FLOW MEASUREMENT IN PIPES EXPERIMENT


 Antony Bridges
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 University of Leicester Engineering Department FLOW MEASUREMENT IN PIPES EXPERIMENT Page 1
2 FORMAL LABORATORY REPORT Name of the experiment: FLOW MEASUREMENT IN PIPES Author: Apollin nana chaazou Partner during the experiment: Hassan ali Date of the experiment: 19 th February 2010 Place of the experiment: Engineering department of the University of Leicester Page 2
3 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Summary.4 2. Introduction.4 3. Description of the apparatus Theory.5 5. Procedure Results Discussion Conclusions References Appendices Page 3
4 1. Summary This experiment was conducted to investigate flow measurement in pipes using a venturi meter and an orifice plate meter. It was carried out to find discharge coefficients for each of the two meters mentioned above. Results obtained for discharge coefficients were 0.71 and 0.92 for orifice plate meter and venturi meter respectively. These were then compared with published values obtained from British standard (1042 pt 1:1964) and found to be different. 2. Introduction Flow is the movement of something in one direction. In this experiment the flow that was being measured was that of fluid called water. By definition a fluid is a substance that deforms continuously to shearing force no matter how small that shearing force may be. Fluid flow can be laminar, that is when layers of water flow over one another at different speeds with virtually no mixing between layers; it can also be turbulent when characterised by irregular movement of the fluid. The orifice plate meter consists of a flat orifice plate with a circular hole drilled in it; there is a pressure tap upstream from the orifice plate and another just downstream. [1] In the venturi meter the fluid is accelerated through a converging cone and the pressure difference between the upstream side of the cone and the throat is measured and provide a signal for the rate of flow. [2] Piezometers are tubes that allow the change in static head between two points in the meters to be determined. [3] The discharge coefficient is the ratio of the actual flow rate to the theoretical discharge; it is dimensionless. 3. Description of the Apparatus The below picture shows the apparatus, which consists of a vertical Perspex tube containing a venturi meter underneath an orifice meter. A pump provides water to the lower end of the tube through a tap. A weight tank through which water returns to the reservoir is used to measure the flow rate. The orifice plate meter and the venturi meter are fitted with piezometers. Just next to the weight tank is a handle which is used to empty or fill the tank with water by pulling it downward or pushing it upward. The weight tank is also fitted with a handle on which there a little platform supporting a certain number of masses that will balance the mass of water in the tank and help to determine the mass flow rate. As can be seen on the picture below, the weight tank and the water reservoir are fitted underneath the experiment table and the orifice plate meter and the venturi meter are fitted on the table. Page 4
5 4. Theory The orifice plate meter and the venturi meter are calibrated on the same principle; the tap through which water enters the lower end of the tube is set such that the flow rate through each meter is constant. Because the meter uses a narrowing throat in the pipe which then expands back to the original pipe diameter, the velocity of the water increases; this is due to the theory of continuity, which states that the total flow must remain constant, provided the liquid is incompressible: Q = V1 A1 = V2 A2 (m³/s) (1) The cross sectional area of each meter is recorded to help compute the equation. As the velocity of the water increases the static head exerted by water on the tube wall also changes consequently, decreasing. Based on the principle of Bernoulli s equation: P1 + ρv1² +ρgz1 = P2 + ρv2² +ρgz2 (B) Since Q1 = Q2 = V1 A1 = V2 A2 it is shown from the Bernoulli's equation that: V2²  V1² = 2g h (m² s²) (2) Equations (1) and (2) combined give the below equation, which allows flow rate to be predicted from the difference between the piezometer readings. Page 5
6 Q = A1A2 (3) Given that the actual discharge is the one that occurs and which is affected by friction as the jet passes through the orifice, the ideal discharge would be the discharge achieved without friction. It follows from the equation (3) that the coefficient of discharge is directly related to the volumetric flow rate of the fluid flow and the cross sectional area of the meter. Furthermore it is also related to the gravitational constant and the head pressure. In order to develop equations (B), (1) and (2) to get the equation of flow, assumptions are made regarding the flow. And with regard to that, the flow must be inviscid, incompressible, laminar and steady. [4] 5. Procedure Before starting the experiment checks were made to ensure that there was no water leak from the pipes; the tap was then opened slowly at the base of the apparatus to allow the flow of water through the meters; as water in one of the piezometers was almost off scale, a controlvalve was use to adjust and set height differences for the venturi meter and that of the orifice plate meter; as water returned and filled up the tank it was emptied and a certain mass put against it to measure the time it took to be Page 6
