Cosmic Ray panorama. Pamela.roma2.infn.it PAMELA (2012) Experimental challenges : e + /p ~ 10-3 e + /e - ~ 10-1

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2 Cosmic Ray panorama Pamela.roma2.infn.it PAMELA (2012) Experimental challenges : e + /p ~ 10-3 e + /e - ~ 10-1 Pamela : < 0.1 evt year/gev Flux E α α 2.7 / 3.3 Statistical precision 2

3 Origin of Electrons Primary particles ejected from SN/SNR : Injection E -γe Energy loss (IC,Sync) ~E -γe-1 TeV electrons : Local < 1kpc Individual sources visible? ATIC Energy cut-off ATIC BEPS arxiv M Di Mauro et al. Fermi HESS-LE / HESS Requirements : Statistics Energy resolution 3

4 Origin of positrons Predictions & Uncertainties Secondary particles from e.g p/he + ISM p + n + π +, Injection (proton spectrum) : E yp-δ E -2.7 γp ~ 2 (Fermi mechanism) δ = (Diffusion : B/C,.) Energy loss (IC, Sync) : E γp-δ-1 Uncertainties arise from Proton spectrum : extrapolation to higher energy Cross-Section : Parameters of the propagation (Halo, diffusion, winds ) Parameterization of p flux : Cross sections A&A (2009) 4

5 (2013) Secondary origin only : φ e+ φ e + φ e+ ~ E δ (γp γe ~ 1, δ = ) Primary source of positrons : nature? 5

6 PAMELA Acceptance limited to ~ 21 cm 2.sr Set of Time-Of-Flight (TOF) plastic scintillators + PMT: Trigger Albedo rejection Mass identification up to 1 GeV de/dx Spectrometer microstrip Si tracking system (TRK) + permanent magnet 0.43 T Charge sign, momentum de/dx NEW : all leptons analysis using Calorimeter + Neutron Detector Electromagnetic calorimeter W/Si sampling (16.3 X 0, 0.6 λ I ) Discrimination e + / p, p-bar / e - (shower topology) Direct E measurement for e - /e + Neutron Detector polyethylene + 3 He counters: High-energy e/h discrimination 6

7 19 Mai

8 p e ± ACC(p) : 0.5 m 2.sr ACC(e) : 0.04 m 2.sr TOF : Main trigger Up/Down direction TRACKER : 8 layers Si 10 µm 0.14 T MDR ~ 2 TeV e+ p e p ECAL : Imaging Calorimeter 17 x0 Vietnam Lead/Sci % e- 8

9 ATIC No magnet 0.25 m 2.sr e + /p Imaging calorimeter 22.5 X0 BGO / 2% FERMI e + /p No magnet ~2 m 2.sr : Imaging Calorimeter 10 X0 CsI / 5-10% e + /e - : Earth shadow HESS e + /p Shower shape in atmosphere 15 % Large collection area ( m 2.sr) 9

10 All electrons flux (1) : AMS TeV Event Sample : 10.5 million events Preliminary ICHEP

11 All electrons flux (2) : PAMELA TeV Preliminary ICHEP 2014 (ICRC 2013) 11

12 All electrons flux HESS several TeV γ1 = 3.0 +/- 0.1 γ2 = 4.1 +/- 0.3 Systematic : Atmosphere modeling Proton shower modeling (π 0 ) Energy scale Evidence for an energy cut-off at about 1-2 TeV 12

13 Energy Scale φ φ 0 E 3 ~ 2-5 % for Satellite /Balloon ~ 15 % for HESS Lots of protons homogeneity response, time stability Linearity : ions (de/dx), E/p Absolute E scale No standard candles in space Test beam MC description... E/p (p ) 13

14 Positron fraction - AMS 500 GeV Submitted to PRL N e+ R ee ~ N e + N e+ Flat behaviour at high energies Energy scale syst. cancels Acc/Eff syst. cancels Main issues : Protons rejection Charge confusion AMS - 30 months 72 positrons (last bin) Stat : 18% Syst (cc) : 12% 14

