New results from the AMS experiment on the International Space Station. Henning Gast RWTH Aachen

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1 New results from the AMS experiment on the International Space Station Henning Gast RWTH Aachen 1

2 Questions to AMS-02: Are there galaxies made of anti-matter in the Universe? What is the nature of Dark Matter? How do cosmic rays propagate in the Galaxy?

3 Overview Physics with AMS-02 The AMS-02 detector New data from AMS-02: positrons and electrons protons and light nuclei B/C antiprotons 3

4 The search for antimatter in the Universe The Universe was created in the Big Bang. AMS on the ISS After the Big Bang, there must have been equal amounts of matter and anti-matter. 4

5 The search for antimatter in the Universe The Universe was created in the Big Bang. AMS on the ISS After the Big Bang, there must have been equal amounts of matter and anti-matter. 5

6 Atomic nuclei are accelerated in supernovae to very high energies and become cosmic rays. Are there anti-galaxies in the Universe? Can we observe an anti-carbon nucleus from a far distant supernova? Kepler's SNR 6

7 Relic Dark Matter Freeze-out in the early Universe: Bergström freeze-out Dark matter makes up a substantial fraction of the energy density of the Universe. But what is its nature? relic density annihilation cross section 7

8 Dark Matter annihilation Products of Dark Matter annihilations get injected into the cosmic-ray sea: Dark matter particles standard model particles χ χ particle detector most promising channels: e +, p, D, (He), (and photons) 8

9 Cosmic ray physics in a nutshell Image: GALEX, JPL-Caltech, NASA; Drawing: APS/Alan Stonebraker

10 Excellent results from PAMELA M. Martucci TevPA

11 AMS-02: A TeV precision, multi-purpose spectrometer TRD Identify e+, e- Particles and nuclei are defined by their charge (Z) and energy (E ~ P) 1 TOF Z, E Silicon Tracker Z, P TRD TOF Magnet ±Z Tracker ECAL E of e+, e-, γ TOF RICH 9 ECAL RICH Z, E Z, P are measured independently by the Tracker, RICH, TOF and ECAL 11

12 1 out of more than 80,000,000,000 events: 1.03 TeV electron front view side view TRD: identifies electron Tracker and Magnet: measure charge sign and momentum ECAL: identifies electron and measures its energy 12

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15 Tracker: Rigidity resolution L1 L2 L3,4 L5,6 L7,8 L9 CERN beamtest data Rigidity = momentum / charge 15

16 Tracker: Charge measurement C O Li B Be N 16

17 TRD: Transition radiation detector TR yield proportional to = E/m heavy particle radiator electron 1 / 20 TRD layers, AMS flight data: Electrons Signal wire Xe/CO2 Straw Tube Protons Transition Radiation 17

18 AMS-02 Transition Radiation Detector Misidentifies only 1 in protons as a positron.

19 TOF: Time-of-Flight system Measures velocity and charge: TOF 1 and 2 Events x10 3 Events Z=2 Z=6 Time ps Time ps Velocity [Rigidity>20GV] Velocity [Rigidity>20GV] H He TOF 3 and 4 Li B C Be N O Ne Plane 4 F Na Mg Al Si P S Mn ClAr Ca 3, K 4 Sc Ti VCr Fe Ni Zn 19

20 ECAL: Electromagnetic calorimeter Precision, 3-D measurement of the directions and energies of light rays and electrons up to 1 TeV. 50,000 fibers, mm distributed uniformly inside 600 kg of lead Total: 17 X 0 20

21 RICH: Ring-imaging Cherenkov counter Velocity measurement to 1/

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24 Tracker 24

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28 Electrons and positrons have a different origin. A Standard Model to describe all our data does not exist. Therefore we have to use simple phenomenological models. 28

29 Simple phenomenological model for AMS electrons, positrons 68% CL 2014 AMS 2.5 years source term diffuse term solar modulation: diffuse term common source term 29

30 2014 AMS 2.5 years source term diffuse term The electron flux - has no sharp structures and is dominated by the diffuse term, - is consistent with a charge-symmetric source term. 30

31 % CL AMS 5 years source term diffuse term The positron flux - has no sharp structures, - is dominated by the source term. The significance for the cutoff is 3σ with the data up to

32 MC AMS: 13 years Positrons 2024 DM 1 TeV The significance of the energy cutoff of the source term will have increased to >5σ in

33 Fluxes of protons, positrons, and electrons show a characteristic time dependence below ~20 GeV. 33

34 AMS electron flux: June 2011 May

35 Cosmic rays interact with the heliosphere, which evolves with time. 35

36 Solar modulation year 36

37 Positrons and electrons reveal charge-sign dependent solar modulation. 37

38 Complex structure of the solar magnetic field causes chargedependent modulation effects. 38

39 39

40 The e + /p ratio does not show large variations as a function of time. The full power of the high precision AMS data sets can only be explored after time-dependent effects are extracted and the data can be used to constrain the local interstellar spectra. 40

41 Multiple measurements of charge 41

42 Tracker resolution 42

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44 It was expected that the proton spectrum could be described by a simple power law with spectral index γ =

45 45

46 It was expected that the helium spectrum could be described by a simple power law with spectral index γ =

47 47

48 Flux ratios: boron/carbon and cosmic-ray propagation The boron-to-carbon ratio (B/C) is important in the determination of cosmic-ray propagation. Boron is assumed to be produced in the collision of primary cosmic rays, such as carbon, with the interstellar medium (ISM), hence the B/C ratio provides information on cosmic-ray propagation. 48

49 B/C ratio measured by AMS 2.3 million boron and 8.3 million carbon nuclei. B/C ~ R δ δ = ± ± Kolmogorov turbulence model predicts δ = -1/3. 49

50 50

51 B/C ratio measured by AMS Cowsik+ (2014) 51

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54 54

55 DM 55

56 G.Giesen et al., JCAP09 (2015)

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58 58

59 Summary: AMS results on fluxes of elementary particles 59

60 Summary Proton and helium show power-law fluxes for E > ~30 GeV. Both have a spectral break at E~300 GeV, and p/he is not constant. Strong constraints on models for cosmic-ray propagation from B/C data. Electron flux is smaller and significantly softer than the proton flux. Evidence for charge-sign dependent solar modulation. Above E~30 GeV, antiprotons and positrons approximately exhibit powerlaw behaviour. Intriguingly, According to Lipari (2016), expected antiproton-to-positron ratio for common origin in secondary production is 1.8 ±