7 fill up with water and balance the mass at various heights. The time it took for the tank to be filled up without mass at various heights was also recorded. A total of three readings were made in each case at a certain height and the average reading used to determine the mass flow rate following a quantitative estimation of errors on each set of readings. Repeated readings were made for lower flow rates obtained with the reduction of the flow of water using the tap and checking carefully the apparatus. Following the readings, graphs of mass flow rate against height difference were plotted for each of the two meters. 6. Results Below is a table of results which discloses all the data obtained and recorded as the experiment proceeded. It emphasises the number of readings in each case as explained in the procedure above and provides detailed data for all the different variables. TABLE OF THE EXPERIMENT RESULTS OBTAINED AND RECORDED Readings Time taken to fill tank without mass (s) Time taken to fill Tank with mass (s) Height difference for the venturi meter (mm) Height difference for the orifice meter (mm) Experimental Mass flow rate (kg/s) Average Average Average Average Average Using the values for the cross sections of each meter we obtained theoretical values in m³/s and then converted to kg/s. Page 7
8 The below two tables of results show the theoretical values of flow rate obtained for each of both meters at various height difference. Table of results: Venturi meter VENTURI METER Q (m³/s) Height difference Δh (m) Q (kg/s) Orifice plate meter ORIFICE PLATE METER Q (m³/s) Height difference Δh (m) Q (kg/s) The graphs below show the plots of mass flow rate against height difference for both meters. Also there are plots of theoretical flow rates against experimental flow rates for each of the two meters. Theoretical flow rates were calculated using equation (3). The plots illustrate graphical presentations of results and calculations. Page 8
9 experimental flow rate (kg/s) heigth difference (mm) plot of mass flow rate against height difference venturi meter orifice plate mass flow rate (kg/s) plot of theoretical flow rate against experimental flow rate orifice plate meter venturi meter theoretical flow rate (kg/s) With the plot of theoretical flow rate against experimental flow rate showing two straight lines, the discharge coefficients for both meters were determined by computing the gradients of the lines. The values obtained were 0.92 and 0.71 for venturi meter and orifice plate meter respectively. Page 9
10 7. Discussion: Results obtained showed in light of the plot (mass flow rate against height difference) that the mass flow rate of water through each meter increases with the height difference. With regard to the values of theoretical and experimental flow rates obtained, it is observed clearly that although quite close, they are not the same; this is emphasised graphically by the above plot of the theoretical values against the experimental values showing two straight lines close to each other. More importantly discharge coefficients obtained for both meters compared with published British standard 1042 pt 1:1964 were different. As assumptions are made with regard to the principle of Bernoulli s equation which, were referred to as for the theory in this experiment that, the flow be steady, inviscid and incompressible; and in light of the experimental values of flow rates that were not correct as far as the theory is concerned, one reason for this can be the apparatus and its sensitiveness, but more likely the explanation for the inconsistency between theory prediction and experimental results in this case is that, water used could have been contaminated by particles from the pipes or from other sources which then made it becoming not ideal fluid due to viscosity and as a result turbulence is developed in the flow, hence not a laminar flow and not obeying the Bernoulli s equation. Because of the presence of turbulence in the flow there is energy produced in the form of heat; this makes it very difficult to account for that effect using the Bernoulli s equation, hence the coefficient is used to reduce the complexity and make the computation simple. 8. Conclusions: The results obtained in this experiment show that the volumetric flow rate of a fluid through a venturi meter and an orifice plate meter can be determined easily due to the law of continuity. Observations made during this experiment back up the fact that if the fluid is not ideal, then results obtained of the discharge coefficients and flow rate for the two meters would be different of the ones predicted by the theory. Hence the values contained in the published British standard 1042 pt 1:1964, to which experimental Page 10
11 data were compared has been obtained with the conditions and assumptions for the Bernoulli s equation to be valid. For low velocities flow the venturi meter and the orifice plate meter can be importantly calibrated for the purposes of flow measurement. In the light of the theory of flow through the two meters and their practical use in the flow rate measurement the choice of one or another would depend on several factors amongst which: The cost Adaptability Permeability The likeliness to create turbulence 9. References: [1] [2] [3] university of Leicester engineering department, handbook first year laboratory work page F11 [4] university of Leicester engineering department, handbook first year laboratory work page F13 [5] [6] Appendices: Q is the volumetric flow rate (m³/s) V1 is the upstream velocity (m/s) A1 is the upstream pipe cross sectional area (m²) V2 is the downstream velocity (m/s) A2 is the downstream pipe cross sectional area (m³) P is static pressure head (N/m²) which is the pressure when the liquid is at rest Page 11
