Electric Charge. Electric Charge ( q ) unbalanced charges positive and negative charges. n Units Coulombs (C)

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1 Electric Charge Electric Charge ( q ) unbalanced charges positive and negative charges n Units Coulombs (C)

2 Electric Charge How do objects become charged?

3 Types of materials Conductors materials in which electric charges move freely

4 Types of materials Conductors materials in which electric charges move freely Insulators materials in which electric charges do not move freely

5 Types of materials Conductors materials in which electric charges move freely Insulators materials in which electric charges do not move freely Semiconductors materials with electrical properties between those of conductors and insulators

6 Types of materials Conductors materials in which electric charges move freely Insulators materials in which electric charges do not move freely Semiconductors materials with electrical properties between those of conductors and insulators Superconductors materials in which electrical charges move without resistance

7 Polarization (Induced charge separation) Only electrons move so that the object is still neutral but polar. Any charged object will attract a neutral object.

8 Polarization (Induced charge separation)

9 Polarization (Induced charge separation)

10 Polarization (Induced charge separation)

11 Friction Transfer of electrons from one object to another due to rubbing

12 Conduction 1. Contact between two objects 2. Electric charge (electrons) are transferred 3. Object acquires same charge 4. Excess charge will distribute over surface of a conductor.

13 Conduction

14 Induction 1. No contact between two objects 2. Object is charged during grounding 3. Object acquires opposite charge

15 Properties of Atomic particles Particle Mass Charge Electron Proton Neutron me = 9.11 x kg mp = x kg mn = x kg q = -e q = x C q = +e q = x C q = 0 q = 0 C

16 Conservation of electric charge The total electric charge of an isolated system remains constant. A balloon has gained 2500 electrons after being rubbed with wool. What is the charge on the balloon? What is the charge on the wool?

17 Conservation of electric charge The total electric charge of an isolated system remains constant. A balloon has gained 2500 electrons after being rubbed with wool. What is the charge on the balloon? What is the charge on the wool? 2500 e 1.60 x C 1 e = 4.0 x C balloon = x C and wool = x C

18 Conservation of electric charge A rubber rod acquires a charge of -4.5 μc. How many excess electrons does this represent? Which of the following charges are NOT possible for an object to have? (A) -3.2 x C (B) 4.8 x C (C) 5.6 x C (D) 1.6 x C (E) 5.6 C

19 Conservation of electric charge A rubber rod acquires a charge of -4.5 μc. How many excess electrons does this represent? 4.5 x 10-6 C 1 e 1.60 x C = x 1013 e Which of the following charges are NOT possible for an object to have? (A) -3.2 x C (B) 4.8 x C (C) 5.6 x C (D) 1.6 x C (E) 5.6 C 2 e 3 e 3.5 x e e.1 e

20 Electric Force (Electrostatic Force, Coulomb Force)! F E = k q q 1 2 E r 2 Charles-Augustin de Coulomb

21 Electric Force (Electrostatic Force, Coulomb Force) Use the electric force to estimate the speed of the electron in a hydrogen atom. r = 5.29 x m

22 Electric Force (Electrostatic Force, Coulomb Force) Use the electric force to estimate the speed of the electron in a hydrogen atom. r = 5.29 x m

23 Electric Force (Electrostatic Force, Coulomb Force) What is the magnitude of charge on each sphere? (Assume both spheres have same charge) 5

24 Electric Force (Electrostatic Force, Coulomb Force) What is the magnitude of charge on each sphere? (Assume both spheres have same charge)

25 Superposition of Electric Forces and Electric Fields Determine the net electrostatic force on sphere q 1.

26 Superposition of Electric Forces and Electric Fields

27 Superposition of Electric Forces and Electric Fields Two small charges are placed as shown below. Where can a third charge of +q be placed so that the net force acting on it is zero?

