# ELECTRICITY & CIRCUITS

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1 ELECTRICITY & CIRCUITS Reason and justice tell me there s more love for humanity in electricity and steam than in chastity and vegetarianism. Anton Chekhov

2 LIGHTNING, PART 2 Electricity is really just organized lightning George Carlin Could you really power a city by harnessing the electrical power of lightning?

3 ELECTRICITY VS ELECTROSTATICS Electrostatics is the study of charges at rest Electricity puts those charges in motion In this unit, we will learn how to put charges to work in simple circuitry

4 ELECTRICITY Until 1800, electric phenomena were little more than a matter of intellectual curiosity Finally, in 1800, Alessandro Volta invented the electric battery the first reliable source of electric energy For the first time ever, we could produce a steady flow of electric current This discovery transformed civilization and opened a new era run on electrical power

5 + BATTERIES & VOLTAGE Batteries supply electric energy to a system They do NOT create or even supply electric charge, they push charge Batteries use a chemical reaction to create a potential difference across its positive and negative terminals

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8 ELECTRIC CURRENT Electric current is the flow of electric charge More accurately, it s how much charge passes through in a given amount of time I = Q/ t Measured in amperes (A) 1 A = 1 C/s

9 EXAMPLE 1 A steady current of 2.5 A flows in a wire for 4.0 min. a) How much charge passed through any point in the circuit? b) How many electrons would this be? a) Ans. Q = 600 C b) Ans electrons

10 SANITY CHECK What s wrong with each of the pictures below? No loop for current to flow around Loop, but no potential difference to push charge All good!

11 ELECTRIC CURRENT Conductors contain many free electrons So it s actually the negatively charged electrons that flow through the wire, from negative to positive

12 ELECTRIC CURRENT When the conventions of positive and negative charge were invented over 200 years ago, it was thought that positive charge flowed in the wire Current, sometimes referred to as conventional current, is therefore said to run from positive to negative The idea stuck (sorry)

13 OHM S LAW In the early 19 th Century, Georg Simon Ohm established experimentally that the current in a wire in proportional to the potential difference applied to its ends

14 OHM S LAW I = 0.8 A V = 6 V I = 1.6 A V = 12 V

15 OHM S LAW I = A V = 612 V V = 612 V I = A

16 OHM S LAW

17 OHM S LAW

18 OHM S LAW V/I = constant (based on how you build your circuit) That constant tells you circuit s resistance (R) to electric current Resistance is measured in V = IR ohms (Ω)

19 EXAMPLE 2 A small flashlight bulb draws 300 ma from its 1.5-V battery. a) What is the resistance of the bulb? b) If the voltage dropped to 1.2 V, how much would the current change? a) Ans. R = 5.0 Ω b) Ans. I = 0.24 A

20 EXAMPLE 3 A hair dryer draws 9.0 A when plugged into a 120-V line a) What is its resistance? b) How much charge passes through in 15 min? a) Ans. R = 13.3 Ω b) Ans. Q = 8100 C

21 OHM S LAW All electronic devices offer resistance to the flow of current Anything that offers resistance eats up electric energy often (read inevitably) by converting it to heat energy sometimes in order to do work

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23 RESISTIVITY Which would you expect to have more resistance? Thick wire or thin wire? Long wire or short wire? Conductor or semiconductor? R = ρl/a ρ is the resistivity of the material Measured in Ωm

24 RESISTIVITY Material Resistivity, ρ (Ωm) Conductors Silver Copper Gold Aluminium Tungsten Iron Platinum Mercury Nichrome (alloy of Ni, Fe, Cr) Semiconductors Carbon (graphite) (3 60) 10-5 Germanium (1 500) 10-3 Silicon Insulators Glass Hard rubber

25 Material Resistivity, ρ (Ωm) Conductors Silver Copper Gold Aluminium Tungsten Iron Platinum Mercury Nichrome Semiconductors Carbon (graphite) (3 60) 10-5 Germanium (1 500) 10-3 Silicon Insulators Glass Hard rubber EXAMPLE 4 A 20-m-long wire is 2.1 mm thick and has a resistance of 0.14 Ω. What is the wire probably made of? Ans. Gold

26 SANITY CHECK A wire of resistance R is stretched uniformly until it is twice its original length. What happens to the resistance? If length L doubles then the cross-sectional area A halves, so that the volume (V = AL) of the wire remains the same. Resistance would increase by a factor of 4.