12 (½)ρV² is the velocity head (N/m²) which is expressed in terms of static pressure needed to produce it. ρgz is the potential head (N/m²) linked to the elevation or height ρ is fluid density (kg/m³) V is fluid velocity (m/s) Z is height of fluid above a datum (m). g is the acceleration due to gravity (m/s²) h is the change in static head measured by the piezometers or height difference. (m) Laminar flow: flow in which the fluid flow in parallel layers without disruption between the layers. Steady flow: fluid flow in which at any one point conditions are constant with respect to time. Inviscid flow: flow in which there is no friction or viscosity. Gradient: slope of the graph. Bernoulli's principle is named after the DutchSwiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli who published his principle in his book Hydrodynamica in [5] Volumetric flow rate: this is the volume of fluid which passes through a given surface per unit time (for example cubic meters per second [m 3 s 1 ] in SI units, or cubic feet per second [cu ft/s]). It is usually represented by the symbol Q. [6] Mass flow rate: mass of fluid passing a point per unit time. Calculations: Theoretical flow rates using equation (3) Q = A1A2 1. For the venturi meter: Diameter = D1 =0.026m areas venturi A1=πD1²/4 =5.31 D2= 0.016m A2= πd2²/4= 2.01 Having values for A1 and A2 and knowing the various height differences ( h), values of Q for different h are computed and are presented in the first table of results on page 9 of this report. 2. For the orifice plate meter: Diameter D1= 0.051m D2= 0.024m A2=πD2²/4 =4.52 A1= πd1²/4 = 2.04 Using equation (3) for different ( h) give the results obtained and presented in the second tables of values on page 7 of this report. Gradient of the line in the graph on page 9 corresponding to the orifice plate meter were obtained by picking two points on the line and calculating the slope of the line as presented below: ( )/ ( ) = 0.71 = discharge coefficient Page 12
13 Similarly for the Venturi meter, ( )/ ( ) = 0.92 discharge coefficient. Comparing them with published values from British standard, We computed: for venturi: = =0.38 coefficient 1 For the orifice plate meter: = 0.22 coefficient Derivation of the flow equation from the information given on the experiment sheet: Q = V1 A1 = V2 A2 (1) V2 = Q/ A2 V1= Q/ A1 V2²  V1² = 2g h (2) Substituting V1 and V2 into (2) (Q/ A2)²  (Q/ A1)² = 2g h (Q² / A2²) (Q² / A1²) = 2g h [Q² A1²  Q²A1²]/ A2² A1² =2g h Q² (A1²  A2²) = A2² A1² (2g h) Q = A1A2 Thursday, 06 May 2010 Page 13
EXPERIMENT No.1 FLOW MEASUREMENT BY ORIFICEMETER
EXPERIMENT No.1 FLOW MEASUREMENT BY ORIFICEMETER 1.1 AIM: To determine the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter 1.2 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: Orifice meter test rig, Stopwatch 1.3 PREPARATION 1.3.1
More informationFor example an empty bucket weighs 2.0kg. After 7 seconds of collecting water the bucket weighs 8.0kg, then:
Hydraulic Coefficient & Flow Measurements ELEMENTARY HYDRAULICS National Certificate in Technology (Civil Engineering) Chapter 3 1. Mass flow rate If we want to measure the rate at which water is flowing
More informationFE Fluids Review March 23, 2012 Steve Burian (Civil & Environmental Engineering)
Topic: Fluid Properties 1. If 6 m 3 of oil weighs 47 kn, calculate its specific weight, density, and specific gravity. 2. 10.0 L of an incompressible liquid exert a force of 20 N at the earth s surface.
More informationFlow Measurement in Pipes and Ducts COURSE CONTENT
Flow Measurement in Pipes and Ducts Dr. Harlan H. Bengtson, P.E. COURSE CONTENT 1. Introduction This course is about measurement of the flow rate of a fluid flowing under pressure in a closed conduit.
More informationFluids. Fluids in Motion or Fluid Dynamics
Fluids Fluids in Motion or Fluid Dynamics Resources: Serway  Chapter 9: 9.79.8 Physics B Lesson 3: Fluid Flow Continuity Physics B Lesson 4: Bernoulli's Equation MIT  8: Hydrostatics, Archimedes' Principle,
More informationLecture 3 The energy equation
Lecture 3 The energy equation Dr Tim Gough: t.gough@bradford.ac.uk General information Lab groups now assigned Timetable up to week 6 published Is there anyone not yet on the list? Week 3 Week 4 Week 5
More informationChapter 4 DYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOW
Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil  016 Chapter 4 DYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOW 41 Types of Energy 4 Euler s Equation 43 Bernoulli s Equation 44 Total Energy Line (TEL) and Hydraulic Grade Line
More informationEXPERIMENT NO. 4 CALIBRATION OF AN ORIFICE PLATE FLOWMETER MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT KING SAUD UNIVERSITY RIYADH
EXPERIMENT NO. 4 CALIBRATION OF AN ORIFICE PLATE FLOWMETER MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT KING SAUD UNIVERSITY RIYADH Submitted By: ABDULLAH IBN ABDULRAHMAN ID: 13456789 GROUP A EXPERIMENT PERFORMED
More informationExperiment (4): Flow measurement
Experiment (4): Flow measurement Introduction: The flow measuring apparatus is used to familiarize the students with typical methods of flow measurement of an incompressible fluid and, at the same time
More informationRate of Flow Quantity of fluid passing through any section (area) per unit time
Kinematics of Fluid Flow Kinematics is the science which deals with study of motion of liquids without considering the forces causing the motion. Rate of Flow Quantity of fluid passing through any section
More informationLecture23. Flowmeter Design.
