# physics 4/7/2016 Chapter 31 Lecture Chapter 31 Fundamentals of Circuits Chapter 31 Preview a strategic approach THIRD EDITION

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1 Chapter 31 Lecture physics FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS a strategic approach THIRD EDITION randall d. knight Chapter 31 Fundamentals of Circuits Chapter Goal: To understand the fundamental physical principles that govern electric circuits. Slide 31-2 Chapter 31 Preview Slide

2 Chapter 31 Preview Slide 31-4 Chapter 31 Preview Slide 31-5 Chapter 31 Preview Slide

3 Chapter 31 Preview Slide 31-7 Chapter 31 Preview Slide 31-8 Chapter 31 Reading Quiz Slide

4 Reading Question 31.1 How many laws are named after Kirchhoff? A. 0. B. 1. C. 2. D. 3. E. 4. Slide Reading Question 31.1 How many laws are named after Kirchhoff? A. 0. B. 1. C. 2. D. 3. E. 4. Slide Reading Question 31.2 What property of a real battery makes its potential difference slightly different than that of an ideal battery? A. Short circuit. B. Chemical potential. C. Internal resistance. D. Effective capacitance. E. Inductive constant. Slide

5 Reading Question 31.2 What property of a real battery makes its potential difference slightly different than that of an ideal battery? A. Short circuit. B. Chemical potential. C. Internal resistance. D. Effective capacitance. E. Inductive constant. Slide Reading Question 31.3 In an RC circuit, what is the name of the quantity represented by the symbol τ? A. Period. B. Torque. C. Terminal voltage. D. Time constant. E. Coefficient of thermal expansion. Slide Reading Question 31.3 In an RC circuit, what is the name of the quantity represented by the symbol τ? A. Period. B. Torque. C. Terminal voltage. D. Time constant. E. Coefficient of thermal expansion. Slide

6 Reading Question 31.4 Which of the following are ohmic materials: A. Batteries. B. Wires. C. Resistors. D. Materials a and b. E. Materials b and c. Slide Reading Question 31.4 Which of the following are ohmic materials: A. Batteries. B. Wires. C. Resistors. D. Materials a and b. E. Materials b and c. Slide Reading Question 31.5 The equivalent resistance for a group of parallel resistors is A. Less than any resistor in the group. B. Equal to the smallest resistance in the group. C. Equal to the average resistance of the group. D. Equal to the largest resistance in the group. E. Larger than any resistor in the group. Slide

7 Reading Question 31.5 The equivalent resistance for a group of parallel resistors is A. Less than any resistor in the group. B. Equal to the smallest resistance in the group. C. Equal to the average resistance of the group. D. Equal to the largest resistance in the group. E. Larger than any resistor in the group. Slide Chapter 31 Content, Examples, and QuickCheck Questions Slide Circuit Diagrams The top figure shows a literal picture of a resistor and a capacitor connected by wires to a battery. The bottom figure is a circuit diagram of the same circuit. A circuit diagram is a logical picture of what is connected to what. Slide

8 Circuit Elements Slide Circuit Diagrams A circuit diagram replaces pictures of the circuit elements with symbols. The longer line at one end of the battery symbol represents the positive terminal of the battery. The battery s emf is shown beside the battery. + and symbols, even though somewhat redundant, are shown beside the terminals. Slide QuickCheck 31.1 Does the bulb light? A. Yes. B. No. C. I m not sure. Slide

9 QuickCheck 31.1 Does the bulb light? A. Yes. B. No. Not a complete circuit C. I m not sure. Slide QuickCheck 31.2 The three bulbs are identical and the two batteries are identical. Compare the brightnesses of the bulbs. A. A > B > C. B. A > C > B. C. A > B = C. D. A < B = C. E. A = B = C. Slide QuickCheck 31.2 The three bulbs are identical and the two batteries are identical. Compare the brightnesses of the bulbs. A. A > B > C. B. A > C > B. C. A > B = C. D. A < B = C. E. A = B = C. This question is checking your initial intuition. We ll return to it later. Slide

10 QuickCheck 31.3 The three bulbs are identical and the two batteries are identical. Compare the brightnesses of the bulbs. A. A > B > C. B. A > C > B. C. A > B = C. D. A < B = C. E. A = B = C. Slide QuickCheck 31.3 The three bulbs are identical and the two batteries are identical. Compare the brightnesses of the bulbs. A. A > B > C. B. A > C > B. C. A > B = C. D. A < B = C. E. A = B = C. This question is checking your initial intuition. We ll return to it later. Slide Kirchhoff s Junction Law For a junction, the law of conservation of current requires that: where the Σ symbol means summation. This basic conservation statement is called Kirchhoff s junction law. Slide

