# 52 VOLTAGE, CURRENT, RESISTANCE, AND POWER

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1 52 VOLTAGE, CURRENT, RESISTANCE, AND POWER 1. What is voltage, and what are its units? 2. What are some other possible terms for voltage? 3. Batteries create a potential difference. The potential/voltage of a battery is also known as? Its abbreviation is (C) Its units are 4. Charge carriers Which particles are the actual charge carriers in electricity? Even though this is what really takes place, Physics theory is based on which particle? (C) Why doesn t it really matter which particle actually moves? (C) (C) 5. Current: The amount of charge passing a point in a wire every second. 6. Conditions necessary for a current I = Δq Δt I Current (amperes, amps, A, or C/s ) q Charge (coulombs, C ) t Time (seconds, s ) Coulombs of charge move past a point in a wire in 40 s. Determine the current in the circuit. Determine the number of electrons moving through that point each second. 8. Resistance: a value describing who difficult it is for charges to flow in a wire. 9. Factors increasing resistance. List 4 ways to increase resistance. R = ρl A R Resistance (ohm s, Ω ) ρ Resistivity (Ωm) l Length (meters, m ) A Current (square meters, m 2 ) 1

2 10. Electrical devices having resistance. 11. Unless told otherwise, assume the resistance of wires to be 12. What is a resistor? 13. Light Bulbs What is a filament? How does a light bulb work? 14. Ohm s Law V = IR V Potential, Voltage (volts, V ) I Current (amperes, amps, A, or C/s ) I = ΔV R R Resistance (ohm s, Ω ) 15. Power P = IΔV and P = ΔE t P Power (watts, W ) 16. Common phrases substituted for the word power 17. Combine the power equation P = IV and Ohm s Law V = IR to create two other equations for power Charges are pushed through electric circuits by the potential (voltage / pressure) of a power source, such as a battery. When circuit components, such as resistors, are connected to a battery their potential is equal to the potential created by the battery. 18. A 3 Ω resistor is connected to a battery producing 6 V. Determine the current in the circuit. Determine the power in the circuit. 2

3 53 KIRCHHOFF S LAWS 19. Visualizing circuits Batteries can be thought of as charge escalators. What do they do to potential in a circuit? What must all the components do to potential so that energy is conserved? 20. How can you identify a series circuit? parallel circuit? Series Parallel 21. Kirchhoff s Rules Loop Rule Junction Rule Loop Rule Junction Rule 22. Analyzing potential and current in the two types of circuits. Series Parallel Use loop rule to find the missing voltages in the two circuits at the right. Use junction rule to find the missing currents in the two circuits at the right. 8 A 6 V V A 3 V A 9 V 3 A V 1 A V A (C) What overall patterns regarding current and potential are seen? 1 V A In series current In series voltage In parallel current In parallel voltage 23. Apply the rules to solve for current and potential in the hybrid circuit shown. 4 V A 12 V V 9 A 3 A V A 3

4 24. Circuit Rule Summary Series Parallel Current Voltage Resistance R S = R i i 1 = R P i 1 R i 25. Equivalent resistance: (C) 2 Ω 2 Ω 4 Ω 4 Ω 2 Ω 2 Ω 2 Ω 26. Loop Rule, Potential, and Conservation of Energy 27. Junction Rule, Current, and Conservation of Charge 4

5 54 RESISTOR CIRCUITS 28. V I R P ε V I R P ε Compare the series and parallel circuits in the two problems above. Series Parallel Resistance: Which circuit has the highest resistance, and which has the lowest? Current: Which circuit has the highest current, and which has the lowest? (C) Power: Which circuit uses the highest power, and which uses the lowest? (D) Brightness of light: If the resistors were light bulbs, which would be brightest? 5

6 31. V I R P ε V I R P ε

7 33. Use this space for the table. R 4 In the circuit shown above the emf of the battery is 12 V. The resistances of the resistors are: = 2 Ω, = 3 Ω, = 3 Ω, and R 4 = 3 Ω. Determine the total resistance. Determine the total current. (C) Determine the power consumed by resistor 1. (D) The resistors are acually light bulbs. Rank the brightness of the bulbs. (E) Bulb 4 burns out. (F) State if the remaining bulbs get brighter or dimmer. (C) (D) (E) 7

8 34. Ammeter Voltmeter What do they measure? How are they positioned? R 4 (C) Why? (D) To be ideal, what does their resistance need to be? (E) Show the position of an ammeter and voltmeter to measure the current through and voltage drop across R Compare the circuits shown below. 36. Use this space for the table. R 4 In the circuit shown above the emf of the battery is 12 V. The resistances of the resistors are: = 3 Ω, = 6 Ω, = 2 Ω, and R 4 = 4 Ω. Determine the total resistance. Determine the total current. (C) Add an ammeter and voltmeter to the circuit diagram above in order to measure the current and voltage of resitor 1. (D) Determine the power consumed by resistor 1. (E) The resistors are acually light bulbs. Rank the brightness of the bulbs. (D) (E) 8

9 37. Circuit design 38. Circuit design 9

10 55 REAL BATTERIES, HOME WIRING, AND LIGHT BULBS 39. Terminal voltage V Potential (V) V = E Ir 40. Real batteries are made of conducting material and therefore have resistance. The resistance inside a battery is known as internal resistance. Draw the sketch of a real battery shown in class. E I r emf (V) Current Internal resistance (Ω) 41. A battery has an emf of 6.0 V and an internal resistance of 0.10 Ω. Determine the terminal voltage if 2.0 A of current runs through the battery. 42. Typically internal resistance is negligible in our problems. 43. How does this change V = E Ir? If internal resistance is negligible V I Rearrange the equation V = E Ir to match the axis of the graph above and the equation of a line, y = mx + b. The slope of the graph is (C) The y-intercept 44. Household wiring How is your home wired? Why? (C) In this type of circuit as you turn more electrical appliances, what happens to total resistance? (D) What happens to total current and power? (E) What happens to the temperature of the wires? (F) How do you protect against fire? (G) How is the device that protects the circuit wired into the circuit (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (C) 10

11 45. Light bulbs are labeled with their wattage Light bulbs are also labeled 120 V. Under what circumstances does a 60 W bulb use 60 W. Wattage is not really fixed for a light. What quantity is fixed in light bulbs? 46. Complete the circuit tables below for a 120 W and 240 W bulb that are put into three different circuits. A USA parallel 120 V circuit Wired into a series circuit at 120 V A European parallel 240 V circuit V I R P V I R P V I R P E 120 E 120 E 240 L L 1 L 1 L L 2 L 2 Wattage in a US parallel circuit lets you calculate the resistance of each light. Resistance is actually the constant quantity. 11

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