Lecture23 Flowmeter Design. Contents of lecture Design of flowmeter Principles of flow measurement; i) Venturi and ii) Orifice meter and nozzle Relationship between flow rate and pressure drop Relation
More informationCHAPTER 3 BASIC EQUATIONS IN FLUID MECHANICS NOOR ALIZA AHMAD
CHAPTER 3 BASIC EQUATIONS IN FLUID MECHANICS 1 INTRODUCTION Flow often referred as an ideal fluid. We presume that such a fluid has no viscosity. However, this is an idealized situation that does not exist.
More informationMass of fluid leaving per unit time
5 ENERGY EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION 5.1 Eulerian Approach & Control Volume In order to develop the equations that describe a flow, it is assumed that fluids are subject to certain fundamental laws of physics.
More informationLesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow
Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow The specific objective of this lesson is to conduct a brief review of the fundamentals of fluid flow and present: A general equation for conservation of mass
More informationFLUID MECHANICS D203 SAE SOLUTIONS TUTORIAL 2 APPLICATIONS OF BERNOULLI SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1
FLUID MECHANICS D203 SAE SOLUTIONS TUTORIAL 2 APPLICATIONS OF BERNOULLI SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1 1. A pipe 100 mm bore diameter carries oil of density 900 kg/m3 at a rate of 4 kg/s. The pipe reduces
More informationChapter 10. Solids and Fluids
Chapter 10 Solids and Fluids Surface Tension Net force on molecule A is zero Pulled equally in all directions Net force on B is not zero No molecules above to act on it Pulled toward the center of the
More informationMeasurements using Bernoulli s equation
An Internet Book on Fluid Dynamics Measurements using Bernoulli s equation Many fluid measurement devices and techniques are based on Bernoulli s equation and we list them here with analysis and discussion.
More information5 ENERGY EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION
5 ENERGY EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION 5.1 Introduction In order to develop the equations that describe a flow, it is assumed that fluids are subject to certain fundamental laws of physics. The pertinent laws
More informationSignature: (Note that unsigned exams will be given a score of zero.)
Neatly print your name: Signature: (Note that unsigned exams will be given a score of zero.) Circle your lecture section (1 point if not circled, or circled incorrectly): Prof. Dabiri Prof. Wassgren Prof.
More informationPhysics 3 Summer 1990 Lab 7  Hydrodynamics
Physics 3 Summer 1990 Lab 7  Hydrodynamics Theory Consider an ideal liquid, one which is incompressible and which has no internal friction, flowing through pipe of varying cross section as shown in figure
More informationSignature: (Note that unsigned exams will be given a score of zero.)
Neatly print your name: Signature: (Note that unsigned exams will be given a score of zero.) Circle your lecture section (1 point if not circled, or circled incorrectly): Prof. Dabiri Prof. Wassgren Prof.
More informationvector H. If O is the point about which moments are desired, the angular moment about O is given:
The angular momentum A control volume analysis can be applied to the angular momentum, by letting B equal to angularmomentum vector H. If O is the point about which moments are desired, the angular moment
More informationFE Exam Fluids Review October 23, Important Concepts
FE Exam Fluids Review October 3, 013 mportant Concepts Density, specific volume, specific weight, specific gravity (Water 1000 kg/m^3, Air 1. kg/m^3) Meaning & Symbols? Stress, Pressure, Viscosity; Meaning
More informationME332 FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY (PART I)
ME332 FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY (PART I) Mihir Sen Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN 46556 Version: January 14, 2002 Contents Unit 1: Hydrostatics
More informationLecture 13 Flow Measurement in Pipes. I. Introduction
Lecture 13 Flow Measurement in Pipes I. Introduction There are a wide variety of methods for measuring discharge and velocity in pipes, or closed conduits Many of these methods can provide very accurate
More information2 Internal Fluid Flow
Internal Fluid Flow.1 Definitions Fluid Dynamics The study of fluids in motion. Static Pressure The pressure at a given point exerted by the static head of the fluid present directly above that point.
