Notes on Electricity (Circuits)


 Ethel Flowers
 4 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 A circuit is defined to be a collection of energygivers (active elements) and energytakers (passive elements) that form a closed path (or complete path) through which electrical current can flow. The active elements are voltage sources (like batteries) that provide energy, and the passive elements are resistors (or light bulbs, ipods, computers, etc.) that use the energy. Current As you remember from previous studies of Chemistry, all matter is made of atoms. All atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons. The protons have a positive charge; the electrons have a negative charge; the neutrons have no charge. The charge of protons and electrons are often referred to as + and , respectively. This is done to indicate that they have equal and opposite charges. The actual units for electrical charge are called Coulombs. One Coulomb represents a very large charge. As a matter of fact, it takes 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons to make one Coulomb of charge. The movement of electrical charges is called electrical current. Current can be thought of as how fast charges flow or how many Coulombs of charge pass a point every second. The units for current are Amperes (or Amps, for short). One Ampere of current is equal to one Coulomb/second ( A = C/s). The symbol used for current in an equation is I. By definition, current flows in the direction that positive charges would move. It should be noted that a current of 70 ma can be fatal, so it is very important that you pay close attention to the prefixes that go with each unit. The difference between 0 ma and 0 A is NOT a small one! Voltage Voltage is a measure of the difference in electrical potential energy (per unit of charge) between two points in a circuit. Voltage is often called the potential difference. The units for voltage are Volts (V). Since the units for energy are Joules and the units for charge are Coulombs, one Volt is equal to one Joule/Coulomb ( V = J/C). The symbol used for voltage in an equation is V. (For the sake of developing an initial understanding of circuits, we will think of voltage simply as being the difference in energy between two points.) All batteries have a positive terminal and a negative terminal. By definition, the positive terminal has more energy. For a 2Volt battery, the difference in energy between the positive and the negative terminals is 2 Volts, with the positive terminal having more energy. The voltage for a Dcell battery is.5 Volts, which means that the positive terminal has.5 Joules more energy (per Coulomb of charge) than the negative terminal. Since voltage is the difference in energy between two points, we never talk about the voltage of one point in a circuit. We always refer to the voltage between two points.
2 Resistance Resistance is a measure of how difficult it is for electrical current to pass through something, or how much something resists the flow of current. Electrical conductors tend to have a very low resistance, while electrical insulators have a very high resistance. Resistance is measured in units of Ohms (Ω). Resistors are energytakers. When electrical current passes through a resistor, some electrical energy is lost and converted into other forms of energy such as heat, light, or sound. Light bulbs, radios, TVs, and other appliances can be treated as if they were resistors, since what they do is to convert electrical energy into some other form of energy. Ohm s Law Ohm s Law relates voltage, current, and resistance in a simple equation. Ohm s Law states that the voltage between two points in equal to the current flowing between the points multiplied by the resistance between the points. V = I x R Looking at the units for the values in Ohm s Law shows that (Volts) = (Amps) x (Ohms). If the equation is solved for resistance, the units show that (Ohms) = (Volts)/(Amps). Note that it is common for current to be measured in milliamps (ma) and resistance in kiloohms (kω). Power Power is defined to be the rate at which (how fast) energy is generated or the rate at which (how fast) energy is used. One way to express power is Energy Power time The units for energy are Joules, and the units for time are seconds. So, power has units of Joules/second, which are called Watts (W). In a circuit, the power being used or generated by a particular element can be found by multiplying the current and voltage for that element. P = I x V If we look at the units for this equation, (Amps) x (Volts) equal (Watts). ( Watts ) ( Amps) x( Volts ) ( C / s) x( J / C) ( J / s)
3 Series & Parallel The elements that make up a circuit can be connected in different configurations. The regions of the circuit where three or more elements are connected are called nodes. Since a node connects more than two elements, when current enters the node it will split, and part of it will go to each of the elements on the other side of the node. Every point within a given node has the same amount of electric potential energy. Different nodes have different amounts of electric potential energy. The difference in the energy (per charge) between two nodes is the voltage. Elements are connected in series when there is no node in between them. Since there is no node between them (no place for the current to split), elements that are in series with each other must have the same current. Elements are connected in parallel when they are connected between the same two nodes. Since the elements connect the same two nodes and since difference in energy between the two nodes is the voltage, elements in parallel must have the same voltage. Ex: The circuit shown to the right has two nodes, as shown by the red lines. The two 4 kω resistors both connect Node and, therefore, they are connected in parallel to one another and would have the same voltage. The 8 Volt source and the 2 kω resistor are connected to one another with no node in between them. So, the battery and the 2 kω resistor are in series with one another and would have the same current. Node When every element in a circuit is connected in series (as shown to the left), there is only one path through which current can flow. If one of the elements is removed or if it breaks, then the circuit will be broken and no current will flow to any of the other elements. When every element in a circuit is connected in parallel (as shown to the right), there are multiple paths through which current can flow. If one of the elements is removed or if it breaks, then there are still other paths through which current can flow. In this case, the other elements will continue to function since current will still be flowing. Node Any element or group of elements that connects one node to another node is called a branch. If a branch consists of more than one element, then those elements are in series with each other. While it is possible for individual elements to be in parallel with each other, it is also possible for branches to be in parallel with other branches or for individual elements to be in parallel with branches.
