CH.1 Overview of Fluid Mechanics/22 MARKS. 1.1 Fluid Fundamentals.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CH.1 Overview of Fluid Mechanics/22 MARKS. 1.1 Fluid Fundamentals."

Transcription

1 Content : 1.1 Fluid Fundamentals. 08 Marks Classification of Fluid, Properties of fluids like Specific Weight, Specific gravity, Surface tension, Capillarity, Viscosity. Specification of hydraulic oil Pascal s law. Types of fluid flow- Steady, unsteady, rotational, irrational, laminar, turbulent, one, two and three dimensional flow, Uniform and non uniform flow. (Definitions and applications only) Pressure Measurement. Concept of atmospheric pressure, gauge pressure, vacuum pressure, absolute Pressure. Pressure Gauges - Piezometer tube, simple and differential manometer, micro manometer. (Theoretical Treatment only, No Analytical treatment / Problems on Manometers.) Bourdon tube pressure gauge. 1.2 Hydrodynamics. 14 Marks Basic principles of fluid flow Law of continuity and its applications. Energy possessed by the liquid in motion. Bernoulli's theorem and its applications such as Venturimeter, Orifice meter and pitot tube. (Analytical treatment with derivation for measurement of discharge is expected). Hydraulic coefficients Concept of Vena Contracta. Coefficient of contraction, coefficient of velocity, coefficient of discharge, Coefficient of resistance. Relation between the hydraulic coefficient Page 1

2 1.1 Fluid Fundamentals :- (Introduction) Read Once. Fluid :It is a substance as (liquid / gas) that is capable of flowing (or) that changes it shape at a steady rate when acted upon by a force tending to change its shape. It has no definite shape of its own. It takes the shape of container in which it is kept. Generally fluids are classified into three categories. i) Liquid :- Water, Oil etc. It is a in compressible. ii) Gaseous :- O2, H2, N2, etc. It is compressible. iii) Vapours :- When the liquid is heated upto certain temperature then it converts into vapour which is also compressible. Simillar to gases. Fluid Mechanics :It is the branch of science which deals with study of behavior of fluids at rest as well as in motion. a) Fluid statics (or) Hydrostatics : When the fluid is at rest (or) in a static condition i.e. not moving then the study of fluid is called as fluid statics (or) Hydrostaics. Eg : When it is stored in tank, container, Drum, etc. b) Fluid Kinematics (or) Hydro kinematics : when fluid is in motion i.e. When it is moving then study of fluid without considering external forces on fluid is called as fluid kinematics (or) hydrokinematics. Eg : When the fluid is running through pipe. Channels : Canals etc. C) Fluid Dynamics (or) Hydrodynamics : It is the study of fluid in motion with considering different forces acting on it then it is called as fluid dynamics (or) hydrodynamics. Eg : Pump discharge. Page 2

3 Classification of Fluids :1. Ideal Fluid :The fluid which does not show the property like viscosity & compressibility then fluid is called as Ideas fluid. It is an imaginary fluid such type of fluid does not exist in real world. 2. Real Fluid :A fluid which shows the property like viscosity, compressibility then such type of fluid is called as real fluid. Generally all fluids are real fluid in world. 3. Newtonian fluid :The fluids which obeys Newton`s law of viscosity. (or) A fluid whose viscosity does not change with the rate of deformation (or) shear strain is known as Newtonian fluid eg : water, air, thin motor oil. Graphically it is represented by straight line on shear stress v/s shear strain graph. 4. Non Newtonian fluid :A fluid which does not obey Newton s law of viscosity. (or) A fluid whose viscosity chages with the rate of deformation (or) shear strain is known as Non Newtonian fluid. Eg : Most Viscous fluid. Eg : Non drip paint, Polymer solution, Blood, Solid suspension. Graphically it is represented by a Curve on shear stress v/s Shear strain graph. 5. Ideal Plastic fluid :A fluid in which shear stress is larger than yield value of stress and is directly proportional to rate of shear strain (i.e. rate of deformation) (or) velocity gradient. Newton s law of Viscosity :It states that, The shear stress on a layer of fluid is directly proportional to the rate of shear strain. Page 3

4 Properties of Fluids :1.Density (Mass Density) : It is the ratio of mass of the fluid to its volume. It is denoted by symbol of Rho. S.I. Unit is Kg/m3 2.Specific volume :It is the reciprocal of density of fluid. (Or) It is the ratio of volume of fluid to its mass. S.I. Unit is m3/kg 3.Specific weight: Specific Weight of a fluid is the ratio between the weight of a fluid to its volume. Or weight per unit volume of a fluid is called specific weight. It is denoted by w. S. I. unit is N/m3 4.Specific gravity: It is defined as the ratio of the weight density (density) of a fluid to the weight density (density) of a standard fluid. It is denoted by S. It is a unit less quantity. 5.Surface Tension: - It is the force required to maintain unit called length of the film in equilibrium condition. Or It is the property of fluid which is defined as the tensile force acting on the surface of a liquid in contact with a gas or on the surface between two immiscible liquids such that the contact surface behaves like a membrane under tension. Unit:-N/m Phenomenon of Surface tension :Let us consider the two molecules of liquid at points A and B. Molecule at point A is equally attracted from all sides since it has molecules from all sides and therefore the forces acting at this point are in equilibrium condition. However at point B, there is no liquid molecule at above side and consequently there is a net downward force on the surface of liquid is normal to the liquid surface, due to this a special layer seems to form on a liquid at the surface, which is in tension and small loads can be supported over it e.g. a small needle placed gently upon the water will not sink but will be supported by the tension at the water surface. 6.Capillarity : :- It is defined as a phenomenon of rise or fall of a liquid surface in a small tube relative to the adjacent general level of liquid when the tube is held vertically in the liquid. The rise of liquid surface is known as capillary rise while the fall of the liquid surface is known as capillary fall or depression. Phenomenon of Capillarity:- I) when the liquid molecules possess relatively greater affinity for solid molecules or, in other words, liquid has adhesion greater than cohesion then it will wet the solid surface in contact and will tend to rise at the point of contact. This results concave upwards and the angle of contact θ which is less than 900. This is also known as Capillary Rise. II) If the liquid has less attraction for solid molecules or, in other words, Cohesion predominates, then liquid will not have tendency to wet the solid surface in contact and this will result in depression of liquid at that point in the concave downward Page 4

5 shape and at the angle θ more than 90 mercury. 0 e.g. glass tube is inserted inside the This phenomenon of rise or fall of liquid surface relative to the adjacent general level of liquid is known as Capillarity. 7.Viscosity Or Dynamic viscosity : It is the property of fluid which offers resistance to the moment of one layer of fluid over another adjacent layer of fluid. S. I. unit is N-S/m2 When the property is related to moving liquid then it is called as dynamic viscosity. Kinematic Viscosity :It is the ratio of absolute viscosity in (N-s/m2) to the density of liquid in (Kg/m3) Mathematically V = There is no specific unit of kinematic viscosity. Pascal s law : It states that The intensity of pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is same in all directions. In other words when a certain pressure is applied at any point in fluid at rest the pressure is equally transmitted in all directions and to every other point in the fluid. px = py = pz where, px = intensity of pressure in x direction; py = intensity of pressure in y direction; pz= intensity of pressure in z direction. Applications:- Hydraulic press, Hydraulic brakes, Hydraulic jack, hydraulic lift. Page 5