11 Kirchhoff s Loop Law For any path that starts and ends at the same point: The sum of all the potential differences encountered while moving around a loop or closed path is zero. This statement is known as Kirchhoff s loop law. Slide Tactics: Using Kirchhoff s Loop Law Slide Tactics: Using Kirchhoff s Loop Law Slide

12 QuickCheck 31.4 The current through the 3 Ω resistor is A. 9 A. B. 6 A. C. 5 A. D. 3 A. E. 1 A. Slide QuickCheck 31.4 The current through the 3 Ω resistor is A. 9 A. B. 6 A. C. 5 A. D. 3 A. E. 1 A. Slide The Basic Circuit The most basic electric circuit is a single resistor connected to the two terminals of a battery. Figure (a) shows a literal picture of the circuit elements and the connecting wires. Figure (b) is the circuit diagram. This is a complete circuit, forming a continuous path between the battery terminals. Slide

13 Analyzing the Basic Circuit Slide Lightbulb Puzzle #1 The figure shows two identical lightbulbs in a circuit. The current through both bulbs is exactly the same! It s not the current that the bulbs use up, it s energy. The battery creates a potential difference, which supplies potential energy to the charges. As the charges move through the lightbulbs, they lose some of their potential energy, transferring the energy to the bulbs. Slide QuickCheck 31.5 The potential difference across the 10 resistor is A. 30 V. B. 20 V. C. 15 V. D. 10 V. E. 5 V. Slide

14 QuickCheck 31.5 The potential difference across the 10 resistor is A. 30 V. B. 20 V. C. 15 V. D. 10 V. E. 5 V. Slide QuickCheck 31.6 What things about the resistors in this circuit are the same for all three? A. Current I. B. Potential difference V. C. Resistance R. D. A and B. E. B and C. Slide QuickCheck 31.6 What things about the resistors in this circuit are the same for all three? A. Current I. B. Potential difference V. C. Resistance R. D. A and B. E. B and C. Slide

15 Energy and Power The power supplied by a battery is: The units of power are J/s or W. The power dissipated by a resistor is: Or, in terms of the potential drop across the resistor: Slide Example 31.2 Delivering Power Slide Power Dissipation in a Resistor A current-carrying resistor dissipates power because the electric force does work on the charges. Slide

16 QuickCheck 31.7 Which resistor dissipates more power? A. The 9 Ω resistor. B. The 1 Ω resistor. C. They dissipate the same power. Slide QuickCheck 31.7 Which resistor dissipates more power? A. The 9 Ω resistor. B. The 1 Ω resistor. C. They dissipate the same power. Slide QuickCheck 31.8 Which has a larger resistance, a 60 W lightbulb or a 100 W lightbulb? A. The 60 W bulb. B. The 100 W bulb. C. Their resistances are the same. D. There s not enough information to tell. Slide

17 QuickCheck 31.8 Which has a larger resistance, a 60 W lightbulb or a 100 W lightbulb? A. The 60 W bulb. B. The 100 W bulb. C. Their resistances are the same. D. There s not enough information to tell. Slide Example 31.3 The Power of Light Slide Example 31.3 The Power of Light Slide

18 QuickCheck 31.9 Which bulb is brighter? A. The 60 W bulb. B. The 100 W bulb. C. Their brightnesses are the same. D. There s not enough information to tell. Slide QuickCheck 31.9 Which bulb is brighter? A. The 60 W bulb. B. The 100 W bulb. C. Their brightnesses are the same. D. There s not enough information to tell. P = I 2 R and both have the same current. Slide Example 31.4 The Power of Sound Slide

19 Kilowatt Hours The product of watts and seconds is joules, the SI unit of energy. However, most electric companies prefers to use the kilowatt hour, to measure the energy you use each month. Examples: A 4000 W electric water heater uses 40 kwh of energy in 10 hours. A 1500 W hair dryer uses 0.25 kwh of energy in 10 minutes. The average cost of electricity in the United States is 10 per kwh (\$0.10/kWh). Slide Lightbulb Puzzle #2 The figure shows three identical lightbulbs in two different circuits. The voltage drop across A is the same as the total voltage drop across both B and C. More current will pass through Bulb A, and it will be brighter than either B or C. Slide Series Resistors The figure below shows two resisters connected in series between points a and b. The total potential difference between points a and b is the sum of the individual potential differences across R 1 and R 2 : Slide