4 3Ω Node 4Ω In the circuit to the left, there are two nodes that are highlighted in red. 2 V There are three branches between the two nodes. The branch on the 2Ω left consists of a single 3 Ω. The branch in the middle consists of the 2 V source and a 4 Ω resistor that are in series. And, the branch on 4Ω the right consists of a 4 Ω resistor in series with a 2 Ω resistor. None of the individual elements are in parallel with each other, because no two of the elements are directly connected between the two nodes. (The 3 Ω resistor is the only element that directly connects the two nodes.) However, all three of the branches are in parallel with each other, since all three branches connect the top node to the bottom node. Kirchhoff s Laws Nodes are simply wires that connect circuit elements, it is impossible for current to be stored or generated within the wire itself. Given that, the total current that enters a node must equal the total current that leaves the node. This fact is known as Kirchhoff s Current Law. Applying Kirchhoff s Current Law to the circuit below yields the equation I = I 2 + I 3 8Ω Node I I I 3 4Ω V I 2 V 3 2 V V 2 6Ω V 4 8Ω Similarly, Kirchhoff s Voltage Law states that the total voltage (difference in potential) around a complete loop (starting and finishing at the same point) must equal zero. Since the two points being compared are the starting point and the finishing point, the difference in potential must be zero since the two points are the same point. There are three complete loops in the circuit above that start and finish at. Applying Kirchhoff s Voltage Law to each of these circuits yields the following three equations: 2 V + V + V 2 = 0 OR 2 V = V + V 2 () 2 V + V + V 3 + ( V 4 ) = 0 OR 2 V = V + V 3 + V 4 (2) V 2 + V 3 + ( V 4 ) = 0 OR V 2 = V 3 + V 4 (3)
5 Equivalent Resistance Resistors in Series: It is possible to replace resistors connected in series with one equivalent resistor. The value of the equivalent resistor is equal to the sum of the resistors in series R eq = ΣR i. The idea is that the group of resistors in series could be removed, and the equivalent resistance could be placed where the group of resistors was. The derivation of this is given in the following example. In the simple series circuit to the right, the voltage source, V s, will produce a current, I s. That current will then flow through all three resistors, since they are in series with each other. As the current flows through each resistor, there will be a loss of energy resulting in a potential difference (or voltage) across each resistor. This voltage can be calculated using Ohm s Law, as shown below. Vs R R2 V = I s R V 2 = I s R 2 V 3 = I s R 3 R3 Applying Kirchhoff s Voltage Law to this circuit yields the following: Resistors in Parallel: V s = V + V 2 + V 3 V s = I s R + I s R 2 + I s R 3 V s = I s (R + R 2 + R 3) V s = I s R eq It is possible to replace resistors connected in parallel with one equivalent resistor. The example that follows provides the derivation for the equivalent resistance of a group of parallel resistors. In the circuit shown, all four elements are in parallel between the two nodes. The voltage between the nodes is V s. The current produced by the source, I s, will split when it enters the top node, with some of the current going through each of the three resistors. Applying Kirchhoff s Current Law to the top node yields the following: Vs R R2 R3 I s = I + I 2 + I 3 I s = V s R + V s R 2 + V s R 3 I s = V s R + R 2 + R 3
6 Rearranging the last equation gives an equation in the form of Ohm s Law. V s = I s R + R + 2 R 3 The term in brackets represents the equivalent resistance of the three resistors in parallel. The equation below gives another way to show this relationship. R eq = R + R 2 + R 3 + = R i where R, R 2, R 3, and R i represent the individual resistors that are in parallel. Since the individual resistors are connected between the same two nodes, the equivalent resistor is placed between those same two nodes. Note: If there are only two resistors, then the equivalent resistance is equal to the product of the resistors in parallel divided by their sum. R eq = R R 2 R + R 2 It is very common for circuits to have combinations of resistors in series and parallel. These equivalent resistance concepts can be applied to subsets of the overall circuit to simplify the circuit incrementally. Each simplified version of the circuit can then be simplified further, until a single equivalent resistance is obtained. (See the example on the website for how this is done.)