27 SUPERCONDUCTORS Even the best conductors put up some resistance to electric current The resistivity of a material depends somewhat on temperature Generally, resistivity increases with temperature Some materials, once cooled below a particular critical temperature, will offer exactly zero resistance Materials in such a state are said to be superconducting

28 POWER Electric energy is useful because it can be easily transformed into other forms of energy motors turn it into mechanical work electric heaters, stoves, toasters, and hair dryers turn it into thermal energy lightbulbs turn it into light and thermal energy P = IV = I 2 R = V 2 /R

29 EXAMPLE 5 Calculate the resistance of a 40-W car headlight designed for 12 V Ans. R = 3.6 Ω

30 Building Circuits

31 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

32 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS Wire Switch DC Battery AC Voltage Source Resistor Lamp Ground V Voltmeter Capacitor A Ammeter

33 SERIES & PARALLEL I R 1 R 2 When two or more resistors are connected end to end, they are said to be connected in series R 3 Any charge that passes through R 1 will also pass through R 2 and then R 3, etc. R 4 Hence, the same current I will pass through each resistor

34 SERIES & PARALLEL I R 1 R 2 R 4 R 3 Each resistor eats up some of the energy supplied by the battery i.e. the voltage will drop across each resistor Drop by how much? Ohm s Law tells us: V 1 = IR 1, V 2 = IR 2, V 3 = IR 3, etc. V = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 + V 4

35 SERIES & PARALLEL V = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 + V 4 = IR 1 + IR 2 + IR 3 + IR 4 I R 1 R 2 R 3 The battery doesn t know the difference between one big resistor and several small resistors working together V = IR eq R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + R 4 R 4 Series

36 SERIES & PARALLEL Resistors connected in parallel will split the current into separate branches The forks in the road where current can split off into multiple paths are called junctions I = I 1 + I 2 + I 3

37 SERIES & PARALLEL When resistors are connected in parallel, each experiences the same voltage Parallel

38 SERIES & PARALLEL Series Parallel V V = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 + constant I constant I = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 + R R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 +

39 SANITY CHECK a) The lightbulbs are identical and have identical resistance. Which configuration produces more light? b) Which way do you think the headlights of a car are wired? a) The parallel combo has less resistance than the series, so it will be brighter in parallel b) In parallel, because if one goes out, the other light can stay lit

40 EXAMPLE 6 Two circuits both are built from one 24-V battery and two 100-Ω resistors. In the first circuit the resistors are connected in (a) series, in the second they are in (b) parallel. What is the current through each resistor and what is the equivalent resistance of each circuit? a) Ans. I = A; R eq = 200 Ω b) Ans. I = 0.24 A thru each resistor; R eq = 50 Ω

41 KIRCHHOFF S RULES So far, we ve been able to find the currents in circuits by combining resistances in series and parallel and using Ohm s Law Sometimes circuits are too complicated for this type analysis In the mid-nineteenth century, G. R. Kirchhoff invented two rules for dealing with such complicated circuits

42 KIRCHHOFF S RULES The rules are really just convenient applications of conservations of charge and energy 1. Junction Rule: at any junction, the sum of currents in equals the sum of currents out (conservation of charge)

43 KIRCHHOFF S RULES 2. Loop Rule: the sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of a circuit must be zero (conservation of energy)

44 EXAMPLE 7 Calculate the currents I 1, I 2, and I 3 in each of the branches of the circuit Ans. I 1 = A; I 2 = 0.62 A; I 3 = 0.44 A 12 V I 2 30 Ω I 1 20 Ω 30 V I 3 40 Ω

45 CAPACITORS IN CIRCUITS Capacitors in parallel: The junction rule tells us that current in equals current out, and by extension, charge in equals charge out Q = Q 1 + Q 2 + Q 3 Combine with Q = CV C eq = C 1 + C 2 + C 3 Parallel

46 CAPACITORS IN CIRCUITS Capacitors in series: Conservation of energy tells us that electric potential supplied by the battery will equal the sum of the potentials used up by circuit components V = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 Combine with Q = CV Series

47 EXAMPLE 8 Determine the capacitance of a single capacitor that will have the same effect as the combination shown Ans. C eq = 0.29 µf

48 LIGHTNING, PART 2 Electricity is really just organized lightning George Carlin Could you really power a city by harnessing the electrical power of lightning?

49 LIGHTNING, PART TWO The average lightning bolt can deliver roughly 10,000 A of current in the span of only 100 µs. The potential difference needed for lightning to strike is dependent on the breakdown voltage of air. Given the average distances between the storm cloud and ground, it would require around 150 MV for lightning to strike. How many joules of energy are contained in a bolt of lightning? Ans. E = 150 million joules

50 LIGHTNING, PART II According to eia.gov, how many joules of energy does the average American household use per day? Ans. P avg = J/day

51 LIGHTNING, PART TOO For how many days could a single bolt of lightning power a home? Ans. 1.4 days

52 LIGHTNING, PART DOS Catatumbo, Venezuela is called the Lightning Capital of the World There are thunderstorms almost every night, and these storms can generate a flash of lightning every two seconds. Let s assume the storms last for 12 hour per day. How many homes could you power for the day from one night of Catatumbo thunderstorms? Ans. 30,000 homes

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