More information10.52 Mechanics of Fluids Spring 2006 Problem Set 3
10.52 Mechanics of Fluids Spring 2006 Problem Set 3 Problem 1 Mass transfer studies involving the transport of a solute from a gas to a liquid often involve the use of a laminar jet of liquid. The situation
More informationCalibration of Orifice Flow Meter and Venturi Flow Meter
Calibration of Orifice Flow Meter and Venturi Flow Meter D. Till Abstract Orifice and venturi flow meters decrease the pressure of a fluid b increasing its velocit as it flows through them. This is done
More informationV/ t = 0 p/ t = 0 ρ/ t = 0. V/ s = 0 p/ s = 0 ρ/ s = 0
UNIT III FLOW THROUGH PIPES 1. List the types of fluid flow. Steady and unsteady flow Uniform and nonuniform flow Laminar and Turbulent flow Compressible and incompressible flow Rotational and irrotational
More informationDETERMINATION OF DISCHARGE AND HEAD LOSS USING A FLOWMEASURING APPARATUS
DETERMINATION OF DISCHARGE AND HEAD LOSS USING A FLOWMEASURING APPARATUS 1. INTRODUCTION Through use of the FlowMeasuring Apparatus, this experiment is designed to accustom students to typical methods
More informationLECTURE 1 THE CONTENTS OF THIS LECTURE ARE AS FOLLOWS:
LECTURE 1 THE CONTENTS OF THIS LECTURE ARE AS FOLLOWS: 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO FLUID AND BASIC EQUATIONS 2.0 REYNOLDS NUMBER AND CRITICAL VELOCITY 3.0 APPROACH TOWARDS REYNOLDS NUMBER REFERENCES Page 1 of
More informationVENTURIMETER EXPERIMENT
ENTURIMETER EXERIMENT. OBJECTİE The main objectives of this experiment is to obtain the coefficient of discharge from experimental data by utilizing venturi meter and, also the relationship between Reynolds
More informationFluid Mechanics. du dy
FLUID MECHANICS Technical English  I 1 th week Fluid Mechanics FLUID STATICS FLUID DYNAMICS Fluid Statics or Hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. The main equation required for this is Newton's
More informationPart A: 1 pts each, 10 pts total, no partial credit.
Part A: 1 pts each, 10 pts total, no partial credit. 1) (Correct: 1 pt/ Wrong: 3 pts). The sum of static, dynamic, and hydrostatic pressures is constant when flow is steady, irrotational, incompressible,
More informationCEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 7, D Steady State Head Form of the Energy Equation P. P 2g + z h f + h p h s.
CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 7, 2015 81 3.21 Review 1D Steady State Head Form of the Energy Equation ( ) ( ) 2g + z = 2g + z h f + h p h s out where h f is the friction head loss (which combines
More informationIf a stream of uniform velocity flows into a blunt body, the stream lines take a pattern similar to this: Streamlines around a blunt body
Venturimeter & Orificemeter ELEMENTARY HYDRAULICS National Certificate in Technology (Civil Engineering) Chapter 5 Applications of the Bernoulli Equation The Bernoulli equation can be applied to a great
More informationStudy fluid dynamics. Understanding Bernoulli s Equation.
Chapter Objectives Study fluid dynamics. Understanding Bernoulli s Equation. Chapter Outline 1. Fluid Flow. Bernoulli s Equation 3. Viscosity and Turbulence 1. Fluid Flow An ideal fluid is a fluid that
More informationFACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY TITLE OF EXPERIMENT: MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE (E4)
FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY TITLE OF EXPERIMENT: MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE (E4) 1 1.0 Objectives The objective of this experiment is to calculate loss coefficient (K
More informationLaboratory work No 2: Calibration of Orifice Flow Meter
Laboratory work No : Calibration of Orifice Flow Meter 1. Objective Calibrate the orifice flow meter and draw the graphs p = f 1 (Q) and C d = f (Re ).. Necessary equipment 1. Orifice flow meter. Measuring
More informationCHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS 3.1. Measurement of Pressure Drop for Flow through Different Geometries 3.. Determination of Operating Characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump 3.3. Energy Losses in Pipes under
More informationProf. Scalo Prof. Vlachos Prof. Ardekani Prof. Dabiri 08:30 09:20 A.M 10:30 11:20 A.M. 1:30 2:20 P.M. 3:30 4:20 P.M.
Page 1 Neatly print your name: Signature: (Note that unsigned exams will be given a score of zero.) Circle your lecture section (1 point if not circled, or circled incorrectly): Prof. Scalo Prof. Vlachos
More informationChapter 9. Solids and Fluids (c)
Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids (c) EXAMPLE A small swimming pool has an area of 0 square meters. A wooden 4000kg statue of density 500 kg/m 3 is then floated on top of the pool. How far does the water rise?
More informationMechanical Engineering Programme of Study
Mechanical Engineering Programme of Study Fluid Mechanics Instructor: Marios M. Fyrillas Email: eng.fm@fit.ac.cy SOLVED EXAMPLES ON VISCOUS FLOW 1. Consider steady, laminar flow between two fixed parallel
More informationQ1 Give answers to all of the following questions (5 marks each):
FLUID MECHANICS First Year Exam Solutions 03 Q Give answers to all of the following questions (5 marks each): (a) A cylinder of m in diameter is made with material of relative density 0.5. It is moored
More informationMAHATMA GANDHI MISSION S JAWAHARLAL NEHRU ENGINEERING COLLEGE, AURANGABAD. (M.S.)
MAHATMA GANDHI MISSION S JAWAHARLAL NEHRU ENGINEERING COLLEGE, AURANGABAD. (M.S.) DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS I LAB MANUAL Prepared By Prof. L. K. Kokate Lab Incharge Approved By Dr.