Notes on Electricity (Circuits)
A circuit is defined to be a collection of energygivers (batteries) and energytakers (resistors, light bulbs, radios, etc.) that form a closed path (or complete path) through which electrical current
More informationELECTRICITY. Electric Circuit. What do you already know about it? Do Smarty Demo 5/30/2010. Electric Current. Voltage? Resistance? Current?
ELECTRICITY What do you already know about it? Voltage? Resistance? Current? Do Smarty Demo 1 Electric Circuit A path over which electrons travel, out through the negative terminal, through the conductor,
More informationIn this unit, we will examine the movement of electrons, which we call CURRENT ELECTRICITY.
Recall: Chemistry and the Atom! What are the 3 subatomic Where are they found in the particles? atom? What electric charges do they have? How was a positive ion created? How was a negative ion created?
More informationElectricity. Chapter 21
Electricity Chapter 21 Electricity Charge of proton Positive Charge of electron Negative Charge of neutron NONE Atoms have no charge because the charges of the protons and electrons cancel each other out.
More informationSection 1 Electric Charge and Force
CHAPTER OUTLINE Section 1 Electric Charge and Force Key Idea questions > What are the different kinds of electric charge? > How do materials become charged when rubbed together? > What force is responsible
More informationElectron Theory of Charge. Electricity. 1. Matter is made of atoms. Refers to the generation of or the possession of electric charge.
Electricity Refers to the generation of or the possession of electric charge. There are two kinds of electricity: 1. Static Electricity the electric charges are "still" or static 2. Current Electricity
More informationIntroduction to Electrical and Computer Engineering. International System of Units (SI)
Introduction to Electrical and Computer Engineering Basic Circuits and Simulation Basic Circuits and Simulation (1 of 22) International System of Units (SI) Length: meter (m) Mass: kilogram (kg) Time:
More informationEngineering Fundamentals and Problem Solving, 6e
Engineering Fundamentals and Problem Solving, 6e Chapter 17 Electrical Circuits Chapter Objectives Compute the equivalent resistance of resistors in series and in parallel Apply Ohm s law to a resistive
More informationCHAPTER ONE. 1.1 International System of Units and scientific notation : Basic Units: Quantity Basic unit Symbol as shown in table 1
CHAPTER ONE 1.1 International System of Units and scientific notation : 1.1.1 Basic Units: Quantity Basic unit Symbol as shown in table 1 Table 1 1.1.2 Some scientific notations : as shown in table 2 Table
More informationChapter 2. Engr228 Circuit Analysis. Dr Curtis Nelson
Chapter 2 Engr228 Circuit Analysis Dr Curtis Nelson Chapter 2 Objectives Understand symbols and behavior of the following circuit elements: Independent voltage and current sources; Dependent voltage and
More informationChapter 21 Electric Current and Circuits
Chapter 21 Electric Current and Circuits 1 As an introduction to this chapter you should view the following movie. If you cannot click on the link, then copy it and paste it into your web browser. http://www.ionaphysics.org/movies/vir.mp4
More informationChapter 18 Electric Currents
Chapter 18 Electric Currents 1 The Electric Battery Volta discovered that electricity could be created if dissimilar metals were connected by a conductive solution called an electrolyte. This is a simple
More informationOhms Law. V = IR V = voltage in volts (aka potential difference) I = Current in amps R = resistance in ohms (Ω)
Ohms Law V = IR V = voltage in volts (aka potential difference) I = Current in amps R = resistance in ohms (Ω) Current How would you define it? Current the movement of electric charge through a medium
More informationE40M Charge, Current, Voltage and Electrical Circuits KCL, KVL, Power & Energy Flow. M. Horowitz, J. Plummer, R. Howe 1
E40M Charge, Current, Voltage and Electrical Circuits KCL, KVL, Power & Energy Flow M. Horowitz, J. Plummer, R. Howe 1 Reading For Topics In These Slides Chapter 1 in the course reader OR A&L 1.61.7 
More informationEXPERIMENT 12 OHM S LAW
EXPERIMENT 12 OHM S LAW INTRODUCTION: We will study electricity as a flow of electric charge, sometimes making analogies to the flow of water through a pipe. In order for electric charge to flow a complete
More informationQ2 How many coulombs of charge leave the power supply during each second?
