3) What is the difference between latitude and longitude and what is their affect on local and world weather and climate?

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1 1) Describe the difference between climate and weather citing an example of each. Describe how water (ocean, lake, river) has a local effect on weather and climate and provide evidence. Sample Correct Response: Weather is short-term phenomena and climate is general temperature and moisture characteristics over a long period of time. A rain or snow storm is characteristic of a climate that is generally moderate. If there was no water, there would be no precipitation. Areas around water generally have wetter weather whereas areas that are not close to water are dryer in weather and overall. 2.) Describe how global patterns of wind such as the jet stream or ocean currents influence weather and climate of local regions. Describe how human impact can affect these patterns in a negative way. Sample Correct Response: Jet streams are high speed moving air, and this pattern of air can move weather from one location to another. The regular patterns and directions of jet streams can influence climate of a region because the direction of the weather is consistent. Ocean currents bring warmer water up from the South and colder water from the North and when they mix in localized areas, a moderate climate can experience changes in weather. Human impact can possibly change these global patterns which would adjust climates of local areas. An example could be if an arid area receives record rainfall for a long period of time. This could cause flooding. Or an area of crops that depends on the rainfall and moderate temperatures gets a cold and dry snap so the crops cannot grow. 3) What is the difference between latitude and longitude and what is their affect on local and world weather and climate?

2 4) Los Angeles, California, and Memphis, Tennessee, are both located at about the same latitude, yet Memphis often has snowfall in winter while Los Angeles experiences a moderate temperature all year round. Why? A) Los Angeles has a higher elevation than Memphis. B) Los Angeles receives more direct sunlight than Memphis. C) Memphis and Los Angeles are located in different global wind belts. D) The climate of Los Angeles is moderated by its nearness to the ocean. 5) Why does the temperature decrease as you go up a mountain? A) The higher elevations are closer to the sun. B) The air gets thinner as you go up the mountain and can store less heat. C) There is more wind at higher elevations which makes it feel colder. D) Cold air rises and warm air sinks.

3 6) During the summer, coastal areas tend to have than areas farther inland. A) lower temperatures B) lower humidity C) less wind D) higher temperatures 7) What happens as you climb a mountain? A) The air pressure increases. B) The air pressure remains constant. C) The temperature increases. D) The temperature decreases. 8) What is the main energy source for the world's major ocean surface currents? A) the sun B) heat from inside the Earth C) the Moon's gravity D) the movement of the Earth through space 9) In winter, cold, dry air blows from west to east over the Great Lakes. This results in on the east side of the lakes. A) dry, sunny weather B) frequent heavy snows C) frequent thunderstorms D) very warm, humid weather 10) The ocean contributes to the world's climate by. A) absorbing nitrogen B) storing heat C) storing salt D) releasing carbon dioxide 11) Sunlight and the Earth's rotation cause global winds which move across the ocean. These winds create movement of the ocean water known as: A) tides B) waves C) tsunamis D) currents

4 12) Which two factors determine a region's climate? A) average temperature and population B) average temperature and precipitation C) average wind speed and temperature D) average pollution level and precipitation 13) The climate of inland areas differs from that of coastal areas in that inland areas: A) are always colder than coastal areas. B) are always hotter than coastal areas. C) have more extreme temperatures than coastal areas. D) have milder temperatures than coastal areas. 14) As you travel farther north to Canada from the United States, the climate becomes cooler because: A) there is much more snow in Canada. B) the seasons are shorter in Canada. C) there are more trees and fewer houses in Canada. D) less solar energy is available at higher latitudes. 15) Generally, the higher the latitude, the the climate is. A) warmer B) colder C) more humid D) less windy 16) A prevailing wind blows from the ocean against a mountain range. As a result of this, which area experiences a dry climate? A) the top of the mountain range B) the area all around the bottom of the mountain range C) the leeward side of the mountain range D) the windward side of the mountain range 17) Which areas of the Earth receive the least direct solar radiation? A) areas near the poles B) areas around the equator C) areas in the middle of continents D) areas over the oceans

5 18) The weather pattern known as El Nino develops in the: A) Arctic Ocean. B) polar region of the Pacific Ocean. C) tropical region of the Pacific Ocean. D) tropical region of the Atlantic Ocean. 19) The average temperature and rainfall in an area is its: A) weather B) climate C) topography D) season 20) The windward and leeward sides of a mountain tend to have: A) the same climate. B) different amounts of rainfall. C) different wind directions. D) different seasons 21) Which global wind is responsible for weather movement across the United States? A) the doldrums B) the trade winds C) the polar easterlies D) the prevailing westerlies 22) Which of the following is an example of climate? A) It is cloudy and raining outside today. B) The forecast calls for sunny skies this weekend. C) The desert is hot and dry most of the year. D) Snow is predicted for early next week. 23) Which of the following has a major effect on climate? A) weathering B) oceans C) the moon D) earthquakes

6 24. The Gulf Stream is an ocean current that travels from the southern tip of Florida along the eastern coast of the United States. Because of the Gulf Stream, the states along the coast have than states that are farther inland. A) lower humidity B) fewer storms C) warmer air temperatures D) weaker winds 25) In the winter, coastal areas tend to have than areas farther inland. A) less wind B) lower humidity C) lower temperatures D) higher temperatures

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