6 Explanation : Figure This law discovered by French scientist Blasie pascal. Now a days which is a very useful in Industrial fluid power sector. This law provides a phenomenon of force multiplication using multiple areas. Here small force applied on one side or smaller piston i.e. 10 N that of obtained from bigger piston end is 100 N. this is due to Pascal s law. According to definition pressure at small end is P1 = 10/0.1 = 100 N/m2 P = F/A But intensity of pressure at different areas are same like P1 = P2 = P3 Hence force obtained at outlet. F2 = P3 X A2 =100 X 1= 100N. Force obtained at bigger piston is 10 times more & displacement rate at smaller piston is 10 times more than that of at bigger end. Page 6

7 List different types of fluid flow. Types of Flows are: Steady and Unsteady flow. Uniform and Non Uniform flow. Laminar and Turbulent flow. Rotational and irrotational flow. Compressible and incompressible flows. One, Two, Three dimensional flows. 1) Steady flow : The flow is said to be steady when the flow characteristics, such as velocity, density, pressure and temperature do not change with time. Example : Flow of water through tap. 2) Unsteady flow: The flow is unsteady if the velocity and other hydraulic characteristics change with respect to time. Example : Flow of water through conical pipe. 3) Uniform flow : The flow is said to be uniform when the velocity and other characteristics are constant in a particular reach. Example : 4) Non uniform flow : The flow is non uniform when the flow characteristics change at various points along the path. Example : 5) Laminar flow: The flow in which each liquid particle has definite path and the path of individual particles do not cross each other is called as stream line flow. Example: flow of river having large banks, flow of tap water, flow of water through cannel, flow of thick oil through tube. 6) Turbulent flow: Flow in which each liquid particle does not have a definite path, and the paths of individual particles also cross each other is called turbulent flow. Example: flow of river during flood, flow of water after opening valve. 7) Compressible flow : The flow is said to be Compressible when the volume of the fluid and density of fluid changes during flow. Example: Flow of air, gas through pipe. Page 7

8 8) Incompressible flow : The flow is said to be incompressible when the volume of fluid and its density does not changes. Example: Flow of water, oil through pipe. 9) Rotational flow : A flow, in which the fluid particles also rotate about their own axis while flowing, is called a rotational flow. Example: Natural cyclones, cyclones in water during flood. 10)Irrotational flow : A flow in which the fluid particles do not rotates about their own axis and retain their original orientations while flowing, is called a irrotational flow. Example: Steady and continues flow of water 11)One dimensional flow :- When the various characteristics of flowing fluid are functions of only one of the three co-ordinate directions and time t. i.e. these may not vary only in one direction, then the flow is said to be one dimensional flow. Or a flow in which streamlines of its moving particles may be represented by straight line is called one dimensional flow. Example: Not available in actual practice. 12)Two dimensional flow :- When the various characteristics of flowing fluid are functions of any two of the three co-ordinate directions and time t. i.e. these may vary in any two of the three directions then the flow is said to be two dimensional flow. Or a flow whose streamlines may be represented by a curve is called two dimensional flow. Example: Flow of water through pipe. 13)Three dimensional flow :- when the various characteristics of flowing fluid such as velocity, pressure, density, temperature etc. are function of space and time. i.e. these may vary with co-ordinate (x,y,z) & time, such fluids are said to be three dimensional flow. Example: Page 8

9 Concept of Pressure : Atmospheric Pressure: At the earth surface, the pressure due to the weight of air above the earth surface is called as atmospheric pressure. Gauge Pressure: If the pressure is measured above the atmospheric pressure it is called as gauge pressure.(positive pressure) Vacuum Pressure: If the pressure is measured below the atmospheric pressure it is called as Vacuum pressure.(negative pressure) Absolute Pressure: Absolute Pressure is defined as the pressure which is measure with reference to Absolute zero pressure.(it may be above or below atmospheric pressure) Relation between pressure 1.Gauge pressure = Absolute pressure Atmospheric pressure 2.Vacuum pressure = Atmospheric pressure Absolute pressure Graphical representation Pressure Gauges : Types of manometers : a)simple manometers : 1.Piezometer tube 2.U-Tube manometer 3.Single column manometer.(micro/sensitive manometer) b)differential manometers : 1.U-tube differential manometer Page 9

10 2.Inverted U-tube differential manometer Simple manometers : (NOTE : According to weight age add analytical treatment for manometer.) 1.Piezometer tube :It is a simplest form of manometer used for measurement of gauge pressure specially for low and moderate pressure. Construction : It consist of small diameter transparent glass tube which is bend at lower end in 90o There is a calibrated scale on the surface of glass tube, having one of its end connected to a point where pressure is to be measured and other end remains open to atmosphere. Working : When water is flowing through pipe which is shown in figure, water will rush in glass tube called as Piezometer tube. Due to which water level in tube rises which is shown by letter h in glass tube.ie in the term of pressure head directly. Pressure head in the pipe = h m of water. Intensity of pressure = w x h N/m2 Where w is specific weight of water. Limitations of Piezometer tube: 1.Piezometers can measure gauge pressures only. It is not suitable for measuring negative pressures. 2. Piezometers cannot be employed when large pressures in the lighter liquids are to be measured since this would require very long tubes, which cannot be handled conveniently. Page 10

11 2.Simple U tube manometer : Page 11

12 Page 12

13 Page 13

14 3.Micro manometer : For only figure and construction refer following article It is sensitive manometer of a modified version of U tube manometer & used for precise measurement of pressure. With micro manometer we can measure the slight changes of pressure in pipe. These slight changes are difficult to measure with the help of ordinary U- tube manometer. The left limb is connected to the pipe and right limb is open to atmosphere. Right limb is either vertical or inclined. The high pressure liquid in pipe will push the heavy liquid in basin downward this causes liquid in right limb to rise considerably. That means we can magnify the slight pressure difference at point A, which can be easily measured by right limb. figure OR For getting expression of pressure refer following article Page 14

15 Page 15

16 Page 16

17 Page 17

18 Page 18

19 Page 19

20 1.U tube differential manometer : Page 20

21 Page 21

22 2.Inverted U-tube differential manometer construction and working of inverted U tube differential manometer An inverted differential manometer is used for measuring difference of low pressure, where accuracy is the prime consideration. It consists of an inverted U tube, containing light liquid. One end is connected to A and other is connected to B. Let us assume that the pressure at point A is more than that at point B. Let us take Z-Z as the datum line in this case h1=height of liquid in the left limb below Z-Z h2=reading of the manometer h3= Height of liquid in the right limb in cm S1 and S3=Specific gravities of liquids in the left limb and liquid in the right limb respectively. ha= pressure head in pipe A hb=pressure head in pipe B with reference to the Fig ha S1h1 = hb - S2h2 - S3h3 ha - hb = S1h1 - S2h2 - S3h3 m of water Pressure difference between pipe A and B is w x (ha - hb) Page 22