Part I  Circuit Elements in Series In Figure 1 at the right circuit elements #1, #2, #3 (in this case light bulbs) are said to be connected "IN SERIES". That is, they are connected in a series one right
More information1 of 23. Boardworks Ltd Electrical Power
1 of 23 Boardworks Ltd 2016 Electrical Power Electrical Power 2 of 23 Boardworks Ltd 2016 What is electrical power? 3 of 23 Boardworks Ltd 2016 Electrical power is the rate at which energy is transferred
More informationContinuous flow of electric charges. Current Electricity
Continuous flow of electric charges Current Electricity Did You Know? The voltage across a muscle cell in your body is about 70 millivolts. A millivolt (mv) is one thousandth of a volt. AC and DC DC Direct
More informationWhat does it mean for an object to be charged? What are charges? What is an atom?
What does it mean for an object to be charged? What are charges? What is an atom? What are the components of an atom? Define the following: Electric Conductor Electric Insulator Define the following: Electric
More informationProtons = Charge Electrons = Charge Neutrons = Charge. When Protons = Electrons, atoms are said to be ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL (no net charge)
QUICK WRITE: For 2 minutes, write the three parts of an atom and what their charges are. Explain what creates an electric charge (positive or negative) on something. Rules  You MUST write for the entire
More informationElectricity. From the word Elektron Greek for amber
Electricity From the word Elektron Greek for amber Electrical systems have two main objectives: To gather, store, process, transport information & Energy To distribute and convert energy Electrical Engineering
More informationDynamic Electricity. All you need to be an inventor is a good imagination and a pile of junk. Thomas Edison
Dynamic Electricity All you need to be an inventor is a good imagination and a pile of junk. Thomas Edison Review Everything is made of atoms which contain POSITIVE particles called PROTONS and NEGATIVE
More informationInsulators Nonmetals are very good insulators; their electrons are very tightly bonded and cannot move.
SESSION 11: ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Key Concepts Resistance and Ohm s laws Ohmic and nonohmic conductors Series and parallel connection Energy in an electric circuit Xplanation 1. CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS
More informationWhat is electricity? Charges that could be either positive or negative and that they could be transferred from one object to another.
Electricity What is electricity? Charges that could be either positive or negative and that they could be transferred from one object to another. What is electrical charge Protons carry positive charges
More informationElectricity. Prepared by Juan Blázquez, Alissa Gildemann. Electric charge is a property of all objects. It is responsible for electrical phenomena.
Unit 11 Electricity 1. Electric charge Electric charge is a property of all objects. It is responsible for electrical phenomena. Electrical phenomena are caused by the forces of attraction and repulsion.
More information16.1 Electrical Current
16.1 Electrical Current Electric Current Electric Current When the ends of an electric conductor are at different electric potentials, charge flows from one end to the other Flow of Charge Charge flows
More informationElectroscope Used to are transferred to the and Foil becomes and
Electricity Notes Chapter 17 Section 1: Electric Charge and Forces Electric charge is a variety of independent all with one single name. Electricity is related to, and both () and (+) carry a charge.
More informationBFF1303: ELECTRICAL / ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
BFF1303: ELECTRICAL / ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING Introduction Ismail Mohd Khairuddin, Zulkifil Md Yusof Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering Universiti Malaysia Pahang Introduction BFF1303 ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS
More informationES250: Electrical Science. HW1: Electric Circuit Variables, Elements and Kirchhoff s Laws
ES250: Electrical Science HW1: Electric Circuit Variables, Elements and Kirchhoff s Laws Introduction Engineers use electric circuits to solve problems that are important to modern society, such as: 1.