More informationTOPICS. Density. Pressure. Variation of Pressure with Depth. Pressure Measurements. Buoyant ForcesArchimedes Principle
Lecture 6 Fluids TOPICS Density Pressure Variation of Pressure with Depth Pressure Measurements Buoyant ForcesArchimedes Principle Surface Tension ( External source ) Viscosity ( External source ) Equation
More informationNicholas J. Giordano. Chapter 10 Fluids
Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 10 Fluids Fluids A fluid may be either a liquid or a gas Some characteristics of a fluid Flows from one place to another Shape varies according
More informationChapter Four fluid flow mass, energy, Bernoulli and momentum
41Conservation of Mass Principle Consider a control volume of arbitrary shape, as shown in Fig (41). Figure (41): the differential control volume and differential control volume (Total mass entering
More information04/01/1998 Developments in DP Flowmeters By Jesse Yoder
04/01/1998 Developments in DP Flowmeters By Jesse Yoder Developments in DP Flowmeters Improvements in Primary Elements Are Keeping Differential Pressure Flowmeters the First Choice for Many Process Applications
More informationChapter 9 Solids and Fluids. Elasticity Archimedes Principle Bernoulli s Equation
Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids Elasticity Archimedes Principle Bernoulli s Equation States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasmas Solids: Stress and Strain Stress = Measure of force felt by material Stress= Force
More informationChapter 1 INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 11 The Fluid. 12 Dimensions. 13 Units. 14 Fluid Properties. 1 11 The Fluid: It is the substance that deforms continuously when subjected to a shear stress. Matter Solid Fluid
More informationFluid Mechanics c) Orificemeter a) Viscous force, Turbulence force, Compressible force a) Turbulence force c) Integration d) The flow is rotational
Fluid Mechanics 1. Which is the cheapest device for measuring flow / discharge rate. a) Venturimeter b) Pitot tube c) Orificemeter d) None of the mentioned 2. Which forces are neglected to obtain Euler
More informationChapter (6) Energy Equation and Its Applications
Chapter (6) Energy Equation and Its Applications Bernoulli Equation Bernoulli equation is one of the most useful equations in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. And it s a statement of the principle of conservation
More informationAtmospheric pressure. 9 ft. 6 ft
Name CEE 4 Final Exam, Aut 00; Answer all questions; 145 points total. Some information that might be helpful is provided below. A Moody diagram is printed on the last page. For water at 0 o C (68 o F):
More informationMajor and Minor Losses
Abstract Major and Minor Losses Caitlyn Collazo, Team 2 (1:00 pm) A Technovate fluid circuit system was used to determine the pressure drop across a pipe section and across an orifice. These pressure drops
More informationSteven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013
Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Mechanics Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013 s and FE Morning ( Mechanics) A. Flow measurement 7% of FE Morning B. properties Session
More informationEGN 3353C Fluid Mechanics
Lecture 8 Bernoulli s Equation: Limitations and Applications Last time, we derived the steady form of Bernoulli s Equation along a streamline p + ρv + ρgz = P t static hydrostatic total pressure q = dynamic
More informationPage 1. Neatly print your name: Signature: (Note that unsigned exams will be given a score of zero.)
Page 1 Neatly print your name: Signature: (Note that unsigned exams will be given a score of zero.) Circle your lecture section (1 point if not circled, or circled incorrectly): Prof. Vlachos Prof. Ardekani
More informationFluid Mechanics Qualifying Examination Sample Exam 2
Fluid Mechanics Qualifying Examination Sample Exam 2 Allotted Time: 3 Hours The exam is closed book and closed notes. Students are allowed one (doublesided) formula sheet. There are five questions on
More information150A Review Session 2/13/2014 Fluid Statics. Pressure acts in all directions, normal to the surrounding surfaces
Fluid Statics Pressure acts in all directions, normal to the surrounding surfaces or Whenever a pressure difference is the driving force, use gauge pressure o Bernoulli equation o Momentum balance with
More informationVisualization of flow pattern over or around immersed objects in open channel flow.
EXPERIMENT SEVEN: FLOW VISUALIZATION AND ANALYSIS I OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT: Visualization of flow pattern over or around immersed objects in open channel flow. II THEORY AND EQUATION: Open channel:
More informationMAHATMA GANDHI MISSION S JAWAHARLAL NEHRU ENGINEERING COLLEGE, FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY MANUAL
MAHATMA GANDHI MISSION S JAWAHARLAL NEHRU ENGINEERING COLLEGE, AURANGABAD. (M.S.) DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY MANUAL Prepared By Mr. L. K. Kokate Lab Incharge Approved By
More informationCH.1 Overview of Fluid Mechanics/22 MARKS. 1.1 Fluid Fundamentals.
Content : 1.1 Fluid Fundamentals. 08 Marks Classification of Fluid, Properties of fluids like Specific Weight, Specific gravity, Surface tension, Capillarity, Viscosity. Specification of hydraulic oil
More informationExperiment To determine the coefficient of impact for vanes. Experiment To determine the coefficient of discharge of an orifice meter.
SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS VIVA QUESTIONS (M.E 4 th SEM) Experiment To determine the coefficient of impact for vanes. Q1. Explain impulse momentum principal. Ans1. Momentum equation is based on Newton s
More informationME3560 Tentative Schedule Spring 2019
ME3560 Tentative Schedule Spring 2019 Week Number Date Lecture Topics Covered Prior to Lecture Read Section Assignment Prep Problems for Prep Probs. Must be Solved by 1 Monday 1/7/2019 1 Introduction to
More information3.25 Pressure form of Bernoulli Equation
CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct 3, 2012 83 3.24 Review The Energy Equation Q Ẇshaft = d dt CV ) (û + v2 2 + gz ρ d + (û + v2 CS 2 + gz + ) ρ( v n) da ρ where Q is the heat energy transfer rate, Ẇ
More informationChapter 9: Solids and Fluids
Chapter 9: Solids and Fluids State of matters: Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasma. Solids Has definite volume and shape Can be crystalline or amorphous Molecules are held in specific locations by electrical
More informationINSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal, Hyderabad AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK : AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.
Course Name Course Code Class Branch INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal, Hyderabad  00 0 AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING : Mechanics of Fluids : A00 : III B. Tech Year : 0 0 Course Coordinator
More informationHydraulics and hydrology
Hydraulics and hydrology  project exercises  Class 4 and 5 Pipe flow Discharge (Q) (called also as the volume flow rate) is the volume of fluid that passes through an area per unit time. The discharge
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and
More informationExperiment No.4: Flow through Venturi meter. Background and Theory
Experiment No.4: Flow through Venturi meter Background and Theory Introduction Flow meters are used in the industry to measure the volumetric flow rate of fluids. Differential pressure type flow meters
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and
More informationCEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 10, = dt. sys
CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 10, 2018 77 3.16 Review First Law of Thermodynamics ( ) de = dt Q Ẇ sys Sign convention: Work done by the surroundings on the system < 0, example, a pump! Work done
More informationBERNOULLI EQUATION. The motion of a fluid is usually extremely complex.
BERNOULLI EQUATION The motion of a fluid is usually extremely complex. The study of a fluid at rest, or in relative equilibrium, was simplified by the absence of shear stress, but when a fluid flows over
More informationChapter 3 Bernoulli Equation
1 Bernoulli Equation 3.1 Flow Patterns: Streamlines, Pathlines, Streaklines 1) A streamline, is a line that is everywhere tangent to the velocity vector at a given instant. Examples of streamlines around
More informationNPTEL Quiz Hydraulics
Introduction NPTEL Quiz Hydraulics 1. An ideal fluid is a. One which obeys Newton s law of viscosity b. Frictionless and incompressible c. Very viscous d. Frictionless and compressible 2. The unit of kinematic
More informationHOW TO GET A GOOD GRADE ON THE MME 2273B FLUID MECHANICS 1 EXAM. Common mistakes made on the final exam and how to avoid them
HOW TO GET A GOOD GRADE ON THE MME 2273B FLUID MECHANICS 1 EXAM Common mistakes made on the final exam and how to avoid them HOW TO GET A GOOD GRADE ON THE MME 2273B EXAM Introduction You now have a lot
More informations and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum equations E. Pipe and other internal flow 7% of FE Morning Session I
Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam General Section Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering October 26, 2010 s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum
More information2.The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow field are called steady flow lines. True or False A. True B.
CHAPTER 03 1. Write Newton's second law of motion. YOUR ANSWER: F = ma 2.The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow field are called steady flow lines. True or False 3.Streamwise
More informationApproximate physical properties of selected fluids All properties are given at pressure kn/m 2 and temperature 15 C.
Appendix FLUID MECHANICS Approximate physical properties of selected fluids All properties are given at pressure 101. kn/m and temperature 15 C. Liquids Density (kg/m ) Dynamic viscosity (N s/m ) Surface
More informationBRCM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Practical Experiment Instructions Sheet
Exp. Title FLUID MECHANICS I LAB Syllabus FMI Semester4 th Page No. 1 of 1 Internal Marks: 25 L T P External Marks: 25 0 0 2 Total Marks: 50 1. To determine the met centric height of a floating body
More informationBernoulli and Pipe Flow
Civil Engineering Hydraulics Mechanics of Fluids Head Loss Calculations Bernoulli and The Bernoulli equation that we worked with was a bit simplistic in the way it looked at a fluid system All real systems
More informationObjectives. Conservation of mass principle: Mass Equation The Bernoulli equation Conservation of energy principle: Energy equation
Objectives Conservation of mass principle: Mass Equation The Bernoulli equation Conservation of energy principle: Energy equation Conservation of Mass Conservation of Mass Mass, like energy, is a conserved
More informationWater Circuit Lab. The pressure drop along a straight pipe segment can be calculated using the following set of equations:
Water Circuit Lab When a fluid flows in a conduit, there is friction between the flowing fluid and the pipe walls. The result of this friction is a net loss of energy in the flowing fluid. The fluid pressure
More informationPART II. Fluid Mechanics Pressure. Fluid Mechanics Pressure. Fluid Mechanics Specific Gravity. Some applications of fluid mechanics
ART II Some applications of fluid mechanics Fluid Mechanics ressure ressure = F/A Units: Newton's per square meter, Nm , kgm  s  The same unit is also known as a ascal, a, i.e. a = Nm  ) English units:
More informationME332 FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY (PART II)
ME332 FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY (PART II) Mihir Sen Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN 46556 Version: April 2, 2002 Contents Unit 5: Momentum transfer
More informationFlow Measurement in Pipes and Ducts COURSE CONTENT
Flow Measurement in Pipes and Ducts Dr. Harlan H. Bengtson, P.E. COURSE CONTENT 1. Introduction This course is about measurement of the flow rate of a fluid flowing under pressure in a closed conduit.
