1 Electric Current & DC Circuits Circuits Click on the topic to go to that section Conductors Resistivity and Resistance Circuit Diagrams Measurement EMF & Terminal Voltage Kirchhoff's Rules Capacitors* RC Circuits* *These chapters are part of the AP 2, but not the AP 1 Curriculum.
2 Circuits Return to Table of Contents
3 Electric Current Electric Current is the rate of flow of electric charges (charge carriers) through space. More specifically, it is defined as the amount of charge that flows past a location in a material per unit time. The letter "I" is the symbol for current. ΔQ is the amount of charge, and Δt is the time it flowed past the location. The current depends on the type of material and the Electric Potential difference (voltage) across it.
4 Electric Current A good analogy to help understand Electric Current is to consider water flow. The flow of water molecules is similar to the flow of electrons (the charge carriers) in a wire. Water flow depends on the pressure exerted on the molecules either by a pump or by a height difference, such as water falling off a cliff. Electric current depends on the "pressure" exerted by the Electric Potential difference - the greater the Electric Potential difference, the greater the Electric Current.
5 Electric Current The current, has the units Coulombs per second. The units can be rewritten as Amperes (A). 1 A = 1 C/s Amperes are often called "amps".
6 Electric Current We know that if an Electric Potential difference is applied to a wire, charges will flow from high to low potential - a current. However, due to a convention set by Benjamin Franklin, current in a wire is defined as the movement of positive charges (not the electrons which are really moving) and is called "conventional current." Benjamin Franklin didn't do this to confuse future generations of electrical engineers and students. It was already known that electrical phenomena came in two flavors - attractive and repulsive - Franklin was the person who explained them as distinct positive and negative charges.
7 Electric Current He arbitrarily assigned a positive charge to a glass rod that had been rubbed with silk. He could just as easily called it negative - 50/50 chance. The glass rod was later found to have a shortage of electrons (they were transferred to the silk). So if the glass rod is grounded, the electrons will flow from the ground to the rod. The problem comes in how Electric Potential is defined - charge carriers will be driven from high to low potential - from positive to negative. For this to occur in the glass rod - ground system, the conventional current will flow from the rod to the ground - opposite the direction of the movement of electrons.
8 Electric Current To summarize - conventional Electric Current is defined as the movement of positive charge. In wires, it is opposite to the direction of the electron movement. However - in the case of a particle accelerator, where electrons are stripped off of an atom, resulting in a positively charged ion, which is then accelerated to strike a target - the direction of the conventional current is the same as the direction of the positive ions!
9 Circuits An electric circuit is an external path that charges can follow between two terminals using a conducting material. For charge to flow, the path must be complete and unbroken. An example of a conductor used to form a circuit is copper wire. Continuing the water analogy, one can think of a wire as a pipe for charge to move through.
10 1 12 C of charge passes a location in a circuit in 10 seconds. What is the current flowing past the point? Answer
11 2 A circuit has 3 A of current. How long does it take 45 C of charge to travel through the circuit? Answer
12 3 A circuit has 2.5 A of current. How much charge travels through the circuit after 4s? Answer
13 Each battery has two terminals which are conductors. The terminals are used to connect an external circuit allowing the movement of charge. Batteries Positive Terminal Batteries convert chemical energy to electrical energy which maintains the potential difference. The chemical reaction acts like an escalator, carrying charge up to a higher voltage. Negative Terminal Click here for a Battery Voltage Simulation from PhET
14 Reviewing Basic Circuits The circuit cannot have gaps. The bulb had to be between the wire and the terminal. A voltage difference is needed to make the bulb light. The bulb still lights regardless of which side of the battery you place it on. As you watch the video, be ready to answer the below questions: What is going on in the circuit? What is the role of the battery? How are the circuits similar? different? Click here for video using the circuit simulator from PhET
15 Batteries and Current The battery pushes current through the circuit. A battery acts like a pump, pushing charge through the circuit. It is the circuit's energy source. Charges do not experience an electrical force unless there is a difference in electrical potential (voltage).therefore, batteries have a potential difference between their terminals. The positive terminal is at a higher voltage than the negative terminal. click here for a video from Veritasium's Derek on current How did the voltage affect current? The greater the voltage, the greater the current.