23 Mechanical type Bourdon s tube pressure gauge : It is a device which is used for the measurement of high pressure (ie +ve) which is above atmospheric as well as pressure below the atmospheric (ie.- ve) pressure. Construction : The device consist of metallic tube, generally this cross section is elliptical. One end of the tube is closed and another is fitted to the pipe where pressure is to be measured. The dial and the pointer fitted over the mechanism. Working : As flowing fluid under pressure enters the tube, the tube tends to be straightening. This causes the free end of the tube to move which is connected to pinion and sector arrangement. The pointer deflect on the calibrated scale, which directly indicates pressure in the term of N/m2 Application : 1.To check the pressure of air in tyre tube, in compressor. 2.To check the pressure of steam in boiler. 3.To check the pressure of liquid in pipe. Page 23

24 1.2 Hydrodynamics : 14 Marks Rate of flow (or) Discharge :The quantity of fluid flowing per second through a section of pipe (or) channel is known as rate of flow (or) discharge. It is denoted by letter Q. Now consider liquid flowing through pipe whose crossectional area is a with velocity v then the discharge is given as. Q = a.v Where a= Corssectional area of pipe at section (1)-(1) in m2 V= Avg velocity of flow in pipe in m/sec. Discharge = Q= a.v = m2 m/sec = m3/sec (or) litre /sec. i) when the fluid is incompressible (eg. water) then discharge is expressed in term of volume of fluid flowing per second through pipe (or) channel. Unit of Q is m3/sec (or) litre/sec ii) When the fluid is compressible (eg. Air, gas) then discharge is expressed in term of weight of fluid flowing per second through pipe (or) channel. Unit of Q is Kgf/sec (or) Newton /sec. Page 24

25 Law of Continuity :- Continuity equation is also based upon principle of conversation of mass For a fluid flowing through the pipe at all the cross-section, the quantity of fluid flowing per second is constant. Let, V1= Average velocity of fluid at section a-a P1= Density of fluid at section at section a-a A1= Area of pipe at section a-a And V2, P2, A2, are corresponding valve at section b-b Then rate of flow at section a-a (mass of liquid flowing per unit time) = P1A1V1 Similarly, rate of flow of section b-b = P2A2V2 According to the principle of conservation of mass i.e. mass can t be created not be destroyed. The total quantity of fluid passing through section a-a and b-b is same. P1A1V1 = P2A2V2 Above equation is applicable for both compressible and incompressible fluid. If considering liquids, P1= P2 A1V1=A2V2 Page 25

26 Further AV= Q Where Q is volume of liquid flowing through any section per unit time or volume rate of flow of liquid which is known as discharge. It is expressed in terms of m 3/sec. or lit/sec. Applications :1. steady and unsteady flow 2. uniform and non uniform flow 3. compressible and incompressible flow State the law of continuity. Water flows through a pipe of diameter 1.6m with a velocity of 3m/s Find the rate discharge though pipe. Law of continuity: It states that if an incompressible liquid is continuously flowing through a pipe or a channel whose cross sectional area may or may not be constant then quantity of liquid passing through it per second is same at all sections. Given data : Diameter of pipe (d) = 1.6 m Velocity of flow (v) = 3 m/s Area of pipe A = /4 d2 = /4 (1.6) 2 = m2 By continuity question, Q=A v = = 6.03 m3/s Application of continuity equation :Branching of Pipe :We know that in day to day life for diverting a flow of water any other place. We make a branches of pipes which is shown in fig. Page 26

27 In fig, Single pipe having crossectional area A ; Which divide into two equal parts. (or) branches. Then Total Discharge (or) = Q = Q1 + Q2 Flow rate AV = A1 V1 + A2 V2 Where V = Velocity of flow in pipe (A) V1 = Velocity of flow in pipe (B) V2 = Velocity of flow in pipe (C) Bernoulli s theorem : This theorem states that whenever there is a continuous flow of liquid, the total energy at every section remains the same provided that there is no loss or addition of the energy. Mathematically, P/w + v2 /2g + Z = constant Page 27

28 Where, P/w = pressure energy V2 /2g = kinetic energy Z = potential energy Assumption: 1) The fluid is ideal. 2) The flow is steady. 3) The flow is incompressible. 4) The flow is irrotational. Limitations of Bernoulli s Theorem :1. We know from Bernoulli s Theorem velocity of liquid at every section is remains constant but in actual practice velocity changes at every section because velocity in pipe at centre is maximum while it is minimum at wall side due to friction between liquid surface and pipe surface. 2. According to Bernoulli s Theorem there is no addition of external forces except gravitational force but in actual practice due to friction there is addition of external forces. 3. According to Bernoulli s Theorem there is no loss of energy but practically kinetic energy is converted into heat energy. 4. If liquid is passing through a curved path then the energy due to centrifugal force come into picture. Applications of Bernoulli s Theorem List of applications:- 1) Venturi meter 2) Orifice meter 3) Pitot tube 4) Rota meter 5) Nozzle meter or Flow nozzle 6) Elbow meter or Pipe bend meter Page 28

29 Venturimeter :- A Venturimeter consists of a converging cone, a throat section and diverging cone, all combined in one unit. As the flow takes place in the converging cone, velocity increases, and there is a fall in the pressure according to the Bernoulli s equation. Consider the arrangement shown in the figure where the fluid passes from point 1 (inlet) to point 2 (throat) and the manometer is fixed between them. Appling Bernoulli s equation to points 1 and 2 with datum at this axis, considering horizontal venturimeter, Z1=Z2 Construction: it is device used for measuring the rate of flow or a discharge of a fluid flowing through a close pipe or channel. It consist of three parts: 1. Short convergent cone 2. Throat 3. Long divergent cone 1.Short convergent cone: The inlet section of Venturimeter is called as a convergent cone. The diameter of convergent cone is equivalent of diameter of pipe.(d1). In convergent section the diameter decreases to diameter to (d2). Here velocity increases and pressure decreases. The other end of convergent section is attached to throat. In convergent section the pressure measuring device i. e. piezometer is connected which gives a pressure head in cm or m. the angle suspended by a convergent section with throat is Throat: It is small constant diameter pipe. In which there is no fall or increase in pressure and velocity. At the upper end of throat, pressure measuring device is connected to measure the pressure head in terms of cm or m of liquid. The pressure difference between two pizometer is measured and rate of discharge is calculated. 3.Long divergent cone: It is used to regain original pressure which is smaller in convergent section. In divergent cone due to increase in diameter there is increase in pressure. However if decrease in velocity of flow in divergent section is allowed to Page 29

30 take place rapidly in small length, then the flowing fluid will not remain in contact with the boundary of diverging flow passage, flow will separate from walls and eddies are formed. Therefore length of divergent section has more than convergent section and it is kept 2 to 3 times that of convergent section. Application: 1. Lubricator 2. Carburetor 3. To measure discharge through pipe. Explain why divergent section has more length than convergent section? In convergent cone because of gradual decrease in diameter there is increase in velocity i.e. kinetic energy there should be decrease in pressure energy. In convergent cone velocity of fluid is increased. This acceleration of flowing fluid may allow to take place rapidly in a relatively small length, without resulting in appreciable loss of energy. In divergent cone due to increase in diameter there is increase in pressure. However if decrease in velocity of flow in divergent section is allowed to take place rapidly in small length, then the flowing fluid will not remain in contact with the boundary of diverging flow passage, flow will separate from walls and eddies are formed. Therefore length of divergent section has more than convergent section and it is kept 2 to 3 times that of convergent section. Page 30