More informationS.E. (Mech.) (First Sem.) EXAMINATION, (Common to Mech/Sandwich) FLUID MECHANICS (2008 PATTERN) Time : Three Hours Maximum Marks : 100
Total No. of Questions 12] [Total No. of Printed Pages 8 Seat No. [4262]113 S.E. (Mech.) (First Sem.) EXAMINATION, 2012 (Common to Mech/Sandwich) FLUID MECHANICS (2008 PATTERN) Time : Three Hours Maximum
More informationPhysics 123 Unit #1 Review
Physics 123 Unit #1 Review I. Definitions & Facts Density Specific gravity (= material / water) Pressure Atmosphere, bar, Pascal Barometer Streamline, laminar flow Turbulence Gauge pressure II. Mathematics
More informationIntroduction to Fluid Flow
Introduction to Fluid Flow Learning Outcomes After this lecture you should be able to Explain viscosity and how it changes with temperature Write the continuity equation Define laminar and turbulent flow
More informationPIPE FLOW. General Characteristic of Pipe Flow. Some of the basic components of a typical pipe system are shown in Figure 1.
PIPE FLOW General Characteristic of Pipe Flow Figure 1 Some of the basic components of a typical pipe system are shown in Figure 1. They include the pipes, the various fitting used to connect the individual
More informationThe Mechatronics Design for Measuring Fluid Friction Losses in Pipe Flows Rıza Gurbuz
Solid State Phenomena Vol. 113 (2006) pp 603608 Online available since 2006/Jun/15 at www.scientific.net (2006) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.113.603 The Mechatronics
More informationME3560 Tentative Schedule Fall 2018
ME3560 Tentative Schedule Fall 2018 Week Number 1 Wednesday 8/29/2018 1 Date Lecture Topics Covered Introduction to course, syllabus and class policies. Math Review. Differentiation. Prior to Lecture Read
More informationHydroelectric Design
INTERAMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF BAYAMON PUERTO RICO Hydroelectric Design Dr. Eduardo G. Pérez Díaz Erik T. Rosado González 5/14/2012 Hydroelectric design project for fluid class. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF
More informationRecap: Static Fluids
Recap: Static Fluids Archimedes principal states that the buoyant force acting on an object is equal to the weight of fluid displaced. If the average density of object is greater than density of fluid
More informationFigure 3: Problem 7. (a) 0.9 m (b) 1.8 m (c) 2.7 m (d) 3.6 m
1. For the manometer shown in figure 1, if the absolute pressure at point A is 1.013 10 5 Pa, the absolute pressure at point B is (ρ water =10 3 kg/m 3, ρ Hg =13.56 10 3 kg/m 3, ρ oil = 800kg/m 3 ): (a)
More informationFluid Dynamics Exercises and questions for the course
Fluid Dynamics Exercises and questions for the course January 15, 2014 A two dimensional flow field characterised by the following velocity components in polar coordinates is called a free vortex: u r
More informationOrifice and Venturi Pipe Flow Meters
Orifice and Venturi Pipe Flow Meters by Harlan H. Bengtson, PhD, P.E. 1. Introduction Your Course Title Here The flow rate of a fluid flowing in a pipe under pressure is measured for a variety of applications,
More informationABSTRACT I. INTRODUCTION
2016 IJSRSET Volume 2 Issue 4 Print ISSN : 23951990 Online ISSN : 23944099 Themed Section: Engineering and Technology Analysis of Compressible Effect in the Flow Metering By Orifice Plate Using Prasanna
More informationExam #2: Fluid Kinematics and Conservation Laws April 13, 2016, 7:00 p.m. 8:40 p.m. in CE 118
CVEN 311501 (Socolofsky) Fluid Dynamics Exam #2: Fluid Kinematics and Conservation Laws April 13, 2016, 7:00 p.m. 8:40 p.m. in CE 118 Name: : UIN: : Instructions: Fill in your name and UIN in the space
More information