Chapter 18. Direct Current Circuits


 Rosalind Potter
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1 Chapter 18 Direct Current Circuits
2 Sources of emf The source that maintains the current in a closed circuit is called a source of emf Any devices that increase the potential energy of charges circulating in circuits are sources of emf Examples include batteries and generators SI units are Volts The emf is the work done per unit charge
3 emf and Internal Resistance A real battery has some internal resistance Therefore, the terminal voltage is not equal to the emf
4 More About Internal Resistance The schematic shows the internal resistance, r The terminal voltage is ΔV = V b V a ΔV = ε Ir For the entire circuit, ε = IR + Ir
5 Internal Resistance and emf, cont ε is equal to the terminal voltage when the current is zero Also called the opencircuit voltage R is called the load resistance The current depends on both the resistance external to the battery and the internal resistance
6 Internal Resistance and emf, final When R >> r, r can be ignored Generally assumed in problems Power relationship I ε = I 2 R + I 2 r When R >> r, most of the power delivered by the battery is transferred to the load resistor
7 Resistors in Series When two or more resistors are connected endtoend, they are said to be in series The current is the same in all resistors because any charge that flows through one resistor flows through the other The sum of the potential differences across the resistors is equal to the total potential difference across the combination
8 Resistors in Series, cont Potentials add ΔV = IR 1 + IR 2 = I (R 1 +R 2 ) Consequence of Conservation of Energy The equivalent resistance has the effect on the circuit as the original combination of resistors
9 Equivalent Resistance Series R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + The equivalent resistance of a series combination of resistors is the algebraic sum of the individual resistances and is always greater than any of the individual resistors
10 Equivalent Resistance Series: An Example Four resistors are replaced with their equivalent resistance
11 Resistors in Parallel The potential difference across each resistor is the same because each is connected directly across the battery terminals The current, I, that enters a point must be equal to the total current leaving that point I = I 1 + I 2 The currents are generally not the same Consequence of Conservation of Charge
12 Equivalent Resistance Parallel, Example Equivalent resistance replaces the two original resistances Household circuits are wired so the electrical devices are connected in parallel Circuit breakers may be used in series with other circuit elements for safety purposes
13 Equivalent Resistance Parallel Equivalent Resistance 1 R eq = 1 R R R 3 + The inverse of the equivalent resistance of two or more resistors connected in parallel is the algebraic sum of the inverses of the individual resistance The equivalent is always less than the smallest resistor in the group
14 ProblemSolving Strategy, 1 Combine all resistors in series They carry the same current The potential differences across them are not the same The resistors add directly to give the equivalent resistance of the series combination: R eq = R 1 + R 2 +
15 ProblemSolving Strategy, 2 Combine all resistors in parallel The potential differences across them are the same The currents through them are not the same The equivalent resistance of a parallel combination is found through reciprocal addition: 1 R eq = 1 R R R 3 +
16 ProblemSolving Strategy, 3 A complicated circuit consisting of several resistors and batteries can often be reduced to a simple circuit with only one resistor Replace any resistors in series or in parallel using steps 1 or 2. Sketch the new circuit after these changes have been made Continue to replace any series or parallel combinations Continue until one equivalent resistance is found
17 ProblemSolving Strategy, 4 If the current in or the potential difference across a resistor in the complicated circuit is to be identified, start with the final circuit found in step 3 and gradually work back through the circuits Use ΔV = I R and the procedures in steps 1 and 2
18 Equivalent Resistance Complex Circuit
19 Electrical Energy and Power In a circuit, as a charge moves through the battery, the electrical potential energy of the system is increased by ΔQΔV The chemical potential energy of the battery decreases by the same amount As the charge moves through a resistor, it loses this potential energy during collisions with atoms in the resistor The temperature of the resistor will increase
20 Energy Transfer in the Circuit Consider the circuit shown Imagine a quantity of positive charge, ΔQ, moving around the circuit from point A back to point A
21 Energy Transfer in the Circuit, cont Point A is the reference point It is grounded and its potential is taken to be zero As the charge moves through the battery from A to B, the potential energy of the system increases by ΔQΔV The chemical energy of the battery decreases by the same amount
22 Energy Transfer in the Circuit, final As the charge moves through the resistor, from C to D, it loses energy in collisions with the atoms of the resistor The energy is transferred to internal energy When the charge returns to A, the net result is that some chemical energy of the battery has been delivered to the resistor and caused its temperature to rise
23 Electrical Energy and Power, cont The rate at which the energy is lost is the power From Ohm s Law, alternate forms of power are
24 Electrical Energy and Power, final The SI unit of power is Watt (W) I must be in Amperes, R in ohms and ΔV in Volts The unit of energy used by electric companies is the kilowatthour This is defined in terms of the unit of power and the amount of time it is supplied 1 kwh = 3.60 x 10 6 J
25 Ohm s Law, final Nonohmic materials are those whose resistance changes with voltage or current The currentvoltage relationship is nonlinear A diode is a common example of a nonohmic device
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