31 Derivation for measurement of discharge Page 31

32 Page 32

33 Page 33

34 Page 34

35 Orifice meter :- it is used to measure the discharge in pipe. It consist of a circular plate having a sharp edge circular hole known as an orifice. The plate is fixed inside a pipe as shown in figure. Working principle of Orifice meter is similar to that of Venturimeter. Mercury manometer is connected to know pressure difference between pipe and throat.ie Orifice. Working : As the fluid flows through the orifice meter it accelerates thereby increasing velocity and decreasing pressure since orifice diameter is less than the pipe diameter. This pressure difference is measured by the manometer. Orifice meter is cheaper for discharge measurement and requires smaller space as compared with venturimeter. Page 35

36 Derivation for measurement of discharge through Orifice meter : Page 36

37 Page 37

38 Pitot Tube :- This is an instrument used to determine the velocity of flow at a desired section in a pipe or stream. shows as pitot tube which in its simplest form consists of a 900 bent glass tube. The tube is placed in flow such as leg is vertical and the other leg is horizontal. The horizontal leg has the open end facing upstream. The tube is used for measuring the local velocity. At the tip of the tube, the velocity is zero. This point is called the stagnation point. The pressure at the tip of the tube is called the stagnation pressure. OR Page 38

39 Page 39

40 Page 40

41 Page 41

42 OR Vena-Contracta : Consider a small circular orifice with sharp edges in the side of a tank. Let the centre of the orifice be at a depth below the free surface. Let us assume that the orifice is discharging free into the atmosphere. As the fluid flows through the orifice, it contracts and attains a parallel form at a distance of about d/2 from the plane of orifice. This is due to the fact that the fluid particles cannot change their directions abruptly. The point at which the streamlines first become parallel and get maximum contraction is termed the vena contracta. Significance of vena contracta- 1) To measure the flow rate of fluid, 2) To find out Cd, Cc & Cv (hydraulic coefficients) Hydraulic coefficients : There are four hydraulic coefficients1.coefficient of contraction (Cc): It is the ratio of area of jet at vena contracta to the area of Orifice is known as Coefficient of contraction. 2.Coefficient of velocity(cv): It is the ratio of actual velocity of jet at vena contracta to the theoretical velocity of jet is known as Coefficient of velocity 3.Coefficient of discharge (Cd): It is the ratio of actual discharge through an orifice to the theoretical discharge is known as Coefficient of discharge. 4.Coefficient of Resistance (Cr): It is the ratio of loss of head in the orifice to the head of water available at the exit of orifice is known as Coefficient of resistance. Page 42

43 Relation among Cd, Cc and Cv : We know, Actual Discharge Cd = Theoretical Discharge But by continuity equation Q = Area Velocity Hence Cd = Actual Area Actual velocity Theoretical Area theoretical velocity Cd = Cc Cv (Note : For numericals please refer additional given material at zerox centre in college campus.) Page 43

44 Page 44

45 Page 45

46 Page 46

47 Page 47

48 Page 48

UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND STATICS

UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND STATICS SIDDHARTH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS :: PUTTUR Siddharth Nagar, Narayanavanam Road 517583 QUESTION BANK (DESCRIPTIVE) Subject with Code : Fluid Mechanics (16CE106) Year & Sem: II-B.Tech & I-Sem Course & Branch:

More information

Chapter 4 DYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOW

Chapter 4 DYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOW Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil - 016 Chapter 4 DYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOW 4-1 Types of Energy 4- Euler s Equation 4-3 Bernoulli s Equation 4-4 Total Energy Line (TEL) and Hydraulic Grade Line

More information

EXPERIMENT No.1 FLOW MEASUREMENT BY ORIFICEMETER

EXPERIMENT No.1 FLOW MEASUREMENT BY ORIFICEMETER EXPERIMENT No.1 FLOW MEASUREMENT BY ORIFICEMETER 1.1 AIM: To determine the co-efficient of discharge of the orifice meter 1.2 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: Orifice meter test rig, Stopwatch 1.3 PREPARATION 1.3.1

More information

CE MECHANICS OF FLUIDS UNIT I

CE MECHANICS OF FLUIDS UNIT I CE 6303- MECHANICS OF FLUIDS UNIT I 1. Define specific volume of a fluid and write its unit [N/D-14][M/J-11] Volume per unit mass of a fluid is called specific volume. Unit: m3 / kg. 2. Name the devices

More information

Fluid Mechanics. du dy

Fluid Mechanics. du dy FLUID MECHANICS Technical English - I 1 th week Fluid Mechanics FLUID STATICS FLUID DYNAMICS Fluid Statics or Hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. The main equation required for this is Newton's

More information

ACE Engineering College

ACE Engineering College ACE Engineering College Ankushapur (V), Ghatkesar (M), R.R.Dist 501 301. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * MECHANICS OF FLUIDS & HYDRAULIC

More information

Experiment- To determine the coefficient of impact for vanes. Experiment To determine the coefficient of discharge of an orifice meter.

Experiment- To determine the coefficient of impact for vanes. Experiment To determine the coefficient of discharge of an orifice meter. SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS VIVA QUESTIONS (M.E 4 th SEM) Experiment- To determine the coefficient of impact for vanes. Q1. Explain impulse momentum principal. Ans1. Momentum equation is based on Newton s

More information

R09. d water surface. Prove that the depth of pressure is equal to p +.

R09. d water surface. Prove that the depth of pressure is equal to p +. Code No:A109210105 R09 SET-1 B.Tech II Year - I Semester Examinations, December 2011 FLUID MECHANICS (CIVIL ENGINEERING) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 75 Answer any five questions All questions carry equal

More information

CE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK 3 0 0 3 UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLUID STATICS PART - A 1. Define fluid and fluid mechanics. 2. Define real and ideal fluids. 3. Define mass density

More information

If a stream of uniform velocity flows into a blunt body, the stream lines take a pattern similar to this: Streamlines around a blunt body

If a stream of uniform velocity flows into a blunt body, the stream lines take a pattern similar to this: Streamlines around a blunt body Venturimeter & Orificemeter ELEMENTARY HYDRAULICS National Certificate in Technology (Civil Engineering) Chapter 5 Applications of the Bernoulli Equation The Bernoulli equation can be applied to a great

More information

SUMMER 14 EXAMINATION

SUMMER 14 EXAMINATION Important Instructions to examiners: 1) The answers should be examined by key words and not as word-to-word as given in the model answer scheme. 2) The model answer and the answer written by candidate

More information

TOPICS. Density. Pressure. Variation of Pressure with Depth. Pressure Measurements. Buoyant Forces-Archimedes Principle

TOPICS. Density. Pressure. Variation of Pressure with Depth. Pressure Measurements. Buoyant Forces-Archimedes Principle Lecture 6 Fluids TOPICS Density Pressure Variation of Pressure with Depth Pressure Measurements Buoyant Forces-Archimedes Principle Surface Tension ( External source ) Viscosity ( External source ) Equation

More information

5 ENERGY EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION

5 ENERGY EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION 5 ENERGY EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION 5.1 Introduction In order to develop the equations that describe a flow, it is assumed that fluids are subject to certain fundamental laws of physics. The pertinent laws

More information

FE Fluids Review March 23, 2012 Steve Burian (Civil & Environmental Engineering)

FE Fluids Review March 23, 2012 Steve Burian (Civil & Environmental Engineering) Topic: Fluid Properties 1. If 6 m 3 of oil weighs 47 kn, calculate its specific weight, density, and specific gravity. 2. 10.0 L of an incompressible liquid exert a force of 20 N at the earth s surface.

