The High-Energy Interstellar Medium

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1 The High-Energy Interstellar Medium Andy Strong MPE Garching on behalf of Fermi-LAT collaboration Cosmic Ray Interactions: Bridging High and Low Energy Astrophysics Lorentz Centre Workshop March

2 2 years

3 2 years 1 year Both flying now. A lot of common astrophysics!

4

5 Where do most of these gamma rays come from?

6 intergalactic space HALO reacceleration energy loss decay Secondary: 10Be, 10,11B... Fe.. synchrotron Secondary: e+- p cosmic-ray sources: p, He.. Ni, e- πo γ rays B-field gas ISRF bremsstrahlung inverse Compton

7 intergalactic space HALO synchrotron cosmic-ray sources: electrons B-field ISRF inverse Compton γ rays Cosmic-ray electrons provide the link radio gamma ray Hence (one of the) Fermi Planck connection(s)!

8 The goal : use all types of data in self-consistent way to test models of cosmic-ray propagation. Observed directly, near Sun: primary spectra (p, He... Fe; e- ) secondary/primary (B/C etc) secondary e+, antiprotons... Observed from whole Galaxy: γ - rays synchrotron

9 The goal : use all types of data in self-consistent way to test models of cosmic-ray propagation. Observed directly, near Sun: primary spectra (p, He... Fe; e- ) secondary/primary (B/C etc) secondary e+, antiprotons... Observed from whole Galaxy: γ - rays synchrotron

10 DIFFUSE EMISSION RESULTS FROM FERMI-LAT Fermi-LAT Gamma Ray Observatory maps the whole sky every 3 hours 30 MeV 300 GeV arcminute resolution data public immediately 1-2 years of data low background event class (developed for extragalactic background study) Fermi-measured cosmic-ray electron spectrum

11 Modelling the gamma-ray sky Main ingredients of GALPROP model cosmic-ray spectra p, He, e-, e+ (including secondaries) (including Fermi-measured electrons) cosmic-ray source distribution follow e.g. SNR/pulsars secondary/primary ratios (B/C etc) for propagation parameters halo height = 4-10 kpc (from radioactive cosmic-ray nuclei) Interstellar radiation field (Frankie code) (-> inverse Compton) B-field (electron energy losses, synchrotron emission) HI, CO, dust surveys CO-to-H2 conversion a function of position in Galaxy Fermi 1st Year Source Catalogue

12 Use a model based on locally-measured cosmic rays PROTONS ELECTRONS = Fermi

13 Electron spectrum measured by Fermi-LAT 7 GeV 1 TeV Abdo et al 2010 Abdo et al 2009 PRL.102, , Grasso et al 2009 Astropart.Ph. 32, 140

14

15 CHOOSE THIS REGION FOR FIRST DIFFUSE ANALYSIS CHOOSE THIS REGION FOR FIRST DIFFUSE ANALYSIS

16 INTERMEDIATE LATITUDES +10 < b < +20 good agreement with basic model Fermi o total with sources total diffuse sources isotropic inverse Compton bremss. PRELIMINARY

17 Inner Galaxy o o o 330 < l < 30, b <5 o Fermi Catalogue sources Inverse Compton isotropic bremsstrahlung Good agreement overall with basic model

18 Inner Galaxy o o o 330 < l < 30, b <5 excess : unresolved sources? o Fermi Catalogue sources Inverse Compton isotropic bremsstrahlung

19 LONGITUDE PROFILE LOW LATITUDES LATITUDE PROFILE ALL LONGITUDES 1 GeV HI sources HI HII sources H2 H2 IC Agrees within 15% over 2 decades of dynamic range The observed flux is the sum of many components: importance of modelling them all! PRELIMINARY inverse Compton

20 EVIDENCE FOR LARGE COSMIC-RAY HALO 4 kpc halo height 10 kpc halo height 1 GeV inverse Compton at high latitudes suggests a large cosmic-ray halo Important for halo magnetic field! Relevant to Planck! PRELIMINARY

21 HI + CO GAS TRACER dust +10o < b < +20o Improvement! total HI CO IC Fermi: GeV gamma rays from cosmic-ray + gas interactions Dust emission (IRAS + DIRBE) is a better tracer of local gas than HI+CO! (Grenier, Casandjian: found this in EGRET data: 'dark gas')