More informationGreek Letter Omega Ω = Ohm (Volts per Ampere)
) What is electric current? Flow of Electric Charge 2) What is the unit we use for electric current? Amperes (Coulombs per Second) 3) What is electrical resistance? Resistance to Electric Current 4) What
More informationSection 1: Electric Charge and Force
Electricity Section 1 Section 1: Electric Charge and Force Preview Key Ideas Bellringer Electric Charge Transfer of Electric Charge Induced Charges Charging by Contact Electric Force Electric Field Lines
More informationLecture #3. Review: Power
Lecture #3 OUTLINE Power calculations Circuit elements Voltage and current sources Electrical resistance (Ohm s law) Kirchhoff s laws Reading Chapter 2 Lecture 3, Slide 1 Review: Power If an element is
More informationCHAPTER 1 ELECTRICITY
CHAPTER 1 ELECTRICITY Electric Current: The amount of charge flowing through a particular area in unit time. In other words, it is the rate of flow of electric charges. Electric Circuit: Electric circuit
More informationDC circuits, Kirchhoff s Laws
DC circuits, Kirchhoff s Laws Alternating Current (AC), Direct Current (DC) DC Circuits Resistors Kirchhoff s Laws CHM6158C  Lecture 2 1 Electric current Movement of electrons in a conductor Examples
More informationElectrostatics and Charge. Creating Electric Fields
Electrostatics and Charge Creating Electric Fields Electric Charges Recall that all matter is made of atoms. Neutral atoms can acquire a charge in several different ways, all of which require movement
More informationChapter 33  Electric Fields and Potential. Chapter 34  Electric Current
Chapter 33  Electric Fields and Potential Chapter 34  Electric Current Electric Force acts through a field An electric field surrounds every electric charge. It exerts a force that causes electric charges
More informationENGR 2405 Class No Electric Circuits I
ENGR 2405 Class No. 48056 Electric Circuits I Dr. R. Williams Ph.D. rube.williams@hccs.edu Electric Circuit An electric circuit is an interconnec9on of electrical elements Charge Charge is an electrical
More informationProperties of Electric Charge
1 Goals 2 Properties of Electric Charge 2 Atomic Structure: Composed of three main particles: 1. Proton 2. Neutron 3. Electron Things to Remember: 3 Everything is made of atoms. Electrons can move from
More informationChapter 27: Current and Resistance
Chapter 7: Current and esistance In this section of the course we will be studying the flow of electric charge, current, in a circuit. We have already seen electric current when we first discussed electric
More informationElectric Charge. Electric Charge ( q ) unbalanced charges positive and negative charges. n Units Coulombs (C)
Electric Charge Electric Charge ( q ) unbalanced charges positive and negative charges n Units Coulombs (C) Electric Charge How do objects become charged? Types of materials Conductors materials in which
More information2. Basic Components and Electrical Circuits
1 2. Basic Components and Electrical Circuits 2.1 Units and Scales The International System of Units (SI) defines 6 principal units from which the units of all other physical quantities can be derived
More informationLecture 1. Electrical Transport
Lecture 1. Electrical Transport 1.1 Introduction * Objectives * Requirements & Grading Policy * Other information 1.2 Basic Circuit Concepts * Electrical l quantities current, voltage & power, sign conventions
More informationCHARGES IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD
CONTENT POTENTIAL ENERGY AND WORK HSC Physics Module 4 Electricity and Magnetism Electric Field Potential energy, Work and Equipotential Lines CHARGES IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD A charge in an electric field
More information52 VOLTAGE, CURRENT, RESISTANCE, AND POWER
52 VOLTAGE, CURRENT, RESISTANCE, AND POWER 1. What is voltage, and what are its units? 2. What are some other possible terms for voltage? 3. Batteries create a potential difference. The potential/voltage
More information6. In a dry cell electrical energy is obtained due to the conversion of:
1. If a wire of uniform area of cross section is cut into two halves (equal in size), the resistivity of each part will be: a) Halved. b) Doubled. c) Becomes four times its initial value. d) Remains the
More informationChapter 21 Electric Current and Direct Current Circuits
Chapter 21 Electric Current and Direct Current Circuits 1 Overview of Chapter 21 Electric Current and Resistance Energy and Power in Electric Circuits Resistors in Series and Parallel Kirchhoff s Rules
More informationElectric Currents and Simple Circuits
1 Electric Currents and Simple Circuits Electrons can flow along inside a metal wire if there is an Efield present to push them along ( F= qe). The flow of electrons in a wire is similar to the flow
More informationLesson Plan: Electric Circuits (~130 minutes) Concepts
Lesson Plan: Electric Circuits (~130 minutes) Concepts 1. Electricity is the flow of electric charge (electrons). 2. Electric Charge is a property of subatomic particles. 3. Current is the movement of
