# For an electric current to flow between two points, two conditions must be met.

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1 ELECTROSTATICS LAB

2 Electric Circuits

3 For an electric current to flow between two points, two conditions must be met. 1. There must be a conducting path between the points along which the charges can move. 2. There must be a difference of electric potential (volts) between the two points.

4 Where do these two wires connect to the base of the light bulb? Which bulb is wired correctly? 1 2 3

5 Where do these two wires connect to the base of the light bulb? Which bulb is wired correctly? 1 2 3

6

7 Water doesn t flow in the pipe when both ends are at the same level. That is to say, water will not flow when both ends of the pipe are at the same potential energy.

8 And so it is with electric current flow. But tip the pipe, increase the PE of one end so there is a difference in PE across the ends of the pipe, and water will flow.

9 1 ampere (amp) is defined as a current flow of 1 Coulomb per second. It is analogous to water flow rate (gallons/sec)

10 An ampere is a fairly large amount of current: 0.1 A flowing between your hands across your heart will kill you. (Fortunately, your body has fairly high resistance so it takes a substantial voltage to drive that much current.) Andre Marie Ampere ( ) Don t try this at home kids.

11 Ohms Law, V=IR or I=V/R V=potential difference (Volts) Aka: voltage, voltage drop, ΔV I= Current (amps) R = Resistance (ohms)

12 Electric Power, P P= energy/time (J/s) = (Watts) P= IV = I 2 R = V 2 / R

13 Brightness is related to power used P = I 2 R Thus: the greater the current, the greater the brightness and power used

14 Ammeters vs voltmeters Ohmic vs non-ohmic resistors

15 A resistor is anything that electricity cannot travel through easily.

16 Resistors typically look like this. Europe & IB U.S.A. Japan

17 Resistors are rated in terms of their resistance (ohms) and their power carrying ability (watts)

18 Resistor Color Code

19 Resistance and Resistivity The resistance of a conductor that obeys Ohm s law depends upon three factors: 1. The resistivity of material, ρ, the ability to carry an electric current, varies with temperature (units: Ώm) 2. Its length (L): The longer the conductor, the greater its resistance. 3. Its cross-sectional area (A). The thicker the conductor the less its resistance.

20 It s much easier to travel on an open highway than a rocky trail.

21 It s much easier to travel on an open highway than a rocky trail. Also, the longer the trip, the harder it is.

22 Instead, write: As Temp., R

23 Would the resistance of an unlit light bulb measured with an ohm meter be more or less than a lit bulb? 1. More. 2. Less. 3. They re both the same.

24 Would the resistance of an unlit light bulb measured with an ohm meter be more or less than a lit bulb? 1. More. 2. Less. 3. They re both the same.

25

26 Combining (adding) Resistors R 1 Series Resistors R total = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 R 2 R 3 The current (amps) through all resistors in series is the same Amps Q

27 Combining (adding) Resistors Parallel Resistors The voltage across all parallel resistors is the same.

28 Combining (adding) Resistors Parallel Resistors Volts The voltage across all parallel resistors is the same. Q

29 As more identical resistors R are added to the parallel circuit shown, the total resistance between points P and Q R 1. Increases 2. Remains the same 3. Decreases P Q

30 As more identical resistors R are added to the parallel circuit shown, the total resistance between points P and Q 1. Increases 2. Remains the same 3. decreases R P Q Q

31 Combination circuits : Find the usual stuff (R total, I total, voltage drop across each resistor, current through each resistor) 16Ω 120V 16Ω 32Ω 32Ω

32 16Ω 120V 16Ω 16Ω

33 16Ω 120V 8Ω

34 I=V/R 120V I=120v/24Ω I=5 amps 5amps 24Ω

35 V=IR V=(5)(16) V=80volts 16Ω 80volts 120V V=IR V=(5)(8) V=40volts 5amps 8Ω 40volts 120volts

36 I=V/R =40volts/16 Ω =2.5 amps 5 amps 16Ω 80volts 120V Currents. For parallel branch I=V/R =40volts/32 Ω =1.25 amps 16Ω 32Ω 32Ω 40 volts 5 amps