16 Conductors Return to Table of Contents
17 Conductors Some conductors "conduct" better or worse than others. Reminder: conducting means a material allows for the free flow of electrons. The flow of electrons is just another name for current. Another way to look at it is that some conductors resist current to a greater or lesser extent. We call this resistance, R. Resistance is measured in ohms which is noted by the Greek symbol omega (Ω) How will resistance affect current? Click here to run another PhET simulation
18 Current vs Resistance & Voltage Raising resistance reduces current and raising voltage increases current. We can combine these relationships in what is named "Ohm's Law": The units for Ohm's Law are Amperes (A): Solving Ohm's Law for Resistance or Voltage OR click here for a Veritasium music video on electricity
19 Current vs Resistance & Voltage Raising resistance reduces current and raising voltage increases current. However, this relationship is linear in only what we call Ohmic materials. If the relationship is not linear, it is a non-ohmic material. Voltage Non-Ohmic Ohmic Current
20 4 A flashlight has a resistance of 25 Ω and is connected by a wire to a 120 V source of voltage. What is the current in the flashlight? Answer
21 5 How much voltage is needed in order to produce a 0.70 A current through a 490 Ω resistor? Answer
22 6 What is the resistance of a rheostat coil, if 0.05 A of current flows through it when 6 V is applied across it? Answer
23 Electrical Power Power is defined as work per unit time And we know Substitute into the power equation for We also know Substitute into the power equation for What happens if the current is increased? What happens if the voltage is decreased?
24 Electrical Power Let's think about this another way... The water at the top has GPE & KE. As the water falls, it loses GPE and the wheel gets turned, doing work.when the water falls to the bottom it is now slower, having done work.
25 Electrical Power Electric circuits are similar. A charge falls from high voltage to low voltage. In the process of falling energy may be used (light bulb, run a motor, etc). What is the unit of Power?
26 Power Since we started with the same definition of power that was used in Mechanics, and derived the power expression for circuits: Where work is measured in Joules (J) and time is measured in seconds (s) the unit of power is Joules per second (J/s). In honor of James Watt, who made critical contributions in developing efficient steam engines, the unit of power is known as a Watt (W). We use the same units for electrical power as mechanical power.
27 Electrical Power How can we re-write electrical power by using Ohm's Law? (electrical power) (Ohm's Law) Substitute Ohm's Law into Electrical Power, replacing I
28 Electrical Power Is there yet another way to rewrite this? can be rewritten as (electrical power) (Ohm's Law) Substitute this form of Ohm's Law into electrical power, replacing V
29 7 A toy car's electric motor has a resistance of 17 Ω; find the power delivered to it by a 6-V battery. Answer
30 8 What is the power consumption of a flash light bulb that draws a current of 0.28 A when connected to a 6 V battery? Answer
31 9 A 30Ω toaster consumes 560 W of power: how much current is flowing through the toaster? Answer
32 10 When 30 V is applied across a resistor it generates 600 W of heat: what is the magnitude of its resistance? Answer
33 Resistivity and Resistance Return to Table of Contents
34 "Pipe" size How could the wire in the circuit affect the current? If wire is like a pipe, and current is like water that flows through the pipe... if there were pipes with water in them, what could we do to the pipes to change the speed of the water (the current)?
35 "Pipe" size Change the cross-sectional area of the pipe. making it bigger will allow more water to flow Change the length of the pipe. increasing the length will increase the time it takes for the water to get to the end of its trip
36 Resistivity & Resistance Every conductor "conducts" electric charge to a greater or lesser extent. The last example also applies to conductors like copper wire. Decreasing the length (L) or increasing the cross-sectional area (A) would increase conductivity. The inverse of conductivity is called resistivity. Each material has a different resistivity. Resistivity is abbreviated using the Greek letter rho (ρ). Combining what we know about A, L, and ρ, we can find a conductor's total resistance.
