In this unit, we will examine the movement of electrons, which we call CURRENT ELECTRICITY.


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1 Recall: Chemistry and the Atom! What are the 3 subatomic Where are they found in the particles? atom? What electric charges do they have? How was a positive ion created? How was a negative ion created? Remember: Only move! are always stuck in the nucleus and! All matter is made up of and some subatomic particles ( and ) have. What is electric charge? Electric charge is a property. There are two types of electric charges, positive and negative. An object that has an electric charge will experience a (attraction) or (repulsion) when close to another object with an electric charge. Electric force is how much push or pull there is between charged object. How is electric charge measured? The amount of electric charge (+ or ) is measured in One Coulomb of electric charge is equal to the charge of. What is electric current? Electric current (or electricity) is the. Current is measured as the rate of movement of electrons, we measure it by counting how many electrons moved past a specific point (in a wire) in. Current is measured in where Current is measured using an. What rule did we learn about the ammeter using the Phet simulations? In this unit, we will examine the movement of electrons, which we call CURRENT ELECTRICITY.
2 How electrons move is determined by three factors: a) how much push or pull the electrons have b) how many electrons are moving past a point in one second c) how difficult it is for electrons to move (A) VOLTAGE What is voltage? We know that to make electrons move, they have to be pushed and/or pulled. When this happens, they are forced along a metal wire in one direction (away from a negative and towards a positive). The strength of this push on each electron is called the and it is measured in using a. Connecting Batteries in a Circuit Batteries (or chemical cells) can be connected in TWO ways: Series circuit Only pathway for e to travel Parallel Circuit than one pathway for e to travel Voltages Lab Summary! If cells are connected in series If cells are connected in parallel Why? Why?
3 (B) CURRENT Current is the number of electrons passing a point in a circuit per second ( Current will not flow unless: 1. There is a push or a pull (voltage source) on the electrons 2. There is a complete circuit or pathway for the elections to travel. # of electrons second ) Current is measured in or amperes (A) using an The higher the current, the more electrons are flowing through the wire per second. Note: This does NOT mean that the electrons are moving faster, just that e are moving! Which direction does current flow? When electricity was first investigated, scientist guessed that electricity was the result of a flow of positive charge and thought protons where the particles that moved. We now know this is not true! Electrons are the particles that move in the circuit. However, this means there are two ways to describe current. 1. Conventional current: The direction protons would move in a circuit, from positive terminal to the negative terminal. 2. Electron flow: The direction the. This means electrons go out the negative terminal and towards the positive terminal of the battery. In this course, all reference to current refer to electron flow unless it specifically says conventional current. Converting Current Units Most current we measure will be less than 1.0 A, so we will need to convert to milliamps (ma) 1 A = 1000 ma To convert: Convert 4 A into milliamps Practice: a) 3.5 A = ma b) 35 ma = A c) 0.5 A = ma
4 Current Lab Summary A) Bulbs in SERIES 1. Voltage: The voltage is evenly between all the bulbs and as a result, they all burn brightly Bulbs are not as bright as when as single bulb was connected. Why? 2. Current: Electrons must pass through bulb as only route and as a result each bulb the current B) Bulbs in PARALLEL: 1. Voltage: With of voltage when a bulb is added, each bulb received electrons with all their and as a result the bulbs remain 2. Current: Electrons have routes and as a result more electrons will pass the ammeter each second, causing current to. 3) RESISTANCE What is Resistance? Resistance is the to electron movement. It s a push or pull in the direction opposite of the moving electron, which makes it more difficult for electrons to move. This means that the same voltage (push) will not always produce the same current due to resistance. Resistance is measured in ( ) using an.
5 What can cause resistance? Any material that decreases or opposes the flow of electron in a circuit OR any kind of (object in the circuit where electrons will spend their electric potential energy) in a circuit is called a (because it resists the movement of e) Examples: The can also act as a resistor because the electron interacts with atoms in the wire, causing electrons to pass. Some materials are made of atoms that are more likely to let go of their electrons. This makes the movement of electron (current) easier in these materials. They called. Examples of good conductors are: Other materials are made of atoms that resist letting go of their electrons, which makes movement of electrons more difficult through these materials. They are called. Examples of insulators are: Reading Compressed Carbon Resistors Compressed carbon resistors use to indicate the resistance that they provide Each colour has been given a number value. (see tables to the right) Colour Value Black 0 Brown 1 Red 2 Orange 3 Yellow 4 Green 5 Blue 6 Violet 7 Grey 8 White 9 Colour Uncertainty Ex. Red Black Brown Silver Ex. Green Red Black Gold Silver Absent
6 Ohm s Law Ohm s Law can be expressed as a formula: OHM S LAW Symbols Units Examples (1) An electrical device with a resistance of 3.0 will allow a current of 4.0 amps to flow through. What is the voltage across the device? (4) Determine the missing values in each diagram: R = I = A (2) When a voltage of 120 V is used across an electric heater, a current of 10.0 amps will flow through the heater if the resistance is Diagram B V = V (3) A flashlight that is powered by 3 Volts and uses a bulb with a resistance of 60 will have a current of Amps. I = A (5) What is the voltage across a 50 Ohm resistor if 1200 ma are passing though it?
7 Kirchhoff s Rules for Circuit Analysis From our lab experience we have observed: Current Voltage Total Resistance Series Remains the throughout the entire circuit May change from resistor to resistor Depends on the individual resistance of each circuit component Must to the total voltage provided by the battery Increases with the number of resistors added ( ) Parallel May change from resistor to resistor The total current in each branch of a parallel circuit to the total current of the circuit Voltage remains the across all resistors connected in parallel Appears to decrease as more resistors are added because total current increases Loop Rule The voltage gained at the battery must be lost through the circuit Junction Rule The total current entering a junction (split in the wire) of a circuit must equal the total current leaving the junction. A) Series Circuit
8 B) Parallel Circuit C) Including Ohm s Law 2) I =? 3) R =? 1) VT =? 4) V =? 5) R =? D) Tricky Circuit V1 = 6 V I1 = 3A = V3 = I3 = V0 = 12 V I0 = = 3 RTotal = V2 = I2 = R2 = Special Hints Ohm s Law can be used to find V, I, or R if you know 2 of the 3 values If you have difficulties, always try to imagine yourself as one of the electrons in the circuit. Where are you going? Where do you give your energy away? How many electrons are around you?
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