More information

Chapter 3 Bernoulli Equation

Chapter 3 Bernoulli Equation 1 Bernoulli Equation 3.1 Flow Patterns: Streamlines, Pathlines, Streaklines 1) A streamline, is a line that is everywhere tangent to the velocity vector at a given instant. Examples of streamlines around

More information

FLOW MEASUREMENT IN PIPES EXPERIMENT

FLOW MEASUREMENT IN PIPES EXPERIMENT University of Leicester Engineering Department FLOW MEASUREMENT IN PIPES EXPERIMENT Page 1 FORMAL LABORATORY REPORT Name of the experiment: FLOW MEASUREMENT IN PIPES Author: Apollin nana chaazou Partner

More information

Mass of fluid leaving per unit time

Mass of fluid leaving per unit time 5 ENERGY EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION 5.1 Eulerian Approach & Control Volume In order to develop the equations that describe a flow, it is assumed that fluids are subject to certain fundamental laws of physics.

More information

CHAPTER 3 BASIC EQUATIONS IN FLUID MECHANICS NOOR ALIZA AHMAD

CHAPTER 3 BASIC EQUATIONS IN FLUID MECHANICS NOOR ALIZA AHMAD CHAPTER 3 BASIC EQUATIONS IN FLUID MECHANICS 1 INTRODUCTION Flow often referred as an ideal fluid. We presume that such a fluid has no viscosity. However, this is an idealized situation that does not exist.

More information

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS:

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS: Important Definitions: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS: Fluid: A substance that can flow is called Fluid Both liquids and gases are fluids Pressure: The normal force acting per unit area of a surface is

More information

ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS. CHAPTER 1 Properties of Fluids

ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS. CHAPTER 1 Properties of Fluids CHAPTER 1 Properties of Fluids ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Development of Fluid Mechanics 1.3 Units of Measurement (SI units) 1.4 Mass, Density, Specific Weight, Specific Volume, Specific

More information

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING)

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING) No. of Printed Pages : 6 BME-028 BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING) Term-End Examination December, 2011 00792 BME-028 : FLUID MECHANICS Time : 3 hours

More information

Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013

Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013 Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Mechanics Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013 s and FE Morning ( Mechanics) A. Flow measurement 7% of FE Morning B. properties Session

More information

1 FLUIDS AND THEIR PROPERTIES

1 FLUIDS AND THEIR PROPERTIES FLUID MECHANICS CONTENTS CHAPTER DESCRIPTION PAGE NO 1 FLUIDS AND THEIR PROPERTIES PART A NOTES 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Fluids 1.3 Newton s Law of Viscosity 1.4 The Continuum Concept of a Fluid 1.5 Types

More information

s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum equations E. Pipe and other internal flow 7% of FE Morning Session I

s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum equations E. Pipe and other internal flow 7% of FE Morning Session I Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam General Section Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering October 26, 2010 s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum

More information

Fluid Mechanics Introduction

Fluid Mechanics Introduction Fluid Mechanics Introduction Fluid mechanics study the fluid under all conditions of rest and motion. Its approach is analytical, mathematical, and empirical (experimental and observation). Fluid can be

More information

Experiment (4): Flow measurement

Experiment (4): Flow measurement Experiment (4): Flow measurement Introduction: The flow measuring apparatus is used to familiarize the students with typical methods of flow measurement of an incompressible fluid and, at the same time

More information

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS CHAPTER-10 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS QUESTIONS 1 marks questions 1. What are fluids? 2. How are fluids different from solids? 3. Define thrust of a liquid. 4. Define liquid pressure. 5. Is pressure

More information

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 The Fluid. 1-2 Dimensions. 1-3 Units. 1-4 Fluid Properties. 1 1-1 The Fluid: It is the substance that deforms continuously when subjected to a shear stress. Matter Solid Fluid

More information

V/ t = 0 p/ t = 0 ρ/ t = 0. V/ s = 0 p/ s = 0 ρ/ s = 0

V/ t = 0 p/ t = 0 ρ/ t = 0. V/ s = 0 p/ s = 0 ρ/ s = 0 UNIT III FLOW THROUGH PIPES 1. List the types of fluid flow. Steady and unsteady flow Uniform and non-uniform flow Laminar and Turbulent flow Compressible and incompressible flow Rotational and ir-rotational

More information

INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal, Hyderabad AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK : AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.

INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal, Hyderabad AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK : AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. Course Name Course Code Class Branch INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal, Hyderabad - 00 0 AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING : Mechanics of Fluids : A00 : II-I- B. Tech Year : 0 0 Course Coordinator

More information

VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur

VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK III SEMESTER CE 8302 FLUID MECHANICS Regulation 2017 Academic Year 2018 19 Prepared by Mrs.

More information

Approximate physical properties of selected fluids All properties are given at pressure kn/m 2 and temperature 15 C.

Approximate physical properties of selected fluids All properties are given at pressure kn/m 2 and temperature 15 C. Appendix FLUID MECHANICS Approximate physical properties of selected fluids All properties are given at pressure 101. kn/m and temperature 15 C. Liquids Density (kg/m ) Dynamic viscosity (N s/m ) Surface

More information

S.E. (Mech.) (First Sem.) EXAMINATION, (Common to Mech/Sandwich) FLUID MECHANICS (2008 PATTERN) Time : Three Hours Maximum Marks : 100

S.E. (Mech.) (First Sem.) EXAMINATION, (Common to Mech/Sandwich) FLUID MECHANICS (2008 PATTERN) Time : Three Hours Maximum Marks : 100 Total No. of Questions 12] [Total No. of Printed Pages 8 Seat No. [4262]-113 S.E. (Mech.) (First Sem.) EXAMINATION, 2012 (Common to Mech/Sandwich) FLUID MECHANICS (2008 PATTERN) Time : Three Hours Maximum

More information

10 - FLUID MECHANICS Page 1

10 - FLUID MECHANICS Page 1 0 - FLUID MECHANICS Page Introduction Fluid is a matter in a state which can flow. Liquids, gases, molten metal and tar are examples of fluids. Fluid mechanics is studied in two parts: ( i ) Fluid statics

More information

2.The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow field are called steady flow lines. True or False A. True B.