37 Resistivity & Resistance Resistance, R, is measured in Ohms (Ω). Ω is the Greek letter Omega. Cross-sectional area, A, is measured in m 2 Length, L, is measured in m Resistivity, ρ, is measured in Ωm Materials with a low resistivity are preferred for making conducting wires in circuits.
38 Resistance What is the resistance of a good conductor? Low; low resistance means that electric charges are free to move in a conductor. Click here for a PhET simulation about Resistance
39 Resistivities of Common Conductors Material Silver Copper Gold Aluminum Tungsten Iron Platinum Mercury Nichrome Resistivity (10-8 Ωm)
40 11 Which of the following groups of materials are listed in order of best conductor to worst conductor? Select two answers. Material Resistivity (10-8 Ωm) A Iron, Copper, Silver B Iron, Platinum, Mercury Silver Copper Gold Aluminum Tungsten Iron Answer C Platinum, Gold, Copper Platinum Mercury Nichrome D Aluminum, Tungsten, Nichrome
41 12 What is the resistance of a 2 m long copper wire with a cross-sectional area of 0.2 mm 2? Answer
42 2r 13 The following resistors are made of the same material. Rank them from greatest resistance to least resistance. L 2r 2L r L r 2L R w R x R y R z A R x > R w > R z > R y Answer B R z > R y > R x > R w C R y > R z > R w > R x D R y > R w > R z > R x
43 14 What diameter of 100 m long copper wire would have a resistance of 0.10 Ω? Answer
44 15 The length of a copper wire is cut in half. By what factor does the resistance change? A 1/4 B 1/2 C 2 D 4 Answer
45 16 The radius of a copper wire is doubled. By what factor does the resistivity change? A 1/4 B 1/2 C 1 D 2 Answer
46 Circuit Diagrams Return to Table of Contents
47 Circuit Diagrams Drawing realistic pictures of circuits can be very difficult. For this reason, we have common symbols to represent each piece. Resistor Battery Wire Circuit diagrams do not show where each part is physically located.
48 Circuit Diagrams Draw a simple circuit that has a 9 V battery with a 3 Ω resistor across its terminals. What is the magnitude and direction of the current? Answer Conventional current flows from the positive terminal to the negative terminal.
49 Circuit Diagrams There are two ways to add a second resistor to the circuit. Series Parallel R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 V All charges must move through both resistors to get to the negative terminal. V Charges pass through either R 1 or R 2 but not both.
50 Circuit Diagrams Are the following sets of resistors in series or parallel? R 1 R 1 V R 2 V R 2 Answer
51 Equivalent Resistance Resistors and voltage from batteries determine the current. Circuits can be redrawn as if there were only a single resistor and battery.by reducing the circuit this way, the circuit becomes easier to study. The process of reducing the resistors in a circuit is called finding the equivalent resistance (R eq ). R 1 R 2 V
52 Series Circuits: Equivalent Resistance R 1 R 2 What happens to the current in the circuit to the right? V
53 Series Circuits: Equivalent Resistance R 1 R 2 The current passing through all parts of a series circuit is the same. For example: I = I 1 = I 2 V
54 Series Circuits: Equivalent Resistance R 1 R 2 What happens to the voltage as it moves around the circuit? V
55 Series Circuits: Equivalent Resistance R 1 R 2 The sum of the voltage drops across each of the resistors in a series circuit equals the voltage of the battery. V For example: V = V 1 + V 2
56 Series Circuits: Equivalent Resistance If V = V 1 + V 2 + V substitute Ohm's Law solved for V is: V = IR IR = I 1 R 1 + I 2 R 2 + I 3 R 3 IR = IR 1 + IR 2 + IR 3 but since current (I) is the same everywhere in a series circuit, I = I 1 = I 2 = I 3 R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R Now divide by I To find the equivalent resistance (R eq ) of a series circuit, add the resistance of all the resistors.if you add more resistors to a series circuit, what happens to the resistance?
57 17 What is the equivalent resistance in this circuit? R 1 = 5Ω R 2 = 3Ω Answer V = 9 V
58 18 What is the total current at any spot in the circuit? R 1 = 5Ω R 2 = 3Ω Answer V = 9 V
59 19 What is the voltage drop across R 1? R 1 = 5Ω R 2 = 3Ω Answer V = 9 V
60 20 What is the voltage drop across R 2? R 1 = 5Ω R 2 = 3Ω Answer V = 9 V hint: A good way to check your work is to see if the voltage drop across all resistors equals the total voltage in the circuit.
