Biomes and Biodiversity

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1 Biomes and Biodiversity

2 Agenda 2/4/13 Biomes review terrestrial and aquatic Biodiversity Climate Change Introduction Weather

3 Terrestrial Biomes Review Tundra Boreal Forest (Taiga) Temperate Forest Temperate woodland Temperate Grassland Desert Tropical Savanna Tropical Forest Tropical Rainforest Mountains Polar Regions

4 Biomes are determined by the climate, plants, and animals of the area. The climate, or weather conditions over a long period of time, determine the plants that will grow. The plants that grow in a certain area are going to determine the other organisms that can live there.

5 Temperature and precipitation determine biomes.

6 Latitude and Altitude also determine biomes.

7 Most organisms survive within a range of conditions.

8 Tropical Rainforest Play a vital role in the carbon/oxygen and nitrogen cycles. Very thin soil with little nutrients Rainforest cleared for agriculture usual cannot support crops for more than a couple years. Biome with the greatest amount of diversity.

9

10 Temperate Deciduous Forest Plants and animals are adapted to the changing seasons. Plants lose their leaves- adaptation Migration and hibernation are adaptations of animals in the deciduous forest.

11 Forest aren t as dense as the tropical rainforest, so more plants can grow near the ground.

12 Boreal Forest/ Taiga Also known as the coniferous forest The shape of the trees allow them to shed the snow so that it does not become weighed down.

13 Savanna Many animals of the savanna are active only during the wet season and use give birth during this time. Grass fires during the dry season help return nutrients to the soil.

14 Temperate Grasslands Prairie grasses are perennials. Very few natural temperate grassland still remain.

15 Deserts Often located near large mountain ranges. Variety of species of succulents live in the desert. One adaption of animal survival is estivation.

16 Tundra Food chains are simple and easily disturbed. Birds and other migratory animals return to the tundra to breed during the summer.

17 Rivers of E. Tennessee- Holston, Nolichucky, French Broad, Tennessee, Clinch Lakes of E. Tennessee- Cherokee, Douglass, S. Holston, Boone, Watauga

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19 Local Wetland Wetlands- Shady Valley

20 What causes the climate in the first place? Latitude Atmospheric circulation patterns Oceanic circulation patterns Local geography Solar activity Volcanic activity

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22 Atmospheric Circulation Warm air expands and cools as it rises. Cold air compresses and warms as it sinks. Warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air. The heating and cooling of air creates wind The wind circulation pattern determines the precipitation pattern.

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24 Prevailing Winds Trade Winds- Blow from the Northeast in the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies - Blow from the Southwest in the Northern Hemisphere

25 Ocean Circulation Patterns El Nino-warm phase of the cycle. Causes increased rain in Southeastern United States La Nina- cool phase of the cycle. Causes drier conditions in the Southeastern United States

26

27

28 Atmosphere

29 Troposphere- Weather occurs here Ozone Layer- O3; Protects Earth from UV rays Stratosphere- where the ozone layer is located Thermosphere Ionosphere- Radio waves reach here and bounce back Exosphere Satellites orbit here Magnetosphere- Earth s magnetic field; aurora borealis

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31 The Ozone Layer Area where ozone (O3) is highly concentrated- Earth s sunscreen. Chloroflorocarbons (CFC)- destroy ozone. 1 chlorine atom can destroy 100,000 ozone molecules. Ozone Hole

32 Break down of ozone allows more UV light to reach Earth s surface. Increased in UV light can have harmful effects on humans and other organisms. Chain reaction

33

34 Global Warming Greenhouse Effect Earth s atmosphere acts like a greenhouse Water vapor, CO2, CFC s, CH4, N2O CO2 levels have risen over the past century Earth s average global temperature has increased over the past century.

35 Computer models used in making predictions and calculations. Hard to account for Earth s feedback processes (i.e. clouds, water vapor, change in vegetation, change in ocean chemistry) So many variables to account for Computer modeling is becoming more reliable.

36 Consequences to Rising Temperatures Melting ice and rising sea levels Change in global weather patterns Human Health Problems Agriculture Changing climate = changing biomes Plant and animals may not be able to adapt easily

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