Bell Work. REVIEW: Our Planet Earth Page 29 Document A & B Questions

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1 Bell Work REVIEW: Our Planet Earth Page 29 Document A & B Questions

2 Intro to Climate & Weather Weather vs. Climate Video

3 Climate & Weather 3.1 Weather is the condition of the air and sky at a certain time. Climate is the average weather of a place over many years.

4 Climate and Weather 3.1 Precipitation is water that falls to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, or hail.

5 Climate and Weather 3.1 Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold the air is. Precipitation and temperature are the main ways to describe both Weather and Climate!

6 Climate and Weather 3.1 Climate graphs show the average climate for a place for each month of a year. Curved lines showing average temperatures Bars showing average monthly precipitation See page 33 of textbook!

7 Climate and Weather 3.1

8 Factors that Influence Climate 1. Location 2. Rotation and tilt of Earth 3. Water 4. Currents 5. Mountains

9 Factors that Influence Climate LOCATION: This is the most important factor. Latitude on the earth (north or south of the equator) is critical to climate. Generally, the closer a place is to the equator, the warmer it will be. The farther it is from the equator (like Antarctica) the colder it will be. Location overpowers all of the other climate influences.

10 Temperature 3.2 Because of the tilt of Earth s axis, different parts of Earth receive different amounts of direct sunlight. As a result, some regions are warmer than others.

11 Temperature 3.2 Polar Zones (high latitudes) are the North/South poles. They get the least amount of SUN! Temperatures stay cool to bitterly cold.

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13 Temperature 3.2 The tropics (low latitudes) lie between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Sunshine all year! HOT!!!

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15 Temperature 3.2 Because of the tilt of Earth s axis, temperature patterns change from season to season.

16 Temperature 3.2 In January, it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere and summer in the Southern Hemisphere. In July, season are reversed summer in Northern Hemisphere, winter in Southern Hemisphere. Summer/Winter solstice days are longer in one hemisphere & shorter in the other!

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19 Water and Climate 3.3 People need fresh water to live. All fresh water comes from precipitation!

20 Water and Climate 3.3 Water: Areas located near a large body of water, such as an ocean or large lake, have relatively mild temperatures. This is because water does not heat or cool as fast as land does. For example, when sand on a beach is hot, the water is still cool. Therefore, wind that blows in from the water will be cooler than the air over land. This results in a more mild climate. Likewise, in the winter, the water is warmer than the land and winds blowing in will warm the air over land. This is why in summer areas near an ocean or lake will be cooler than inland.

21 Water and Climate 3.3 Oceans help spread Earth s heat and shape climates! Ocean currents act like large rivers within the oceans. These ocean currents surround our continents. EAST AUSTRALIAN CURRENT Finding Nemo

22 Water and Climate 3.3 There are warm and cold currents. Warm currents start near the equator where they are warmed by the sun. Cold currents start near the poles. The movement of the currents spreads the earth s heat evenly throughout the planet.

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24 Water and Climate 3.3 A warm current is more likely to produce rain than a cold current because warm water evaporates more quickly than cold water. This puts moisture in the atmosphere that wind carries over the land. This then will fall as rain. Cold currents create dry air and therefore little rain. The Amazon rain forest is located near a warm water current while the Sahara desert is just east of a cold water current.

25 Water and Climate 3.3 Amazon Rain Forest

26 Water and Climate 3.3 Sahara Desert

27 The Water Cycle 2 evaporation 3 condensation 4 precipitation 5 transportation

28 Air Circulation and Precipitation 3.4 Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) the area of rising air near the Equator. 1. The sun s heat warms the air. Since warm air is lighter than cool air, the warm air rises. 2. Air that has cooled is pushed away from the rising warm air. This air forms winds high above Earth. 3. When cool air reaches a point where air is no longer rising from Earth s surface, it sinks to the ground. When it sinks less moisture. 4. As sinking air reaches the surface, it produces winds that blow along the surface and pick up moisture. These winds blow from areas of sinking air (high pressure) to areas of rising air (low pressure).

29 Air Circulation and Precipitation 3.4 Most storms occur when two air masses of different temperatures or moisture contents come together. Tropical Cyclone an intense rainstorm with strong winds that forms over the oceans in the tropics.

30 Hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons are all the same weather phenomenon; we just use different names for these storms in different places. Atlantic and Northeast Pacific = Hurricane Northwest Pacific = Typhoon South Pacific and Indian Ocean = Cyclones

31 Air Circulation and Precipitation 3.4 Tornado a swirling funnel of wind that can reach 300 miles/hour.

32 Types of Climate 3.5 Patterns of temperature and precipitation create world climate regions. Climate regions are areas that share a similar climate! Tropical Wet Tundra Tropical Wet & Dry Semiarid Humid Subtropical Arid Mediterranean Subarctic Maritime Continental Cool Summer Continental Warm Summer TOTAL = 11

33 Types of Climate 3.5 Tropical Wet climates combine hot temperatures and heavy rainfall year-round. They are clustered around the Equator.

34 Types of Climate 3.5 Tropical Wet & Dry climates have a wet season in summer and a dry season in winter.

35 Types of Climate 3.5 Humid Subtropical climates have year-round precipitation with mild winters and hot summers.

36 Types of Climate 3.5 Mediterranean climates have hot, dry weather in the summer and a rainy season in the winter.

37 Types of Climate 3.5 Maritime climates are wet year-round, with mild winters and cool summers. They exist where moist winds blow onshore.

38 Types of Climate 3.5 Continental Warm Summer climates have year-round precipitation, warm summers, and cold, snowy winters.

39 Types of Climate 3.5 Continental Cool Summer or Subarctic climates are similar, but have generally lower temperatures.

40 Types of Climate 3.5 Tundra climates have cool summers and bitterly cold, dry winters. Close to the poles, the ice caps, or permanent sheets of ice covering land or sea, have bitter cold and dry climates year-round.

41 Types of Climate 3.5 Semiarid, (dry) and Arid (very dry) climates occur where there is steadily sinking air (so less moisture). Semiarid Arid

42 Types of Climate 3.5 Semiarid, (dry) and Arid (very dry) climates occur where there is steadily sinking air (so less moisture). Semiarid Arid

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