61 21 How much power is used by R 1? R 1 = 5Ω R 2 = 3Ω Answer V = 9 V
62 Parallel Circuits: Equivalent Resistance R 1 What happens to the current in the circuit to the right? R 2 V
63 Parallel Circuits: Equivalent Resistance R 1 R 2 The sum of the currents through each of the resistors in a parallel circuit equals the current of the battery. V For example: I = I 1 + I 2
64 Parallel Circuits: Equivalent Resistance R 1 What happens to the voltage as it moves around the circuit? R 2 V
65 Parallel Circuits: Equivalent Resistance R 1 R 2 The voltage across all the resistors in a parallel circuit is the same. V For example: V = V 1 = V 2
66 Parallel Circuits: Equivalent Resistance If I = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 Rewrite Ohm's Law for I and substitute for each resistor V R = V 1 R 1 + V 2 R 2 + V 3 R 3 Also, since V = V 1 = V 2 = V 3, we can substitute V for any other voltage V R = V R 1 + V R 2 + V R 3 Voltage is a common factor, so factor it out! V R 1 = V ( R R R 3 ( Divide by V to eliminate voltage from the equation R eq R 2 = R 1 R 3 If you add more resistors in parallel, what will happen to the resistance of the circuit?
67 Parallel Circuits: Equivalent Resistance = + + R eq R 2 R 1 R 3 Adding more resistors will decrease the equivalent resistance of the parallel circuit. Check the math out and you'll see that's true. Conceptually, adding more resistors in parallel gives more paths for the electrons to flow - hence, for a given electric potential, more current will flow which indicates a smaller resistance.
68 22 What is the equivalent resistance in the circuit? R 1 = 3Ω R 2 = 6Ω Answer V = 18V
69 23 What is the voltage drop across R 1? R 1 = 3Ω R 2 = 6Ω Answer V = 18V
70 24 What is the current through R 1? R 1 = 3Ω R 2 = 6Ω Answer V = 18V
71 25 What is the current through R 2? R 1 = 3Ω R 2 = 6Ω Answer V = 18V
72 26 What is the power used by R 1? R 1 = 3Ω R 2 = 6Ω Answer V = 18V
73 27 What is the power used by R 2? R 1 = 3Ω R 2 = 6Ω Answer V = 18V
74 28 What is the total current in this circuit? R 1 = 3Ω R 3 = 4Ω R 2 = 6Ω Answer V = 18V
75 29 What is the voltage drop across R 3? R 1 = 3Ω R 3 = 4Ω R 2 = 6Ω Answer V = 18V
76 30 What is the current though R 1? R 1 = 3Ω R 3 = 4Ω 1 Answer R 2 = 6Ω 2 Answer V = 18V
77 31 Which two of the following sets of resistors have the same equivalent resistance? Select two answers. A 3Ω B 2Ω 6Ω 4Ω Answer C 3Ω 6Ω D 1Ω 1Ω
78 Measurement Return to Table of Contents
79 Voltmeter Voltage is measured with a voltmeter. Voltmeters are connected in parallel and measure the difference in potential between two points. Since circuits in parallel have the same voltage, and a voltmeter has very high resistance, very little current passes through it. This means that it has little effect on the circuit.
80 Ammeter Current is measured using an ammeter. Ammeters are placed in series with a circuit. In order to not interfere with the current, the ammeter has a very low resistance.
81 Multimeter Although there are separate items to measure current and voltage, there are devices that can measure both (one at a time). These devices are called multimeters.multimeters can also measure resistance. Click here for a PhET simulation on circuits
82 32 A group of students prepare an experiment with electric circuits. Which of the following diagrams can be used to measure both current and voltage in the light bulb, L? L A B C D Answer E
83 EMF & Terminal Voltage Return to Table of Contents
84 Electromotive Force R eq A battery is a source of voltage AND a resistor. + r E _ Each battery has a source of electromotive force and internal resistance. Electromotive force (EMF) is the process that carries charge from low to high voltage. Another way to think about it is that EMF is the voltage you measure when no resistance is connected to the circuit.