20 Series Resistors Suppose we replace R 1 and R 2 with a single resistor with the same current I and the same potential difference V ab. Ohm s law gives resistance between points a and b: Slide Series Resistors Resistors that are aligned end to end, with no junctions between them, are called series resistors or, sometimes, resistors in series. The current I is the same through all resistors placed in series. If we have N resistors in series, their equivalent resistance is: The behavior of the circuit will be unchanged if the N series resistors are replaced by the single resistor R eq. Slide QuickCheck The battery current I is A. 3 A. B. 2 A. C. 1 A. D. 2/3 A. E. 1/2 A. Slide

21 QuickCheck The battery current I is A. 3 A. B. 2 A. C. 1 A. D. 2/3 A. E. 1/2 A. Slide Example 31.5 A Series Resistor Circuit Slide Example 31.5 A Series Resistor Circuit Slide

22 Example 31.5 A Series Resistor Circuit Slide Example 31.5 A Series Resistor Circuit Slide Ammeters Figure (a) shows a simple one-resistor circuit. We can measure the current by breaking the connection and inserting an ammeter in series. The resistance of the ammeter is negligible. The potential difference across the resistor must be V R = IR = 3.0 V. So the battery s emf must be 3.0 V. Slide

23 Real Batteries Real batteries have what is called an internal resistance, which is symbolized by r. Slide Real Batteries A single resistor connected to a real battery is in series with the battery s internal resistance, giving R eq = R + r. Slide Example 31.6 Lighting Up a Flashlight Slide

24 Example 31.6 Lighting Up a Flashlight Slide A Short Circuit The figure shows an ideal wire shorting out a battery. If the battery were ideal, shorting it with an ideal wire (R = 0 Ω) would cause the current to be infinite! In reality, the battery s internal resistance r becomes the only resistance in the circuit. The short-circuit current is: Slide Example 31.7 A Short-Circuited Battery Slide

25 Lightbulb Puzzle #3 The figure shows three identical lightbulbs in a circuit. When the switch is closed, an alternate pathway for the current to get from bulb A back to the battery is created. This decreases the overall resistance of the circuit, and the brightess of bulb A increases. Slide Parallel Resistors The figure below shows two resisters connected in parallel between points c and d. By Kirchhoff s junction law, the input current is the sum of the current through each resistor: I = I 1 + I 2. Slide Series Resistors Suppose we replace R 1 and R 2 with a single resistor with the same current I and the same potential difference V cd. Ohm s law gives resistance between points c and d: Slide

26 Parallel Resistors Resistors connected at both ends are called parallel resistors or, sometimes, resistors in parallel. The left ends of all the resistors connected in parallel are held at the same potential V 1, and the right ends are all held at the same potential V 2. The potential differences V are the same across all resistors placed in parallel. If we have N resistors in parallel, their equivalent resistance is: The behavior of the circuit will be unchanged if the N parallel resistors are replaced by the single resistor R eq. Slide QuickCheck The battery current I is A. 3 A. B. 2 A. C. 1 A. D. 2/3 A. E. 1/2 A. Slide QuickCheck The battery current I is A. 3 A. B. 2 A. C. 1 A. D. 2/3 A. E. 1/2 A. Slide

27 Example 31.8 A Parallel Resistor Circuit Slide Example 31.8 A Parallel Resistor Circuit Slide Example 31.8 A Parallel Resistor Circuit Slide

28 QuickCheck When the switch closes, the battery current A. Increases. B. Stays the same. C. Decreases. Slide QuickCheck When the switch closes, the battery current A. Increases. B. Stays the same. C. Decreases. Equivalent resistance decreases. Potential difference is unchanged. Slide QuickCheck The three bulbs are identical and the two batteries are identical. Compare the brightnesses of the bulbs. A. A > B > C. B. A > C > B. C. A > B = C. D. A < B = C. E. A = B = C. Slide

29 QuickCheck The three bulbs are identical and the two batteries are identical. Compare the brightnesses of the bulbs. A. A > B > C. B. A > C > B. C. A > B = C. D. A < B = C. E. A = B = C. Slide QuickCheck The three bulbs are identical and the two batteries are identical. Compare the brightnesses of the bulbs. A. A > B > C. B. A > C > B. C. A > B = C. D. A < B = C. E. A = B = C. Slide QuickCheck The three bulbs are identical and the two batteries are identical. Compare the brightnesses of the bulbs. A. A > B > C. B. A > C > B. C. A > B = C. D. A < B = C. E. A = B = C. Slide

