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1 WATER, CLIMATE, AND VEGETATION Vocabulary Activity DIRECTIONS: Fill in the Blanks Select a term from below to complete each of the following sentences. CHAPTER 1. The constant movement of water, a process known as the 46 which liquid water changes into as rain, snow, or sleet, falls back to Earth., can be broken into steps: first, of water occurs in of water vapor occurs, and clouds are formed.. In high, cool air, 2. is a combination of temperature, wind, and water effects in the Pacific Ocean. marine west coast climate condensation El Niño climate humid subtropical climate Tropics rain forest water cycle Mediterranean climate evaporation water vapor aquifer humid continental climate savanna groundwater weather precipitation conservation ecosystems 3. Mid-latitude climates include two coastal climates, well as the inland and and the, found near the Tropics. 4. In the, or the regions near the Equator, you may find a lush a broad grassland area with few trees called a. of tall trees with canopies that block the sun or 5. Under the earth s surface, can accumulate in an, or a rock layer that water flows through. 6. is what a day is like outside, but is what most days are like this time of year in this area., such 7. The first step in managing water supplies is, or the careful use of resources. 8. are places where the plants and animals are dependent upon one another and their surroundings for survival., as

2 W N S E Name Date Class WATER, CLIMATE, AND VEGETATION Chapter Map Activity CHAPTER The World: Ocean Currents 50

3 W N S E Name Date Class WATER, CLIMATE, AND VEGETATION Chapter Map Activity The World: Climate Regions CHAPTER 51

4 WATER, CLIMATE, AND VEGETATION Take-Home Review Activity (continued) There are an average of 100 different species of large trees in a single acre of rain forest. Word Unscramble CHAPTER Directions: Look at the letters below. Unscramble the letters to form important terms from this chapter. After you unscramble the term, write a definition for that term without using your textbook. 1. N O D C S A N N T I E O L I C A G R E T R A H E W E P P T E E S V A N S N A A L M A E T C I 7. V E A P T O R A I N O 8. M S T Y C O E S E 9. D R U T N A 10. S S I I P C D T E E

5 HISTORY WATER, CLIMATE, AND GEOGRAPHY AND VEGETATION ACTIVITIES GEOGRAPHY AND THE WORLD Guided Reading Activity 1 The Water Planet DIRECTIONS: Reading for Accuracy Reading the section and completing the activity below will help you learn more about Earth s water. Use your textbook to decide if a statement is true or false. Write T or F, and if a statement is false, rewrite it correctly. 1. The three forms of water found on the earth are liquid, ice, and water vapor. 2. The total amount of water on the earth is always changing. 3. The water cycle is the movement of water from surfaces of lakes, rivers, and oceans to the air; then to the ground; and then back to the oceans. SECTION 1 4. Cold air can hold more water vapor than warm air. 5. Condensation occurs when warm air rises and cools, losing its ability to hold humidity. 6. People and fish are the only creatures that really need water. 7. There is more water found in lakes and rivers than in groundwater. 8. Glaciers and polar ice caps hold about 2 percent of the earth s freshwater. 9. About 95 percent of the earth s water is salt water. 10. The four major oceans are the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic. 70

6 HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY ACTIVITIESWATER, GEOGRAPHY CLIMATE, AND VEGETATION THE WORLD DIRECTIONS: Filling in the Blanks Reading the section and completing the sentences below will help you learn more about climate. Refer to your textbook to fill in the blanks. Guided Reading Activity 2 (1) describes the unpredictable changes in air that occur Climate over a short period of time. (2) is the usual, predictable pattern of weather in a certain area over a long period of time. It is affected by the sun, wind, ocean currents, (3) of (4), and people. Scientists look at the extremes and precipitation in order to understand the (5) of an area. Climate is also affected by the (6) at which the (7) rays hit the earth. The areas near the Equator are known as the (8). Here you would almost always experience a hot SECTION 2 climate. (9) months at a time, mainly in (10) are seasonal winds that blow over continents for and Africa. Thunderstorms may produce dangerous (11), or funnel-shaped windstorms. (12) form when cold winds from the east are weak. When the winds from the east are strong, (13) occur. The warm current called the (14) flows along the east coast of North America and crosses to Europe, where it is called the (15). The climate on the (16) side of mountains is moist and foggy, making vegetation very green. By the time the air moves over the top, it becomes cool and dry, creating a (17). 71

7 HISTORY WATER, CLIMATE, AND GEOGRAPHY AND VEGETATION ACTIVITIES GEOGRAPHY AND THE WORLD Guided Reading Activity 3 Climate Zones and Vegetation DIRECTIONS: Answering Questions Reading the section and answering the questions below will help you learn about climate zones and vegetation. Refer to your textbook to write the answers. 1. What are the two types of tropical climate regions? 2. What is the main difference between the two tropical climates? 3. What are the different types of climates found in the mid-latitude region? SECTION 3 4. Which climate has a strong growth of deciduous trees and coniferous forests? 5. Where are the high latitude climates located? 6. What is a tundra? 7. What are the only things that can grow in the ice cap climate? 8. How much rainfall do the driest climates receive? 9. Describe the steppe climate. 10. What is the timberline? 72

8 HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY ACTIVITIESWATER, GEOGRAPHY CLIMATE, AND VEGETATION THE WORLD DIRECTIONS: Answering Questions Reading the section and answering the questions below will help you learn more about how people can affect the environment. Use your textbook to write answers to the questions. 1. What are the four basic parts of the earth s physical geography? Guided Reading Activity 4 An Environmental Balance 2. What are the three global effects of air pollution? 3. What happens when the chemicals in air pollution combine with precipitation? 4. How does deforestation affect topsoil? 5. Why do some farmers practice crop rotation? 6. About what percent of the world s freshwater is used for farming? SECTION 4 7. What two steps are involved in managing water supplies? 8. How can the pesticides that farmers use to help increase food production also be harmful? 9. What are ecosystems? 10. What is included in a wetland s biodiversity? 73

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