More informationConceptual Physical Science 6 th Edition
Conceptual Physical Science 6 th Edition Chapter 8: STATIC AND CURRENT ELECTRICITY 1 Chapter 8: STATIC AND CURRENT ELECTRICITY Chapter 8: Read: All Homework: Four problems from the following set: 4, 6,
More informationCapacitance. A different kind of capacitor: Work must be done to charge a capacitor. Capacitors in circuits. Capacitor connected to a battery
Capacitance The ratio C = Q/V is a conductor s self capacitance Units of capacitance: Coulomb/Volt = Farad A capacitor is made of two conductors with equal but opposite charge Capacitance depends on shape
More informationPhysics 7B1 (A/B) Professor Cebra. Winter 2010 Lecture 2. Simple Circuits. Slide 1 of 20
Physics 7B1 (A/B) Professor Cebra Winter 2010 Lecture 2 Simple Circuits Slide 1 of 20 Conservation of Energy Density In the First lecture, we started with energy conservation. We divided by volume (making
More informationOhm's Law and Resistance
Ohm's Law and Resistance Resistance Resistance is the property of a component which restricts the flow of electric current. Energy is used up as the voltage across the component drives the current through
More informationLESSON 5: ELECTRICITY II
LESSON 5: ELECTRICITY II The first two points are a review of the previous lesson 1.1.ELECTRIC CHARGE  Electric charge is a property of all objects and is responsible for electrical phenomena. All matter
More informationPhysics 1214 Chapter 19: Current, Resistance, and DirectCurrent Circuits
Physics 1214 Chapter 19: Current, Resistance, and DirectCurrent Circuits 1 Current current: (also called electric current) is an motion of charge from one region of a conductor to another. Current When
More informationWHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF MOVING CHARGES?
ELECTRICITY WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF MOVING CHARGES? ELECTRICAL CHARGES Most atoms have the same number of protons and electrons. They often lose and gain electrons. When this happens, the atom s charge
More informationE40M Charge, Current, Voltage and Electrical Circuits. M. Horowitz, J. Plummer, R. Howe 1
E40M Charge, Current, Voltage and Electrical Circuits M. Horowitz, J. Plummer, R. Howe 1 Understanding the Solar Charger Lab Project #1 We need to understand how: 1. Current, voltage and power behave in
More information670 Intro Physics Notes: Electric Current and Circuits
Name: Electric Current Date: / / 670 Intro Physics Notes: Electric Current and Circuits 1. Previously, we learned about static electricity. Static electricity deals with charges that are at rest. 2. Now
More informationUnit 2 Electrical Quantities and Ohm s Law
Electrical Quantities and Ohm s Law Objectives: Define a coulomb. Define an ampere. Define a volt. Define an ohm. Define a watt. Objectives: Compute electrical values using Ohm s law. Discuss basic types
More informationNATIONAL 5 PHYSICS ELECTRICITY
NATIONAL 5 PHYSICS ELECTRICITY ELECTRICAL CHARGE CARRIERS AND CURRENT Electrical Charge Electrical charge exists in two distinct types positive charge and negative charge. It is also possible for an object
More informationElectricity. Power Ratings. Section SPH3U Sec notebook. January 02, 2014
Section 11.1 11.4 Electricity A form of energy resulting from the existence of charged particles (such as electrons or protons), either statically as an accumulation of charge or dynamically as a current
More informationGrade 6 Math Circles. Circuits
Faculty of Mathematics Waterloo, Ontario NL 3G Electricity Grade 6 Math Circles March 8/9, 04 Circuits Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing Electricity is a type of energy that deals with
More informationReview. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Review Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When more devices are added to a series circuit, the total circuit resistance: a.
More informationStatic Electricity. Electric Field. the net accumulation of electric charges on an object
Static Electricity the net accumulation of electric charges on an object Electric Field force exerted by an e  on anything that has an electric charge opposite charges attract like charges repel Static
More informationCHARGE AND ELECTRIC CURRENT:
ELECTRICITY: CHARGE AND ELECTRIC CURRENT ELECTRIC CHARGE ELECTRIC CURRENT ELECTRIC CIRCUIT DEFINITION AND COMPONENTS EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT TYPES OF CIRCUITS ELECTRIC QUANTITIES VOLTAGE CURRENT RESISTANCE
More informationDC Circuits: Basic Concepts Dr. Hasan Demirel
DC Circuits: Basic Concepts Dr. Hasan Demirel An electric circuit is an interconnection of electrical elements. A simple electric circuit Electric circuit of a radio receiver Six basic SI units and one
More informationDC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS. Loop Equations
All of the rules governing DC circuits that have been discussed so far can now be applied to analyze complex DC circuits. To apply these rules effectively, loop equations, node equations, and equivalent
More information(b) State the relation between work, charge and potential difference for an electric circuit.