28 Superposition of Electric Forces and Electric Fields Two small charges are placed as shown below. Where can a third charge of +q be placed so that the net force acting on it is zero? F 13 = F 23 k q q 1 3 = k q q 2 3 r 2 r 2 k (q 1 )( q 3 ) (x) 2 = k (q 2 )( q 3 ) (1.0 m - x) 2 (q 2 ) (q 1 ) (1.0 m - x)2 = = +1q (x) 2 +4q (+1/4)x 2 = (1.0 m -x) 2 = take square root = (1/2)x = 1.0 m - x x = 2/3 (.67 m from q 1 ) x = distance of q 3 from q 1 Note the point of equilibrium does not depend on the charge of q 3, but the other two charges

29 Superposition of Electric Forces and Electric Fields Two small charges are placed as shown below. Where can a third charge of +q be placed so that the net force acting on it is zero?

30 Superposition of Electric Forces and Electric Fields Two small charges are placed as shown below. Where can a third charge of +q be placed so that the net force acting on it is zero? F 13 = F 23 k q q 1 3 = k q q 2 3 r 2 r 2 k (q 1 )( q 3 ) (x) 2 = k (q 2 )( q 3 ) (1.0 m - x) 2 (q 2 ) (q 1 ) (1.0 m - x)2 = = +1q (x) 2-4q -(1/4)x 2 = (1.0 m -x) 2 = take square root = -(1/2)x = 1.0 m - x x = 2.0 m from q 1 (1.0 m to the right of q 2 )

31 Superposition of Electric Forces and Electric Fields The charges on three identical metal spheres are -6.0 μc. They are placed on the x and y axes as shown. Calculate the net electric force acting on q 1.

32 Superposition of Electric Forces and Electric Fields The charges on three identical metal spheres are -6.0 μc. They are placed on the x and y axes as shown. Calculate the net electric force acting on q 1.

33 Applications of Electrostatic Force

34 Model of Current A parallel plate capacitor is charged. What would happen if the two plates were connected with a wire?

35 Model of Current A parallel plate capacitor is charged. What would happen if the two plates were connected with a wire?

36 Model of Current Further study shows that while the discharge is taking place, the wire gets warm, a light bulb can be made to glow, and a compass needle can be deflected. These are indicators of current flow in the wire.

37 Model of Current The current model of a metal is that it consists of a three-dimensional lattice of positively charged ions (lattice ions) surrounded by a sea of delocalized electrons (free/conduction electrons).

38 Model of Current

39 Electric Circuit

40 Electric Circuit Emf (ε ) is the maximum potential difference of the battery. The positive terminal is 9 volts higher than the negative terminal.

41 Electric Circuit

42 Cells and Batteries

43 Electric Current Electric Current the rate of flow of electric charge Units A (Ampere) = C/s Δq I= t

44 Current in a Resistor

45 Conventional Current vs. Electron Flow

46 Electric Circuits Closed circuit complete pathway for current

47 Electric Circuits Open circuit incomplete pathway for current break in circuit infinite resistance

48 Electric Circuits Short circuit circuit with little to no resistance extremely high current overheating

49 Resistance Resistance ratio of potential difference applied across a piece of material to the current through the material n Units Ω (Ohms) I = ΔV R

50 Ohm s Law

51 Conductivity

52 Resistivity and Conductivity For a wire conductor: A short fat cold wire is the best conductor A long hot skinny wire has the most resistance R = ρl A

53 Power Power energy per unit time (rate of energy use or production) Units W (Watts) = J/s

54 Power Kilowatt-hour (kwh) amount of energy not power

55 Circuit Schematics

56 Ammeter: measures current Ammeter Placement: circuit must be broken to insert ammeter in series Ideal ammeter: has zero resistance so it will not affect current flowing through it

57 Voltmeter Voltmeter: measures potential difference Placement: must be placed in parallel to measure potential difference between two points Ideal voltmeter: has infinite resistance so it will not allow any current to flow through it and disrupt circuit

