# Discharge measurements

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1 Discharge measurements

2 DISCHARGE MEASUREMENTS Suitability of methods and equipment for measurements where, under what conditions and for what reason discharge is measured determination of discharge in channels, hydrological balances water uptake (industry, power engineering, water supply) payment waste water draining payment technological processes (water and waste water treatment plants, chemical and food-processing industry...) volume flow (of incompressible liquid) Q = V / t [m 3 s -1 ] mass flow (of compressible liquid, pollutants,..) Q m = m / t [kgs -1 ] K141 HYAE Discharge measurements 1

3 METHODS OF DISCHARGE MEASUREMENTS Volumetric and weight method - the most precise but: only for relatively small discharges V m Q = V = t ρ (necessary volume of tank), mainly for calibration of flow meters = G ρg Pipe flow meters based on flow contraction p Q S = µ v 2 2g ρg µ v = ( S / S,Re) f 2 1 orifice meter the simplest, small laying-out length, but: large losses nozzle meter orifice meter nozzle meter K141 HYAE Discharge measurements 2

4 - Venturi meter more complicated shape, large laying-out length but: small losses Venturi meter Knee-shaped flow meter measurement: pressure difference p in outer and inner side of bend knee pipe determination of discharge: the same equation as for nozzle meter K141 HYAE Discharge measurements 3

5 Measuring spillways sharp-crested spillways one of basic measuring devices uncertainty of measurements: 1-3 % upstream face of spillway vertical, smooth requirement: precise set-up of crest 1 2 mm > 45º Determination of discharge measurement: height of overflow head h under free overfall evaluation of discharge: corresponding equation Q = f (h) - for standard conditions of the type of spillway, its construction and flow conditions in approach channel calculation of discharge coefficient m (corresponding empirical formulae) K141 HYAE Discharge measurements 4

6 various shapes of notches in vertical wall are used: rectangular notch without side contraction (Bazin weir) for larger discharges rectangular notch with side contraction (Poncellet weir) triangular notch with right angle α (Thomson weir), for small discharges trapezoid notch (slope of side edges 4:1 - Cipoletti weir) hyperbolic notch (linear, or proportional, or Sutro weir) with increasing overflow head discharge increases linearly Bazin weir Poncellet weir Thomson weir K141 HYAE Discharge measurements 5

7 Measuring flumes devices utilizing decrease of water level under sub-critical flow - contraction of flow, if significant critical flow is created in the most contracted section (width b) measurement: upstream water level, i.e. overflow head h Parshall flume has smaller laying-out length that Venturi flume, however, dependency Q = Q(h, b) is more complicated if contracted section is affected by down water, also down water level has to be measured accuracy of determination of Q grows worse Venturi flume Parshall flume h h 2 3 L b b L K141 HYAE Discharge measurements 6

8 Method of velocity field - widespread method for discharge measurement both in open channels and in pipes, standard method for discharge determination in the course of guarantee tests of water machines measurements: point velocities u: current meter, inductive flow meter, floats, after systematic measurements of point velocities in cross section determination of discharge from continuity equation Q = s uds = S u i S i characteristic velocity distribution along a vertical in open channel K141 HYAE Discharge measurements 7

9 Instruments for measurements of point velocities current meter measurements of number of turns of c. m. in stream Inductive flow meter voltage and intensity of magnetic field between 2 electrodes K141 HYAE Discharge measurements 8

10 Volume flow meters (water meters, gas meters) - based on various principles, generally on rotation of blade wheel in measuring box of device current devices measuring volume of a medium passed throw them (flow meters in households and industry) If time is measured, it is possible to figure out mean discharge in given time interval Float flow meters - rotameters Principle: hydrodynamic uplift force of liquid flowing upwards in a vertical broaden tube acts on rotating float - it will firm up in the heights equal to discharge For precise measurements of small discharges of liquids, suspensions and gases K141 HYAE Discharge measurements 9

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