85 Electromotive Force + r Req! _ Terminal voltage (V T ) is the voltage measured when a voltmeter is across its terminals. If there is no circuit attached, no current flows, and the measurement will equal the EMF. If however a circuit is attached, the internal resistance will result in a voltage drop, and a smaller terminal voltage. (ε - Ir)
86 Terminal Voltage Req We say that the terminal voltage is: + r! _ V T = ε - Ir Terminal voltage is a maximum when there is no current flowing. When solving for equivalent resistance in a circuit, the internal resistance of the battery is considered a series resistor. R EQ = R int + R ext
87 33 When the switch in the below circuit is open, the voltmeter reading is referred to as: A EMF B Current C Power Answer D Terminal Voltage
88 34 When the switch in the below circuit is closed, the voltmeter reading is referred to as: A EMF B Current C Power Answer D Terminal Voltage
89 35 A 6V battery, with an internal resistance of 1.5 Ω, is connected in series to a light bulb with a resistance of 6.8 Ω. What is the current in the circuit? Answer
90 36 A 6 V battery, whose internal resistance 1.5 Ω is connected in series to a light bulb with a resistance of 6.8 Ω. What is the terminal voltage of the battery? Answer
91 37 A 25 Ω resistor is connected across the terminals of a battery whose internal resistance is 0.6 Ω. What is the EMF of the battery if the current in the circuit is 0.75 A? Answer
92 Kirchhoff's Rules Return to Table of Contents
93 Kirchhoff's Rules Up until this point we have been analyzing simple circuits by combining resistors in series and parallel and using Ohm's law. This works for simple circuits but in order analyze more complex circuits we need to use Kirchhoff's Rules which are based on the laws of conservation of charge and energy.
94 Kirchhoff's Rules Kirchhoff's First rule, or junction rule is based on the law of conservation of charge. It states: At any junction point (marked by a dot), the sum of all currents entering the junction point must equal the sum of all the currents exiting the junction. I 1 For example, I 3 I 1 + I 2 = I 3 I 2
95 Kirchhoff's Rules Kirchhoff's Second rule, or loop rule is based on the law of conservation of energy. It states: The sum of all changes in potential around any closed path must equal zero. V 1 V 2 V
96 Kirchhoff's Rules For the clockwise path shown below (in the same direction as the conventional current), Potential is positive leaving the battery, and is negative (drops) across the resistors. If the path were chosen in the V 1 V 2 For example, The sum of the voltage drops is equal to the voltage across the battery. V - V 1 - V 2 =0 OR V = V 1 + V 2 V
97 38 Kirchoff's Junction Rule is based on which conservation law? A Conservation of Charge B Conservation of Energy C Conservation of Momentum Answer D Conservation of Mass
98 39 Kirchoff's Loop Rule is based on which conservation law? A Conservation of Charge B Conservation of Energy C Conservation of Momentum Answer D Conservation of Mass
99 Problem Solving with Kirchhoff's Rules 1. Draw an expected direction of the current for each circuit element. The direction doesn't matter; if it turns out the real direction is in the opposite direction, you'll get a negative value for the current. 2. Label each resistor with a (+) and a (-) sign. The (+) sign is where the drawn current enters the resistor. 3. Apply the junction rule to each junction. You need as many equations as there are unknowns. (You can also use Ohm's Law to reduce the number of unknowns.)