15 Electron flux up to 700 GeV Preliminary ICHEP 2014 Spectral index larger than 3 15

16 Positron flux up to 500 GeV Preliminary ICHEP 2014 Spectral index smaller than 3 above 35 GeV 16

17 Interpretations (1) Astrophysics : Pulsar Wind Dark Matter : Leptophilic : constraint from antiproton (or nearby clumps) Larger cross-sections than required by the relic density Or Boost factors Or Sommerfeld effect 17

18 Interpretations (2) examples Secondary + Primary fluxes PULSAR LAPTH & LAPP prelim. R TT = φ e+ φ LLLLLLL AMS ICRC 2012 Decrease of the signal is a discriminating parameter DM e(10%) µ (30%) τ (45%) b (15%) 18

19 Anisotropy (1) Preliminary ICHEP 2014 AMS positrons In arrival direction of electrons and positrons. Indication of an astrophysical source but could be mimicked by a nearby clump AMS 26 months Phys.Rev. D82(2010) AMS : can distinguish between positrons and electrons. Fermi : large statistic higher E range compatibility with isotropic distribution of arrival directions FERMI 1 year 19

20 Anisotropy (2) prospects arxiv: Subject to modelling 20

21 ½ TeV TeV range is being explored But statistically limited N LLLLLLL AAA m 2. ss T Outlook e+/(e-+e+) T comes for free! But. PAMELA ~ 8 to 9 years won t improve significantly stat AMS : ~3 years a factor 4 to expect in stat (10 years) δ Stat /2 AMS - ~ 10 years projection Next step requires a significant increase in the geometrical acceptance : CALET : 0.12 m 2.sr GAMMA 400 : ~2.5 m 2.sr CTA All electrons 21

22 CALET - launch 2015 on ISS (see next talk) Z ACC : 0.12 m 2 sr. (~ AMS X 3) Imaging Calorimeter (W / Fiber) 3 X0 Absorption Calorimeter (PWO) 27 X λ 1000 el > 1 TeV 5y 22

23 GAMMA 400 Acc : 3.9 m 2 sr Convertor + Tracker : W/Si Drift space BGO/Si Imaging Calorimeter : 10 X0 BGO Calorimeter 14 X0 : 23

24 Positrons of several TeV 5 m 2.sr (AMS X 100) Calorimeter W : 15 tons Issue is the magnet Large permanent magnet : Weight B field limited Superconducting Lighter (1 tons) larger B field mitigate CC AMS 03? TeV e+/e- SRD 24

25 Conclusion 2013 : 18 months E S = TeV Positrons : Up to ½ TeV is being explored AMS : Pos fraction : sub PRL All leptons + ind. Fluxes: end of years : few hundred e+ above 500 GeV Leptons : Promising result with CALET CTA with a large collection area will be able to observe change of slope 30 months 25

26 BACKUP SLIDES

27 Geomagnetic field AMS-01 Max Latitude : AMS : 47 Pamela : 70 27

28 Solar Modulation & Solar Flares Below 10 GeV, the comparison between measurements and with predictions is not straightforward. 28

29 For illustration only A&A (2009) 29

30 Fermi positron 30

31 Self consistency 31

32 AMS : Charge confusion 32

33 Electron / Proton separation : method TRD ECAL 33

34 34

35 35

36 Gamma-400 Russian conceptual scheme of the apparatus Converter/Tracker (W+Si) Imaging Calor. (CC1) Homogeneous Calorimeter (BGO) (CC2) 36

37 /12 37

38 38

39 Anisotropy Sun PAMELA 39

40 Energy Scale φ φ 0 E 3 φ φ = 2 E E ~ 2-5 % for Satellite /Balloon ~ 15 % for HESS Lots of protons homogeneity response, time stability Linearity : ions (de/dx), E/p Absolute E scale No standard candles in space Test beam MC description... E/p (p ) 40

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