal fluid past a cylinder with circulation. Derive the condition for irrotational flow. Prove that for potential flow, both the stream function and velocity potential function must satisfy Laplace equation. Derive an expression for total pressure on a plane surface P a g e

6 S. No Question submerged in a liquid of specific weight with an inclination an angle θ. Obtain an expression for continuity equation for a -D Flow. Bring out the mathematical and physical distinction between rotational and irrotational flows. Describe the use and limitations of flow nets Obtain an expression for continuity equation for a -D Flow Derive path line, stream line, and streak line. 0 State the properties of stream function and prove each one of them. What is a stream tube and explain are its characteristics. UNIT-III FLUID DYNAMICS Derive an expression for displacement thickness due to formation of boundary layer How do you distinguish sharp crested weir from a broad crested weir? Derive the expression for discharge over a sharp crested rectangular weir? For the Euler s equation of motion which forces are taken into consideration? What is Euler s equation? How will you obtain Bernoulli s equation from it? Discuss the relative merits and demerits of ventuimeter with respect to orifice meter. What is the difference between the pivot tube and pivot static tube. P a g e

7 S. No Question 0 What is the difference between the momentum equation and impulse momentum equation? Derive Euler s equation of motion along a stream line for an ideal fluid and clearly the assumptions. Why is divergence more gradual than convergence in a ventuimeter? Explain the principle of ventuimeter with a neat sketch. Derive the expression rate of flow of fluid through it. UNIT-IV BOUNDARY LAYER THEORY Derive an expression for displacement thickness due to formation of boundary layer. Explain with sketches the three methods of boundary layer control. Derive an expression for momentum thickness of boundary layer. Explain Magnus effect and theory of lift for airfoils. Derive the expression for the energy and momentum correction factor What are the boundary conditions that must be satisfied by a given velocity profile in laminar boundary layer flows. Obtain Von Karman momentum integral equation. Explain boundary layer separation? Mention few methods to prevent or delay the separation of boundary layer? Evaluate,0,0 Derive Prandtl s boundary layer equation. Evaluate 0 Derive expressions for boundary layer thickness,boundary shear stress and friction drag in a turbulent boundary layer P a g e

8 S. No Question UNIT-V CLOSED CONDUIT FLOW Obtain the condition for maximum efficiency in transmission of power through pipeline Derive formulas for hydraulic gradient and total energy lines Derive the equation for head loss in pipes due to friction Darcy-Weisbach equation. 0 What are the minor losses in pipes? Give the appropriate formulae to calculate the losses. What do you understand by turbulent flow? What factor decides the type of flow in pipes? Derive an expression for the loss of head due to friction in pipes. Derive Darcy-Weisbach equation. What is the velocity defect? Derive an expression for velocity defect in pipes? Why are the pipes connected in parallel? 0 Explain what you understand by hydraulic grade line and total energy line. Discuss its practical significance in analysis of fluid flow problems. 0 P a g e

9 . Group - III (Analytical Questions) S.No QUESTIONS UNIT-I DIMENSIONS AND UNITS A plate of a certain oil weighs 0 KN. Calculate the specific weight, mass density and specific gravity of this oil. ) A plate 0.0 mm distant from a fixed plate, moves at cm/sec and requires a force of 0. kgf/m to maintain this speed. Determine the dynamic viscosity of the fluid between the plates. A rectangular plate of size cm by 0 cm and weighing kgf slides down a 0 0 inclined surface at a uniform velocity of m/sec. If the uniform mm gap between the plate and the inclined surface is filled with oil determine the viscosity of the oil. Calculate the capillary effect in mm in a glass tube mm in diameter when immersed in (a) water (b) mercury. Both the liquids are at 0 0 c and the values of the surface tensions for water and mercury at 0 0 c in contact with air are respectively 0.0 N/m and 0. N/m. Contact angle for water = 0 0 and for mercury = 0 0. What is the pressure within a droplet of water 0.0 mm in diameter at 0 0 c, if the pressure outside the droplet is standard atmospheric pressure of.0 kg (f) / cm. Given = 0.00 kg (f)/m for water at 0 0 C. If the equation of a velocity profile over a plate is V=y / in which V is the velocity in m/sec at a distance of y meters above the plate. Determine the shear stress at y=0 and y=0.0m given H = 0.N.S/m. P a g e