Question Bank on ChElectricity 1. (a) Define the S.I unit of potential difference. (b) State the relation between work, charge and potential difference for an electric circuit. Calculate the potential
More informationECE 2100 Circuit Analysis
ECE 2100 Circuit Analysis Lesson 3 Chapter 2 Ohm s Law Network Topology: nodes, branches, and loops Daniel M. Litynski, Ph.D. http://homepages.wmich.edu/~dlitynsk/ esistance ESISTANCE = Physical property
More informationElectricity. dronstudy.com
Electricity Electricity is a basic part of our nature and it is one of our most widely used forms of energy. We use electricity virtually every minute of every day for example in lighting, heating, refrigeration,
More informationELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM CHAPTER 8
ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM CHAPTER 8 E & M  Focus Electric Charge & Force Magnetism Current, Voltage & Power Electromagnetism Simple Electrical Circuits Voltage & Current Transformation Electric Charge &
More informationELECTRICITY. Chapter ELECTRIC CHARGE & FORCE
ELECTRICITY Chapter 17 17.1 ELECTRIC CHARGE & FORCE Essential Questions: What are the different kinds of electric charge? How do materials become charged when rubbed together? What force is responsible
More informationKirchhoff's Laws and Circuit Analysis (EC 2)
Kirchhoff's Laws and Circuit Analysis (EC ) Circuit analysis: solving for I and V at each element Linear circuits: involve resistors, capacitors, inductors Initial analysis uses only resistors Power sources,
More informationElectric Circuits. June 12, 2013
Electric Circuits June 12, 2013 Definitions Coulomb is the SI unit for an electric charge. The symbol is "C". Electric Current ( I ) is the flow of electrons per unit time. It is measured in coulombs per
More informationLook over Chapter 26 sections 17 Examples 3, 7. Look over Chapter 18 sections 15, 8 over examples 1, 2, 5, 8, 9,
Look over Chapter 26 sections 17 Examples 3, 7 Look over Chapter 18 sections 15, 8 over examples 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 1)How to find a current in a wire. 2)What the Current Density and Draft Speed are. 3)What
More informationA Review of Circuitry
1 A Review of Circuitry There is an attractive force between a positive and a negative charge. In order to separate these charges, a force at least equal to the attractive force must be applied to one
More informationElectricity CHARGE. q = 1.6 x1019 C
Electricity CHARGE q = 1.6 x1019 C How many protons in a Coulomb? 19 1.00 C x (1 proton) / (1.60 x 10 C) = 18 6.25x10 protons! Opposites Attract Most materials are Electrically NEUTRAL (lowest potential
More informationIdeal wires, Ideal device models, Ideal circuits. Ideal models for circuit elements Wires
Ideal wires, Ideal device models, Ideal circuits Ideal models for circuit elements Wires Currents and Voltages Joints Resistors Voltage sources Current sources. EE 42 Lecture 1 1 Cast of Characters Fundamental
More informationLecture Outline Chapter 21. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Lecture Outline Chapter 21 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 21 Electric Current and Direct Current Circuits Units of Chapter 21 Electric Current Resistance and Ohm s Law Energy and Power
More informationIntroduction to Electricity
Introduction to Electricity Principles of Engineering 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Electricity Movement of electrons Invisible force that provides light, heat, sound, motion... Electricity at the Atomic
More informationLecture #2 Charge, Current, Energy, Voltage Power Kirchhoff s Current Law Kirchhoff s Voltage Law
EECS 42 Introduction to Electronics for Computer Science Andrew R. Neureuther Lecture #2 Charge, Current, Energy, Voltage Power Kirchhoff s Current Law Kirchhoff s Voltage Law Corrections Slide 3 and 9
More informationClosed loop of moving charges (electrons move  flow of negative charges; positive ions move  flow of positive charges. Nucleus not moving)
Unit 2: Electricity and Magnetism Lesson 3: Simple Circuits Electric circuits transfer energy. Electrical energy is converted into light, heat, sound, mechanical work, etc. The byproduct of any circuit
More informationELECTRICITY UNIT REVIEW
ELECTRICITY UNIT REVIEW S1304: How does the Atomic Model help to explain static electricity? 1. Which best describes static electricity? a) charges that can be collected and held in one place b) charges
More informationOhm s Law and Electronic Circuits
Production Ohm s Law and Electronic Circuits Page 1  Cyber Security Class ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS All you need to be an inventor is a good imagination and a pile of junk. Thomas Edison Page 2  Cyber Security
More informationSNC1DI Unit Review: Static & Current Electricity
SNC1DI Unit Review: Static & Current Electricity 1. Be able to recognize the definitions for the following terms: Friction Contact Induction Lightning Electrostatic Series Pithball electroscope Insulators
More informationWhat are the two types of current? The two types of current are direct current and alternating current.