58 Meters in a Circuit Which is an ammeter and which is a voltmeter?

59 Voltmeter and Ammeter

60 Galvanometer

61 Series & Parallel Circuits

62 Series & Parallel Analogies

63 Series Circuits

64 Series Circuits

65 Parallel Circuits R eq = R 1 i R 2 R 1 + R 2

66 Kirchoff s Junction Law

67

68

69 Equivalent Resistance Series Circuit

70 Equivalent Resistance n Parallel Circuit R eq = R 1 i R 2 R 1 + R 2

71 Equivalent Resistance

72 Equivalent Resistance

73 Equivalent Resistance

74 Equivalent Resistance 1 R T = 1 R R 2 = Ω Ω = 4.12 Ω R T = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 = 4.00 Ω Ω Ω = Ω

75 Equivalent Resistance

76 Equivalent Resistance R T = R 1 + R 2 = 5.0 Ω Ω = 10.0 Ω 1 R T = 1 R R 2 = Ω Ω = 3.3 Ω R T = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 = 5.0 Ω Ω Ω = 9.8 Ω

77 Equivalent Resistance Find the voltage drop across and the current through each resistor.

78 Equivalent Resistance I T = V T R T = 24 V 240 Ω =.10 A V 1 = I 1 i R 1 V 1 = (.10 A)(110 Ω) V 1 = 11 V V 2 = V T - V 1 = 24 V - 11 V = 13 V I 2 = V 2 R 2 = 13 V 180 Ω =.072 A V 2 = V 3 = 13 V I 3 = I 3A = I 3B = I T - I 2 =.10 A A =.028 A V 3A = I 3A i R 3A = (.028 A)(220 Ω) = 6.16 V V 3B = I 3B i R 3B = (.028 A)(250 Ω) = 7 V

79 Light bulbs in Compound Circuits Compare the brightness of the light bulbs in each case.

80 Light bulbs in Compound Circuits Compare the brightness of the light bulbs in each case. Bulbs are expected brightness - same V - I T high since R T low A brightest (full current & greater V) B = C (expected brightness) Both bulbs are very dim - split V - I T low since R T high

81 Light bulbs in Compound Circuits

82 Switches in Circuits 1. How will the ammeter reading change when the switch is opened?

83 Switches in Circuits 1. How will the ammeter reading change when the switch is opened? Reading (current) will decrease since total resistance increases.

84 Switches in Circuits 1. How will the ammeter reading change when the switch is closed?

85 Switches in Circuits 1. How will the ammeter reading change when the switch is closed? Reading (current) will increase since total resistance decreases.

86 Internal Resistance of Batteries The battery has some internal resistance. As the external resistance decreases, more and more of the energy supplied by the battery is used up inside the battery. In a battery, internal resistance is due to the chemicals within. In a generator, the internal resistance is the resistance of the wires and other components within.

87 Internal Resistance in Batteries Electromotive force (emf or ε or V T ) total energy per unit charge supplied by the battery Units V or J/C Terminal Voltage (V term ) potential difference across the terminals of the battery Ideal Behavior: V term always equals emf since no internal resistance

88 Internal Resistance in Batteries Real Behavior: Think of battery as internal E and tiny internal resistor r V term only equals the emf when no current is flowing E is split between R and r When R>>r, V term emf As R decreases, V r increases and V R decreases

89 Internal Resistance in Batteries

90 Internal Resistance in Batteries

91 Internal Resistance in Batteries A resistor is connected to a 12 V source and a switch. With the switch open, a voltmeter reads the potential difference across the battery as 12 V yet with the switch closed, the voltmeter reads only 9.6 V and an ammeter reads 0.40 A for the current through the resistor. Sketch an appropriate circuit diagram and calculate the internal resistance of the source.

92 Internal Resistance in Batteries A resistor is connected to a 12 V source and a switch. With the switch open, a voltmeter reads the potential difference across the battery as 12 V yet with the switch closed, the voltmeter reads only 9.6 V and an ammeter reads 0.40 A for the current through the resistor. Sketch an appropriate circuit diagram and calculate the internal resistance of the source. ε = 12 V V term = 9.6 V OPEN I = 0 A CLOSED ε = V term + Ir I = 0.40 A ε = V term V term = ε - Ir ε = 12 V r = ε - V term I = 12 V V.40 A = 6 Ω

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