10 S.No QUESTIONS Convert a pressure head of 00m of water to a) Kerosene of specific gravity 0. b) Carbon tetra chloride of specific gravity. 0 A trapezoidal channel m wide at the bottom and m deep has side slopes :. Determine: the total pressure and the center pressure on the vertical gate closing the channel when it is full of water. A flat plate weighing 0.KN has a surface area of 0.m. It slides down an inclined plane at 0 0 to the horizontal at a constant speed of m/s. if the inclined plane is lubricated with an oil of viscosity 0.Ns/m. Find the thickness of the oil film. A rectangular plane surface m wide and m deep lies in water in such a way that its plane making an angle of 0 0 with the surface of water. Determine the total pressure force and position of center of pressure, when upper edge is m below the free surface. UNIT-II FLUID KINEMATICS An open circular cylinder of cm diameter and 00cm long contains water up to a height of 0cm.find the speed at which the cylinder is to be rotated about its vertical axis so that the axial depth becomes zero. A vessel cylindrical in shape and closed at the bottom contains water up to a height of 0cm.the diameter of the vessel is 0cm and length of vessel is 0cm. the vessel is rotated at a speed of 00r.p.m about its vertical axis. Find the height of parabolic formed. In a free cylindrical vortex flows at a point in the fluid at a radius of 00mm and a height of 00mm.The velocity and pressures are 0m/s and.kn/m.find the pressure at a radius of 00mm and at a height of 00mm. the fluid is air having density equal to.kg/m. 0 P a g e

11 S.No QUESTIONS A uniform flow with a velocity of 0m/s is flowing over a source of strength 0m /s. The uniform flow and source flow are in the same plane 0 A vessel cylindrical in shape and closed at the bottom and the top contains water at a height of 00mm. The dia of the vessel is 00mm and length of the vessel is.m. Find the speed of rotation of the vessel if the axial depth of the water is Zero. An open circular cylinder of 0cm dia and 00cm long contains water up to a height of 0cm. It is rotated about its vertical axis. Find the speed of rotation when there is no water spills and axial depth is Zero. In a free cylindrical vortex flow of water at a point at a radius of 0mm the velocity and pressure are m/s and.n/cm. Find the pressure at a radius of 00mm. If the cylindrical vessel of dia cm and length 00cm contains water at a height of 0cm is rotated at 0r.p.m. About its vertical axis, find the Area uncovered at the base of the tank. A rectangular pontoon of size m length, m width and. m height has a length of 0.m in sea water of specific weight 00 n/m. Determine its metacentric height assuming it to have a uniform composition. A triangular gate which has a base of. m and an altitude of m lies in a vertical plane. The vertex of the gate is m below the surface in a tank which contains oil of specific gravity 0.. Find the force exerted by the oil on the gate and the position of the center of pressure P a g e

12 S.No QUESTIONS UNIT-III FLUID DYNAMICS When 00 liters of water flows per minute through a 0.m diameter pipe which later reduces to a 0. diameter pipe, calculate the velocities of flow in the two pipes. A pipe of dia 00mm carries water at a velocity of m/s. The pressures at a point are given as.n/cm and.n/cm while the datum head at A and B are m and 0m. Find the loss of head between A and B. A horizontal ventuimeter with inlet and throat and diameters 0cm and cm is used to measure the flow of water. The reading of differential manometer connected to the inlet and the throat is 0cm of mercury. Determine the rate of flow. Take C d = 0.. Two velocity components are given in the following case, find the third component such that they satisfy the continuity equation. U= x + y +z V= -x y - yz xy The velocity components in a two-dimensional flow field for an incompressible fluid are expressed as U= y / + x-x y v= xy -y-x /. a) Show that these functions represent a possible case of an ir-rotational flow. b) Obtain an expression for stream function c) Obtain an expression for velocity potential For a three-dimensional flow field described by V = (y +z ): + (x +z )j + (x +y )k find at (,,). (i) the component of acceleration (ii) the components of rotation P a g e