Electric Current What are the two types of current? The two types of current are direct current and alternating current. Electric Current The continuous flow of electric charge is an electric current.
More informationhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yc2363miqs
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yc2363miqs SCIENCE 9 UNIT 3 ELECTRICITY Remember: In the last unit we learned that all matter is made up of atoms atoms have subatomic particles called, protons, neutrons
More informationRead Chapter 7; pages:
Forces Read Chapter 7; pages: 191221 Objectives:  Describe how electrical charges exert forces on each other; Compare the strengths of electric and gravitational forces; Distinguish between conductors
More informationCircuit Analysis I (ENGR 2405) Chapter 1 Review: Charge, Current, Voltage, Power
Circuit Analysis I (ENGR 2405) Chapter 1 Review: Charge, Current, Voltage, Power What is a circuit? An electric circuit is an interconnection of electrical elements. It may consist of only two elements
More informationElectricity & Magnetism
Electricity & Magnetism Unit 7 Recall that Atoms l Have neutrons, protons, and electrons. l Protons are positively charged l Electrons are negatively charged l Opposite charges attract l Same charges repel
More informationElectricity & Magnetism. Unit 6
Electricity & Magnetism Unit 6 Recall that Atoms l Have neutrons, protons, and electrons. l Protons are positively charged l Electrons are negatively charged l Opposite charges attract l Same charges repel
More informationFundamental of Electrical circuits
Fundamental of Electrical circuits 1 Course Description: Electrical units and definitions: Voltage, current, power, energy, circuit elements: resistors, capacitors, inductors, independent and dependent
More informationMEP 382: Design of Applied Measurement Systems Lecture 3: DC & AC Circuit Analysis
Faculty of Engineering MEP 38: Design of Applied Measurement Systems Lecture 3: DC & AC Circuit Analysis Outline oltage and Current Ohm s Law Kirchoff s laws esistors Series and Parallel oltage Dividers
More information10/14/2018. Current. Current. QuickCheck 30.3
Current If QCurrent is the total amount of charge that has moved past a point in a wire, we define the current I in the wire to be the rate of charge flow: The SI unit for current is the coulomb per second,
More informationElectric Current. Volta
Electric Current Galvani Volta In the late 1700's Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta carried out experiements dealing with the contraction of frogs' leg muscles. Volta's work led to the invention of the
More informationOutline. Week 5: Circuits. Course Notes: 3.5. Goals: Use linear algebra to determine voltage drops and branch currents.
Outline Week 5: Circuits Course Notes: 3.5 Goals: Use linear algebra to determine voltage drops and branch currents. Components in Resistor Networks voltage source current source resistor Components in
More informationElectricity Courseware Instructions
Physics Electricity Courseware Instructions This courseware acts as a supplement to the classroom instruction. The five sections on the following slide link to the topic areas. Following the topic area
More informationChapter 19 Lecture Notes
Chapter 19 Lecture Notes Physics 2424  Strauss Formulas: R S = R 1 + R 2 +... C P = C 1 + C 2 +... 1/R P = 1/R 1 + 1/R 2 +... 1/C S = 1/C 1 + 1/C 2 +... q = q 0 [1e t/(rc) ] q = q 0 e t/(rc τ = RC
More informationENGI 1040: ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Winter Part I Basic Circuits
1. Electric Charge ENGI 1040: ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Winter 2018 Part I Basic Circuits atom elementary unit of a material which contains the properties of that material can be modeled as negatively charged
More informationCLASS X ELECTRICITY
Conductor Insulator: Materia Materials through which electric current cannot pass are called insulators. Electric Circuit: A continuous a CLASS X ELECTRICITY als through which electric current can pass
More informationIn the following information, you will study these three physical quantities as they relate to simple electrical circuits.
Module 7 Ohm's Law INTRODUCTION In this experiment, you will study Ohm's Law, the most fundamental relation used in the analysis of electrical circuits. Ohm's Law relates the quantities of voltage, electric
More information