2.The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow field are called steady flow lines. True or False A. True B. CHAPTER 03 1. Write Newton's second law of motion. YOUR ANSWER: F = ma 2.The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow field are called steady flow lines. True or False 3.Streamwise

More information

GATE PSU. Chemical Engineering. Fluid Mechanics. For. The Gate Coach 28, Jia Sarai, Near IIT Hauzkhas, New Delhi 16 (+91) ,

GATE PSU. Chemical Engineering. Fluid Mechanics. For. The Gate Coach 28, Jia Sarai, Near IIT Hauzkhas, New Delhi 16 (+91) , For GATE PSU Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics GATE Syllabus Fluid statics, Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids, Bernoulli equation, Macroscopic friction factors, energy balance, dimensional analysis,

More information

Lecture23. Flowmeter Design.

Lecture23. Flowmeter Design. Lecture23 Flowmeter Design. Contents of lecture Design of flowmeter Principles of flow measurement; i) Venturi and ii) Orifice meter and nozzle Relationship between flow rate and pressure drop Relation

More information

Chapter -5(Section-1) Friction in Solids and Liquids

Chapter -5(Section-1) Friction in Solids and Liquids Chapter -5(Section-1) Friction in Solids and Liquids Que 1: Define friction. What are its causes? Ans : Friction:- When two bodies are in contact with each other and if one body is made to move then the

More information

Chapter 14. Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Armen Kocharian

Chapter 14. Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Armen Kocharian Chapter 14 Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Armen Kocharian States of Matter Solid Has a definite volume and shape Liquid Has a definite volume but not a definite shape Gas unconfined Has neither a definite

More information

B.E/B.Tech/M.E/M.Tech : Chemical Engineering Regulation: 2016 PG Specialisation : NA Sub. Code / Sub. Name : CH16304 FLUID MECHANICS Unit : I

B.E/B.Tech/M.E/M.Tech : Chemical Engineering Regulation: 2016 PG Specialisation : NA Sub. Code / Sub. Name : CH16304 FLUID MECHANICS Unit : I Department of Chemical Engineering B.E/B.Tech/M.E/M.Tech : Chemical Engineering Regulation: 2016 PG Specialisation : NA Sub. Code / Sub. Name : CH16304 FLUID MECHANICS Unit : I LP: CH 16304 Rev. No: 00

More information

COURSE CODE : 3072 COURSE CATEGORY : B PERIODS/ WEEK : 5 PERIODS/ SEMESTER : 75 CREDIT : 5 TIME SCHEDULE

COURSE CODE : 3072 COURSE CATEGORY : B PERIODS/ WEEK : 5 PERIODS/ SEMESTER : 75 CREDIT : 5 TIME SCHEDULE COURSE TITLE : FLUID MECHANICS COURSE CODE : 307 COURSE CATEGORY : B PERIODS/ WEEK : 5 PERIODS/ SEMESTER : 75 CREDIT : 5 TIME SCHEDULE MODULE TOPIC PERIOD 1 Properties of Fluids 0 Fluid Friction and Flow

More information

2 Internal Fluid Flow

2 Internal Fluid Flow Internal Fluid Flow.1 Definitions Fluid Dynamics The study of fluids in motion. Static Pressure The pressure at a given point exerted by the static head of the fluid present directly above that point.

More information

Objectives. Conservation of mass principle: Mass Equation The Bernoulli equation Conservation of energy principle: Energy equation

Objectives. Conservation of mass principle: Mass Equation The Bernoulli equation Conservation of energy principle: Energy equation Objectives Conservation of mass principle: Mass Equation The Bernoulli equation Conservation of energy principle: Energy equation Conservation of Mass Conservation of Mass Mass, like energy, is a conserved

More information

Lecture 3 The energy equation

Lecture 3 The energy equation Lecture 3 The energy equation Dr Tim Gough: t.gough@bradford.ac.uk General information Lab groups now assigned Timetable up to week 6 published Is there anyone not yet on the list? Week 3 Week 4 Week 5

More information

Chapter 14. Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 14. Fluid Mechanics Chapter 14 Fluid Mechanics States of Matter Solid Has a definite volume and shape Liquid Has a definite volume but not a definite shape Gas unconfined Has neither a definite volume nor shape All of these

More information

Petroleum Engineering Dept. Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara

Petroleum Engineering Dept. Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara Continents Chapter 1. Fluid Mechanics -Properties of fluids -Density, specific gravity, specific volume and Viscosity -Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids -Surface tension Compressibility -Pressure -Cavitations

More information

Nicholas J. Giordano. Chapter 10 Fluids

Nicholas J. Giordano.  Chapter 10 Fluids Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 10 Fluids Fluids A fluid may be either a liquid or a gas Some characteristics of a fluid Flows from one place to another Shape varies according

More information

CE MECHANICS OF FLUIDS

CE MECHANICS OF FLUIDS CE60 - MECHANICS OF FLUIDS (FOR III SEMESTER) UNIT II FLUID STATICS & KINEMATICS PREPARED BY R.SURYA, M.E Assistant Professor DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING SRI VIDYA COLLEGE

More information

11.1 Mass Density. Fluids are materials that can flow, and they include both gases and liquids. The mass density of a liquid or gas is an

11.1 Mass Density. Fluids are materials that can flow, and they include both gases and liquids. The mass density of a liquid or gas is an Chapter 11 Fluids 11.1 Mass Density Fluids are materials that can flow, and they include both gases and liquids. The mass density of a liquid or gas is an important factor that determines its behavior

More information

NPTEL Quiz Hydraulics

NPTEL Quiz Hydraulics Introduction NPTEL Quiz Hydraulics 1. An ideal fluid is a. One which obeys Newton s law of viscosity b. Frictionless and incompressible c. Very viscous d. Frictionless and compressible 2. The unit of kinematic

More information

Rate of Flow Quantity of fluid passing through any section (area) per unit time

Rate of Flow Quantity of fluid passing through any section (area) per unit time Kinematics of Fluid Flow Kinematics is the science which deals with study of motion of liquids without considering the forces causing the motion. Rate of Flow Quantity of fluid passing through any section

More information

Chapter Four fluid flow mass, energy, Bernoulli and momentum

Chapter Four fluid flow mass, energy, Bernoulli and momentum 4-1Conservation of Mass Principle Consider a control volume of arbitrary shape, as shown in Fig (4-1). Figure (4-1): the differential control volume and differential control volume (Total mass entering

More information

Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow

Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow The specific objective of this lesson is to conduct a brief review of the fundamentals of fluid flow and present: A general equation for conservation of mass

More information

FLUID MECHANICS. Chapter 3 Elementary Fluid Dynamics - The Bernoulli Equation

FLUID MECHANICS. Chapter 3 Elementary Fluid Dynamics - The Bernoulli Equation FLUID MECHANICS Chapter 3 Elementary Fluid Dynamics - The Bernoulli Equation CHAP 3. ELEMENTARY FLUID DYNAMICS - THE BERNOULLI EQUATION CONTENTS 3. Newton s Second Law 3. F = ma along a Streamline 3.3

More information

MAHATMA GANDHI MISSION S JAWAHARLAL NEHRU ENGINEERING COLLEGE, AURANGABAD. (M.S.)