13 S.No QUESTIONS In a straight uniform pipe, the discharge is reduced from 0. m /s to zero in 0 seconds. If the cross-sectional area of the pipe is 00 sq. cm, state the nature and value of acceleration. A nozzle is so shaped that the velocity of flow along the centerline changes linearly from - m/s to m/s in a distance of 0.. Determine the magnitude of the convective acceleration at the beginning and end of this distance. 0 In a 00mm dia horizontal pipe a ventuimeter of 0. contraction ratio has been fixed the head of water on the meter when there is no flow is m. Find the rate of flow for which the throat pressure will be m of water absolute. Take atmospheric pressure head= 0.m of water. The coefficient of meter is 0.. For a two-dimensional flow = xy and x = / (y -x ). Determine the velocity components at the points (, ) and (, ). Also find the discharge passing between the streamlines passing through the points given above. A plate of 00mm length and 00mm wide is immersed in a fluid of specific gravity 0. and kinematic viscosity v=0 - m /s. The fluid is moving with a velocity of m/s. determine boundary layer thickness, shear stress at the end of the plate and drag force one side of the plate. Air flows at 0m/s past a smooth rectangular flat plate 0.m wide and m long. Assuming that s the turbulence level in the oncoming stream is low and that transition occurs at R e = X 0, Calculate ratio of total drag when the flow is parallel to the length of the plate to the value when the flow is parallel to the width. Oil with a free stream velocity of m/s flows over a thin plate m wide and m long. Calculate the boundary layer thickness and the shear stress at the trailing end point and P a g e

14 S.No QUESTIONS determine the total surface resistance of the plate. Take specific gravity 0. and kinematic viscosity 0 - m /s. 0 A thin plate is moving in still atmospheric air at a velocity of m/s. The length of plate is 0.m and width is 0.m, calculate the thickness of boundary layer at the end of the plate and the drag force on one side of the plate. Take density of air is.kg/m and kinematic viscosity 0. stokes. A smooth flat plate of size 0 cm X 0 cm is placed in a stream of water of uniform velocity 0 cm/sec. Flow takes parallel to the 0 cm length of the plate. If the kinematic viscosity of water is 0.0 stoke, is the boundary layer formed on the plate laminar or turbulent? Determine the shear stress at the trailing edge, maximum boundary layer thickness, mean drag coefficient and the work done by the fluid on one side of the plate per unit time in Joules. A stream lined train is 0 m long and has an average cross-section with a perimeter of 0. m above the wheels. Assuming that the boundary layer is completely turbulent, compute the surface drag for a speed of 0 mph and power required to overcome this drag. Dynamic viscosity of air = poise and specific weight = N/m. A smooth flat plate of size m by m is towed in a liquid of density 00kg/ m and viscosity 0. poises at a uniform velocity of. m/s. The motion is parallel to the m side of the plate. What is the length of the plate over which the boundary layer is laminar?> Calculate the surface drag on both sides of plate. UNIT-V CLOSED CONDUIT FLOW Determine the distance from the pipe wall at which the P a g e

15 S.No QUESTIONS local velocity is equal to the average velocity for turbulent flow in pipes. A smooth pipe of diameter 00mm and length 00mm carries water at the rate of 0.0m /s. determine the head lost due to friction, wall shear stress, center line velocity and thickness of laminar sub layer. Take kinematic viscosity of water as 0.0 stokes. Water is flowing through a rough pipe of diameter 00mm at the rate 00liters/sec. the wall roughness is mm. find the power lost for km length of pipe. A 0.m diameter pipe 0m long is connected with a reservoir whose surface is m above the discharging end of the pipe. If for the last 0m, a second pipe of the same diameter be laid beside the first and connected to it. What would be the increase in the discharge? Take f=0.0 A compound piping system consists of 00m of 0.0m, 00m of 0.0m and 00m of 0.0m new cast iron pipes connected in series. Convert the system to (a) an equivalent length of 0.0m pipe and (b) Equivalent size pipe 00m long. A pipe having a length of km and diameter 0.0m connects two reservoirs A and B, the difference between their water levels is 0m. Half way along the pipe there is a branch through which water can be supplied to a third reservoir C. Taking f = 0.0 determine the rate of flow of reservoir B when a) no water is discharged to reservoir C b) The quantity of water discharged to reservoir C is 0. m /s neglect minor losses. Evaluate 0 A pipeline 0. m in diameter and 0m long has a slope of in 00 for the first 0m and in 00 for the next 0m. The pressure at the upper end of the pipeline is 0. kpa and at the lower end is. kpa. Taking P a g e

16 S.No QUESTIONS f=0.0 determine the discharge through the pipe. 0 The velocities of water through a pipe of diameter 0cm are m/s and.m/s at the center of the pipe and cm from the pipe center. Determine the wall shearing stress in the pipe for turbulent flow. Determine the average height of the roughness for a rough pipe of diameter 0cm when the velocity at a point cm from wall is 0% more than the velocity at a point cm from pipe wall. For turbulent flow in a pipe diameter 00mm, find the discharge when the center line velocity is m/s and the velocity at a point 00mm from the center as measured by pivot tube is.m/s. Prepared By: C.Satya Sandeep, Balaji Himakar and Satya Dileep 0 P a g e

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