37 stop

38 When one bulb is unscrewed, the other bulb will remain lit in which circuit 1. I 2. II 3. Both 4. Neither Circuit II Circuit I

39 When one bulb is unscrewed, the other bulb will remain lit in which circuit 1. I 2. II 3. both 4. neither Circuit I Circuit II

40 STOP - Day 1

41 Electric Power, P P= energy/time (J/s) = (Watts) P= IV = I 2 R = V 2 / R

42 Brightness is related to power used P = I 2 R Thus: the greater the current, the greater the brightness and power used

43 The circuit below consists of two identical light bulbs burning with equal brightness and a single 12V battery. When the switch is closed, the brightness of bulb A A 1. Increases 2. Decreases 3. Remains unchanged

44 The circuit below consists of two identical light bulbs burning with equal brightness and a single 12V battery. When the switch is closed, the brightness of bulb A 1. Increases 2. decreases 3. remains unchanged When the switch is closed, bulb B goes out because all of the current goes through the wire parallel to the bulb. Thus, the total resistance of the circuit decreases, the current through bulb increases, and it burns brighter. A Q

45 Which bird is in trouble when the switch is closed? 1) Bird 1 2) bird 2 3) neither 4) both 1 2

46 Charge flows through a light bulb. Suppose a wire is connected across the bulb as shown. When the wire is connected 1. All the charge continues to flow through the bulb, and the bulb stays lit. 2. Half the charge flows through the wire, the other half continues through the bulb. 3. Essentially all the charge flows through the wire and the bulb goes out. 4. None of these. Q

47 Charge flows through a light bulb. Suppose a wire is connected across the bulb as shown. When the wire is connected 1. All the charge continues to flow through the bulb, and the bulb stays lit. 2. Half the charge flows through the wire, the other half continues through the bulb. 3. Essentially all the charge flows through the wire and the bulb goes out. 4. None of these.

48 Charge flows through a light bulb. Suppose a wire is connected across the bulb as shown. When the wire is connected 1. All the charge continues to flow through the bulb, and the bulb stays lit. 2. Half the charge flows through the wire, the other half continues through the bulb. 3. Essentially all the charge flows through the wire and the bulb goes out.

49 When the series circuit shown is connected, Bulb A is brighter than Bulb B. If the positions of the bulbs were reversed 1. Bulb A would again be brighter 2. Bulb B would be brighter 3. They would be equal brightness

50 When the series circuit shown is connected, Bulb A is brighter than Bulb B. If the positions of the bulbs were reversed 1. Bulb A would again be brighter 2. Bulb B would be brighter 3. They would be the same The bulbs are connected in series, so the same current passes through both of them. Different brightnesses indicate different filament resistances. Bulb A is NOT brighter because it is first in line for the current of the battery! After all, electrons deliver the energy, and they flow from negative to positive --- in the opposite direction!

51 If the four light bulbs in the figure below are identical, which circuit puts out more light? 1. I 2. II 3. Same Circuit I Circuit II

52 If the four light bulbs in the figure below are identical, which circuit puts out more light? 1. I 2. II 3. Same Circuit I Circuit II The circuit with the greatest total current! Circuit I has lower Resistance, thus greater Current! P=l 2 R

53 Given: R1=1Ω; R2=2 Ω; R3=3 Ω. Rank the bulbs according to their relative brightness 1. R 1 > R 2 > R 3 2. R 1 > R 2 = R 3 3. R 1 = R 2 > R 3 4. R 1 < R 2 < R 3 R 1 R 2 R 3 5. R 1 = R 2 = R 3

54 Given: R1=1Ω; R2=2 Ω; R3=3 Ω. Rank the bulbs according to their relative brightness R 1 > R 2 > R 3 2. R 1 > R 2 = R 3 3. R 1 = R 2 > R 3 4. R 1 < R 2 < R 3 R 1 R 2 R 3 5. R 1 = R 2 = R 3 Q

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