100 Problem Solving with Kirchhoff's Rules 4. Apply the loop rule for each loop. Draw a loop and sum up the voltages in the loop to equal zero. a. If while traversing a loop, you enter the positive side of the resistor, apply a negative sign to the voltage. b. If you enter the negative side of the resistor, apply a positive sign. c. The battery V is positive if you leave the positive terminal with the loop. I 1 I V 1 V 2 5. Solve the equations algebraically. V
101 Problem Solving with Kirchhoff's Rules Find the unknown currents, voltages and resistances in the following circuit: I 2 = 2.6 A R 1 = 5Ω R 2 = 3Ω V 3 = 1.7 V R 4 = 2Ω V = 12 V
102 Problem Solving with Kirchhoff's Rules 1. Draw an expected direction of the current for each circuit element. The direction doesn't matter; if it turns out the real direction is in the opposite direction, you'll net a negative value for the current. I 1 I 2 = 2.6 A R 1 = 5Ω R 2 = 3Ω I 3 V 3 = 1.7 V I 4 R 4 = 2Ω V = 12 V I 2
103 Problem Solving with Kirchhoff's Rules 2. Label each resistor with a (+) and a (-) sign. The (+) sign is where the drawn current enters the resistor. I1 I 2 = 2.6 A R 1 = 5Ω + R 2 = 3Ω I3 + V 3 = 1.7 V I4 - R 4 = 2Ω V = 12 V I2
104 Problem Solving with Kirchhoff's Rules 3. Apply the junction rule to each junction. You need as many equations as there are unknowns. (You can also use Ohm's Law to reduce the number of unknowns.) I1 I 2 = 2.6 A + - J R 1 = 5Ω + R 2 = 3Ω I3 + V 3 = 1.7 V I4 - R 4 = 2Ω J 2 V = 12 V I2
105 Problem Solving with Kirchhoff's Rules 4. Apply the loop rule for each loop. Draw a loop and sum up the voltages in the loop to equal zero. I1 I 2 = 2.6 A + - J R 1 = 5Ω + R 2 = 3Ω L 1 L 2 I3 + V 3 = 1.7 V I4 - R 4 = 2Ω J 2 V = 12 V I2
106 Problem Solving with Kirchhoff's Rules 5. Solve the equations algebraically - input the given values. I1 I2 = 2.6 A + J R1 = 5Ω + R2 = 3Ω L1 L2 I3 + V3 = 1.7 V I4 - R4 = 2Ω J2 V = 12 V I2 Since I 2 and R 2 were both given, we find V 2 = I 2 R 2 = (2.6 A)(3 Ω) = 7.8 V.
107 Problem Solving with Kirchhoff's Rules Continue the algebra: - + I1 - J1 + I2 = 2.6 A - R1 = 5Ω + R2 = 3Ω L1 L2 I3 + V3 = 1.7 V I4 - R4 = 2Ω J2 V = 12 V I2 It's a matter of practice and insight now. Look at equation L 2. We can solve that for I 4. I 4 = -2.1 A. No problem, it just tells us that I 4 actually goes up, not down! Plug that value for I 4 into equation L 1 to find I 1. I 1 = 0.5 A. Use equation J 2 to find I 3. I 3 = 0.5 A.
108 Problem Solving with Kirchhoff's Rules A table is a great way to keep track of your work. The givens are in red ink. We've now found all the currents, and we found V 2. Put them in the table (in light blue). Resistor Current (A) Voltage (V) Resistance (Ω) R R R R Now it's just a matter of using Ohm's Law to fill out the rest of the table. The complete solution is on the next slide.
109 Problem Solving with Kirchhoff's Rules Results Resistor Current (A) Voltage (V) Resistance (Ω) R R R R
110 Problem Solving with Kirchhoff's Rules Find the unknowns in the following circuit. You can remove each box to check your work. The complete solution is shown on the next slide.???? R 3 = 2 Ω? I 3 = 10 A V 3 = 20 V R 1 = 10 Ω R 2 = 23 Ω R 4 = 3 Ω I 1 = 7 A I 2 = 3 A I 4 = 10 A?? V 1 = 70 V V 2 = 70 V V 4 = 30 V V = 120 V Hint: You don't need Kirchoff's rules - just circuit knowledge and Ohm's Law.
111 Problem Solving with Kirchhoff's Rules The found values are shown in light blue. R 3 = 2 Ω I 3 = 10 A V 3 = 20 V R 1 = 10 Ω I 1 = 7 A V 1 = 70 V R 2 = 23 Ω I 2 = 3 A V 2 = 70 V R 4 = 3 Ω I 4 = 10 A V 4 = 30 V V = 120 V
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