30 QuickCheck The lightbulbs are identical. Initially both bulbs are glowing. What happens when the switch is closed? A. Nothing. B. A stays the same; B gets dimmer. C. A gets brighter; B stays the same. D. Both get dimmer. E. A gets brighter; B goes out. Slide QuickCheck The lightbulbs are identical. Initially both bulbs are glowing. What happens when the switch is closed? A. Nothing. B. A stays the same; B gets dimmer. C. A gets brighter; B stays the same. D. Both get dimmer. E. A gets brighter; B goes out. Short circuit. Zero resistance path. Slide Voltmeters Figure (a) shows a simple circuit with a resistor and a real battery. We can measure the potential difference across the resistor by connecting a voltmeter in parallel across the resistor. The resistance of the voltmeter must be very high. The internal resistance is: Slide

31 QuickCheck What does the voltmeter read? A. 6 V. B. 3 V. C. 2 V. D. Some other value. E. Nothing because this will fry the meter. Slide QuickCheck What does the voltmeter read? A. 6 V. B. 3 V. C. 2 V. D. Some other value. E. Nothing because this will fry the meter. Slide QuickCheck What does the ammeter read? A. 6 A. B. 3 A. C. 2 A. D. Some other value. E. Nothing because this will fry the meter. Slide

32 QuickCheck What does the ammeter read? A. 6 A. B. 3 A. C. 2 A. D. Some other value. E. Nothing because this will fry the meter. Slide Problem-Solving Strategy: Resistor Circuits Slide Problem-Solving Strategy: Resistor Circuits Slide

33 Getting Grounded The earth itself is a conductor. If we connect one point of a circuit to the earth by an ideal wire, we can agree to call potential of this point to be that of the earth: V earth = 0 V. The wire connecting the circuit to the earth is not part of a complete circuit, so there is no current in this wire! A circuit connected to the earth in this way is said to be grounded, and the wire is called the ground wire. The circular prong of a three-prong plug is a connection to ground. Slide A Circuit That Is Grounded The figure shows a circuit with a 10 V battery and two resistors in series. The symbol beneath the circuit is the ground symbol. The potential at the ground is V = 0. Grounding the circuit allows us to have specific values for potential at each point in the circuit, rather than just potential differences. Slide Example A Grounded Circuit Slide

34 Example A Grounded Circuit Slide Example A Grounded Circuit Slide Example A Grounded Circuit Slide

35 Example A Grounded Circuit Slide RC Circuits The figure shows a charged capacitor, a switch, and a resistor. At t = 0, the switch closes and the capacitor begins to discharge through the resistor. A circuit such as this, with resistors and capacitors, is called an RC circuit. We wish to determine how the current through the resistor will vary as a function of time after the switch is closed. Slide RC Circuits The figure shows an RC circuit, some time after the switch was closed. Kirchhoff s loop law applied to this circuit clockwise is: Q and I in this equation are the instantaneous values of the capacitor charge and the resistor current. The resistor current is the rate at which charge is removed from the capacitor: Slide

36 RC Circuits Knowing that I = dq/dt, the loop law for a simple closed RC circuit is: Rearranging and integrating: where the time constant τ is: Slide RC Circuits Slide QuickCheck Which capacitor discharges more quickly after the switch is closed? A. Capacitor A. B. Capacitor B. C. They discharge at the same rate. D. Can t say without knowing the initial amount of charge. Slide

37 QuickCheck Which capacitor discharges more quickly after the switch is closed? Smaller time constantτ = RC A. Capacitor A. B. Capacitor B. C. They discharge at the same rate. D. Can t say without knowing the initial amount of charge. Slide RC Circuits The charge on the capacitor of an RC circuit is: where Q 0 is the charge at t = 0, and τ = RC is the time constant. The capacitor voltage is directly proportional to the charge, so: Where V 0 is the voltage at t = 0. The current also can be found to decay exponentially: Slide RC Circuits Slide

38 QuickCheck The capacitor is initially unchanged. Immediately after the switch closes, the capacitor voltage is A. 0 V. B. Somewhere between 0 V and 6 V. C. 6 V. D. Undefined. Slide QuickCheck The capacitor is initially unchanged. Immediately after the switch closes, the capacitor voltage is A. 0 V. B. Somewhere between 0 V and 6 V. C. 6 V. D. Undefined. Slide Charging a Capacitor Figure (a) shows a circuit that charges a capacitor. The capacitor charge at time t is: where τ = RC. This upside-down decay is shown in figure (b). Slide

39 QuickCheck The red curve shows how the capacitor charges after the switch is closed at t = 0. Which curve shows the capacitor charging if the value of the resistor is reduced? Slide QuickCheck The red curve shows how the capacitor charges after the switch is closed at t = 0. Which curve shows the capacitor charging if the value of the resistor is reduced? Smaller time constant. Same ultimate amount of charge. Slide Chapter 31 Summary Slides Slide

40 General Strategy Slide General Strategy Slide General Strategy Slide

41 Important Concepts Slide Important Concepts Slide Important Concepts Slide

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