MAHATMA GANDHI MISSION S JAWAHARLAL NEHRU ENGINEERING COLLEGE, AURANGABAD. (M.S.) MAHATMA GANDHI MISSION S JAWAHARLAL NEHRU ENGINEERING COLLEGE, AURANGABAD. (M.S.) DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS I LAB MANUAL Prepared By Prof. L. K. Kokate Lab Incharge Approved By Dr.

More information

For example an empty bucket weighs 2.0kg. After 7 seconds of collecting water the bucket weighs 8.0kg, then:

For example an empty bucket weighs 2.0kg. After 7 seconds of collecting water the bucket weighs 8.0kg, then: Hydraulic Coefficient & Flow Measurements ELEMENTARY HYDRAULICS National Certificate in Technology (Civil Engineering) Chapter 3 1. Mass flow rate If we want to measure the rate at which water is flowing

More information

Chapter 9: Solids and Fluids

Chapter 9: Solids and Fluids Chapter 9: Solids and Fluids State of matters: Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasma. Solids Has definite volume and shape Can be crystalline or amorphous Molecules are held in specific locations by electrical

More information

Petroleum Engineering Department Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Assist Prof. Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara

Petroleum Engineering Department Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Assist Prof. Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara Continents Petroleum Engineering Department Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Assist Prof. Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara Chapter 1. Fluid Mechanics -Properties of fluids -Density, specific gravity, specific volume and

More information

vector H. If O is the point about which moments are desired, the angular moment about O is given:

vector H. If O is the point about which moments are desired, the angular moment about O is given: The angular momentum A control volume analysis can be applied to the angular momentum, by letting B equal to angularmomentum vector H. If O is the point about which moments are desired, the angular moment

More information

Chapter 9. Solids and Fluids. States of Matter. Solid. Liquid. Gas

Chapter 9. Solids and Fluids. States of Matter. Solid. Liquid. Gas Chapter 9 States of Matter Solids and Fluids Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Have definite volume Have definite shape Molecules are held in specific locations By electrical forces Vibrate about equilibrium

More information

1. The Properties of Fluids

1. The Properties of Fluids 1. The Properties of Fluids [This material relates predominantly to modules ELP034, ELP035] 1.1 Fluids 1.1 Fluids 1.2 Newton s Law of Viscosity 1.3 Fluids Vs Solids 1.4 Liquids Vs Gases 1.5 Causes of viscosity

More information

PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS Unit - I Chapter - PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS Solutions of Examples for Practice Example.9 : Given data : u = y y, = 8 Poise = 0.8 Pa-s To find : Shear stress. Step - : Calculate the shear stress at various

More information

Chapter 10. Solids and Fluids

Chapter 10. Solids and Fluids Chapter 10 Solids and Fluids Surface Tension Net force on molecule A is zero Pulled equally in all directions Net force on B is not zero No molecules above to act on it Pulled toward the center of the

More information

CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 7, D Steady State Head Form of the Energy Equation P. P 2g + z h f + h p h s.

CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 7, D Steady State Head Form of the Energy Equation P. P 2g + z h f + h p h s. CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 7, 2015 81 3.21 Review 1-D Steady State Head Form of the Energy Equation ( ) ( ) 2g + z = 2g + z h f + h p h s out where h f is the friction head loss (which combines

More information

HYDRAULICS STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL HYDRAULICS

HYDRAULICS STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL HYDRAULICS 1 STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL Syllabus Hydraulics ( Fluid Mechanics ) Fluid properties, hydrostatics, measurements of flow, Bernoulli's theorem and its application, flow

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

More information

CLASS SCHEDULE 2013 FALL

CLASS SCHEDULE 2013 FALL CLASS SCHEDULE 2013 FALL Class # or Lab # 1 Date Aug 26 2 28 Important Concepts (Section # in Text Reading, Lecture note) Examples/Lab Activities Definition fluid; continuum hypothesis; fluid properties

More information

Fluid Mechanics c) Orificemeter a) Viscous force, Turbulence force, Compressible force a) Turbulence force c) Integration d) The flow is rotational

Fluid Mechanics c) Orificemeter a) Viscous force, Turbulence force, Compressible force a) Turbulence force c) Integration d) The flow is rotational Fluid Mechanics 1. Which is the cheapest device for measuring flow / discharge rate. a) Venturimeter b) Pitot tube c) Orificemeter d) None of the mentioned 2. Which forces are neglected to obtain Euler

More information

Chapter 10 - Mechanical Properties of Fluids. The blood pressure in humans is greater at the feet than at the brain

Chapter 10 - Mechanical Properties of Fluids. The blood pressure in humans is greater at the feet than at the brain Question 10.1: Explain why The blood pressure in humans is greater at the feet than at the brain Atmospheric pressure at a height of about 6 km decreases to nearly half of its value at the sea level, though

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

More information

Chapter 9. Solids and Fluids

Chapter 9. Solids and Fluids Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Have definite volume Have definite shape Molecules are held in specific locations By electrical forces Vibrate about equilibrium

More information

The Bernoulli Equation

The Bernoulli Equation The Bernoulli Equation The most used and the most abused equation in fluid mechanics. Newton s Second Law: F = ma In general, most real flows are 3-D, unsteady (x, y, z, t; r,θ, z, t; etc) Let consider

More information

Detailed Outline, M E 320 Fluid Flow, Spring Semester 2015

Detailed Outline, M E 320 Fluid Flow, Spring Semester 2015 Detailed Outline, M E 320 Fluid Flow, Spring Semester 2015 I. Introduction (Chapters 1 and 2) A. What is Fluid Mechanics? 1. What is a fluid? 2. What is mechanics? B. Classification of Fluid Flows 1. Viscous

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

More information

BRCM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Practical Experiment Instructions Sheet

BRCM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Practical Experiment Instructions Sheet Exp. Title FLUID MECHANICS- I LAB Syllabus FM-I Semester-4 th Page No. 1 of 1 Internal Marks: 25 L T P External Marks: 25 0 0 2 Total Marks: 50 1. To determine the met centric height of a floating body

More information

ME3560 Tentative Schedule Spring 2019

ME3560 Tentative Schedule Spring 2019 ME3560 Tentative Schedule Spring 2019 Week Number Date Lecture Topics Covered Prior to Lecture Read Section Assignment Prep Problems for Prep Probs. Must be Solved by 1 Monday 1/7/2019 1 Introduction to

More information

An-Najah National University Civil Engineering Department. Fluid Mechanics. Chapter 1. General Introduction

An-Najah National University Civil Engineering Department. Fluid Mechanics. Chapter 1. General Introduction 1 An-Najah National University Civil Engineering Department Fluid Mechanics Chapter 1 General Introduction 2 What is Fluid Mechanics? Mechanics deals with the behavior of both stationary and moving bodies

More information

ME3560 Tentative Schedule Fall 2018

ME3560 Tentative Schedule Fall 2018 ME3560 Tentative Schedule Fall 2018 Week Number 1 Wednesday 8/29/2018 1 Date Lecture Topics Covered Introduction to course, syllabus and class policies. Math Review. Differentiation. Prior to Lecture Read

More information

Lecture 13 Flow Measurement in Pipes. I. Introduction

Lecture 13 Flow Measurement in Pipes. I. Introduction Lecture 13 Flow Measurement in Pipes I. Introduction There are a wide variety of methods for measuring discharge and velocity in pipes, or closed conduits Many of these methods can provide very accurate

More information

3.25 Pressure form of Bernoulli Equation

3.25 Pressure form of Bernoulli Equation CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct 3, 2012 83 3.24 Review The Energy Equation Q Ẇshaft = d dt CV ) (û + v2 2 + gz ρ d + (û + v2 CS 2 + gz + ) ρ( v n) da ρ where Q is the heat energy transfer rate, Ẇ

More information

MAHATMA GANDHI MISSION S JAWAHARLAL NEHRU ENGINEERING COLLEGE, FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY MANUAL

MAHATMA GANDHI MISSION S JAWAHARLAL NEHRU ENGINEERING COLLEGE, FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY MANUAL MAHATMA GANDHI MISSION S JAWAHARLAL NEHRU ENGINEERING COLLEGE, AURANGABAD. (M.S.) DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY MANUAL Prepared By Mr. L. K. Kokate Lab Incharge Approved By

More information

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY TITLE OF EXPERIMENT: MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE (E4)

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY TITLE OF EXPERIMENT: MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE (E4) FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY TITLE OF EXPERIMENT: MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE (E4) 1 1.0 Objectives The objective of this experiment is to calculate loss coefficient (K

More information

DARSHAN INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, RAJKOT FLUID MECHANICS ( )

DARSHAN INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, RAJKOT FLUID MECHANICS ( ) DARSHAN INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, RAJKOT FLUID MECHANICS (2141906) Sr. No. Experiment Start Date End Date Sign Remark 1. To understand pressure measurement procedure and related instruments/devices.

More information

CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 10, = dt. sys

CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 10, = dt. sys CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 10, 2018 77 3.16 Review First Law of Thermodynamics ( ) de = dt Q Ẇ sys Sign convention: Work done by the surroundings on the system < 0, example, a pump! Work done

More information

Chapter (6) Energy Equation and Its Applications

Chapter (6) Energy Equation and Its Applications Chapter (6) Energy Equation and Its Applications Bernoulli Equation Bernoulli equation is one of the most useful equations in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. And it s a statement of the principle of conservation

More information

CHAPTER 1 Fluids and their Properties

CHAPTER 1 Fluids and their Properties FLUID MECHANICS Gaza CHAPTER 1 Fluids and their Properties Dr. Khalil Mahmoud ALASTAL Objectives of this Chapter: Define the nature of a fluid. Show where fluid mechanics concepts are common with those

More information

BFC FLUID MECHANICS BFC NOOR ALIZA AHMAD

BFC FLUID MECHANICS BFC NOOR ALIZA AHMAD BFC 10403 FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER 1.0: Principles of Fluid 1.1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.2 Thermodynamic Properties of a Fluid: Density, specific weight, specific gravity, viscocity (kelikatan)berat

More information

Liquids and solids are essentially incompressible substances and the variation of their density with pressure is usually negligible.

Liquids and solids are essentially incompressible substances and the variation of their density with pressure is usually negligible. Properties of Fluids Intensive properties are those that are independent of the mass of a system i.e. temperature, pressure and density. Extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size of

More information

LABORATORY MANUAL FLUID MECHANICS ME-216-F

LABORATORY MANUAL FLUID MECHANICS ME-216-F LABORATORY MANUAL FLUID MECHANICS ME-216-F LIST OF THE EXPERIMENT SNO NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE NO FROM TO 1. To determine the coefficient of impact for vanes. 2. To determine the coefficient of discharge

More information

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics International Student Version BRUCE R. MUNSON DONALD F. YOUNG Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics THEODORE H. OKIISHI Department

More information

FLUID MECHANICES LAB:-I

FLUID MECHANICES LAB:-I Force Area Length FLUID MECHANICES LAB:-I Experiment:-0 Measurement of viscosity by Redwood viscometer. Aim: - To determine the kinematic viscosity of a liquid and its variation with temperature. Apparatus:-

More information

Teacher s Signature. S. No. Experiment marks. 3 To determine the coefficient of discharge of Notch (V and Rectangular types)

Teacher s Signature. S. No. Experiment marks. 3 To determine the coefficient of discharge of Notch (V and Rectangular types) S. No. Index Name of experiment Date of performance 1. To determine the coefficient of impact for vanes. 2 To determine coefficient of discharge of an orificemeter. 3 To determine the coefficient of discharge

More information

Visualization of flow pattern over or around immersed objects in open channel flow.

Visualization of flow pattern over or around immersed objects in open channel flow. EXPERIMENT SEVEN: FLOW VISUALIZATION AND ANALYSIS I OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT: Visualization of flow pattern over or around immersed objects in open channel flow. II THEORY AND EQUATION: Open channel:

More information

COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I 3 credit hour. Basic Equations in fluid Dynamics

COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I 3 credit hour. Basic Equations in fluid Dynamics COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I 3 credit hour Basic Equations in fluid Dynamics Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET 1 Description of Fluid

More information

Q1 Give answers to all of the following questions (5 marks each):

Q1 Give answers to all of the following questions (5 marks each): FLUID MECHANICS First Year Exam Solutions 03 Q Give answers to all of the following questions (5 marks each): (a) A cylinder of m in diameter is made with material of relative density 0.5. It is moored

More information

Fluid Mechanics. If deformation is small, the stress in a body is proportional to the corresponding

Fluid Mechanics. If deformation is small, the stress in a body is proportional to the corresponding Fluid Mechanics HOOKE'S LAW If deformation is small, the stress in a body is proportional to the corresponding strain. In the elasticity limit stress and strain Stress/strain = Const. = Modulus of elasticity.

More information

1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, 2.8, 4.1, and handouts)

1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, 2.8, 4.1, and handouts) 1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, 2.8, 4.1, and handouts) Introduction, general information Course overview Fluids as a continuum Density Compressibility Viscosity Exercises: A1 Fluid mechanics Fluid

More information

William В. Brower, Jr. A PRIMER IN FLUID MECHANICS. Dynamics of Flows in One Space Dimension. CRC Press Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

William В. Brower, Jr. A PRIMER IN FLUID MECHANICS. Dynamics of Flows in One Space Dimension. CRC Press Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. William В. Brower, Jr. A PRIMER IN FLUID MECHANICS Dynamics of Flows in One Space Dimension CRC Press Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Fluid Properties Kinetic Theory

More information

ch-01.qxd 8/4/04 2:33 PM Page 1 Part 1 Basic Principles of Open Channel Flows

ch-01.qxd 8/4/04 2:33 PM Page 1 Part 1 Basic Principles of Open Channel Flows ch-01.qxd 8/4/04 2:33 PM Page 1 Part 1 Basic Principles of Open Channel Flows ch-01.qxd 8/4/04 2:33 PM Page 3 Introduction 1 Summary The introduction chapter reviews briefly the basic fluid properties

More information

Chapter 7 The Energy Equation

Chapter 7 The Energy Equation Chapter 7 The Energy Equation 7.1 Energy, Work, and Power When matter has energy, the matter can be used to do work. A fluid can have several forms of energy. For example a fluid jet has kinetic energy,

More information