22 Gamma-ray emissivity distribution in outer Galaxy From Fermi-LAT 2nd and 3rd Galactic Quadrants 2nd quad 3rd quad More cosmic-rays in outer Galaxy than expected! Abdo et al. (2010) ApJ 710, 133, Ackermann etal, ApJ 726, 81 (2011)

23 Gamma-ray emissivity distribution in outer Galaxy From Fermi-LAT 2nd and 3rd Galactic Quadrants varying the halo size SNR source distribution nd 20 kpc halo 2 quad 3rd quad 1 kpc halo More cosmic-rays in outer Galaxy than expected! More evidence for large halo?

24 Gamma-ray emissivity distribution in outer Galaxy From Fermi-LAT 2nd and 3rd Galactic Quadrants varying the halo size SNR source distribution nd 20 kpc halo varying the source distribution SNR source distribution flat source distribution for R > 10 kpc 2 quad 3rd quad 1 kpc halo flat for R > 15 kpc More cosmic-rays in outer Galaxy than expected! More evidence for large halo? More sources in outer Galaxy (what are they?) Or more gas than traced by HI + CO?

25 Gamma-ray emissivity distribution in outer Galaxy From Fermi-LAT 2nd and 3rd Galactic Quadrants varying the halo size SNR source distribution nd 20 kpc halo 2 quad 3rd quad 1 kpc halo varying the source distribution SNR source distribution flat source distribution for R > 10 kpc flat for R > 15 kpc More cosmic-rays in outer Galaxy than expected! More evidence for large halo? More sources in outer Galaxy (what are they?) Or more gas than traced by HI + CO? Implications for synchrotron / B-field models : not yet investigated Important for Planck!

26 Fermi measures molecular gas content of the outer Galaxy by comparing gamma-ray emissivities of molecular and atomic hydrogen Scaling factor Xco from 12CO to H2 Local and Outer Galaxy (2nd quadrant) Confirms increase from inner to outer Galaxy Abdo etal (2010) ApJ 710, 133

27 Cosmic Ray Electrons Synchrotron and Magnetic Fields

28 ELECTRONS synchrotron SAME ELECTRONS for RADIO and GAMMA RAYS! good constraints on models inverse Compton

29 Producing the electron spectrum J(E) injection energy

30 Producing the electron spectrum J(E) injection Energydependent diffusion energy

31 Producing the electron spectrum J(E) injection Energydependent diffusion Energy losses energy

32 Producing the electron spectrum J(E) injection diffusive reacceleration Energydependent diffusion Energy losses energy

33 Producing the electron spectrum J(E) E-1.6 injection E-2.3 E-2 interstellar energy E-3

34 22 MHz 23 GHz 45 MHz 150 MHz Continuum sky surveys 408 MHz 820 MHz 2.3 GHz 1.4 GHz

35 from synchrotron and cosmic-ray propagation model : Btot(µG) = 8 e - (R Ro ) / 50 kpc - z / 3 kpc cosmic-ray source distribution based on pulsars as SNR tracer flat CR distribution R, kpc B Using flat CR distribution Using pulsar-snr cosmic-ray distribution R, kpc Using cosmic-ray distribution consistent with Fermi data, essentially no R- dependence of Btot Only by combining gammas, electrons and synchrotron data can we get Btot! Relevant to Planck!

36 GALPROP model SYNCHROTRON b < MHz l <60

37

38 electrons Synchrotron Primary Electrons interstellar solar-modulated Synchrotron probes the interstellar electron spectrum. Avoids solar modulation! Synchrotron Electrons + Positrons Synchrotron Positrons Secondary positrons (and secondary electrons) are important for synchrotron

39 Synchrotron Spectral index vs frequency Electron index= 3 (consistent with Fermi) ~ 10 GeV electrons Electron index = 2 Measurements from literature Spectral break related to injection, not just propagation

40 -1.0 Electron injection index electrons OK OK synchrotron excluded by synchrotron!

41 -1.0 Electron injection index electrons Small solar modulation OK OK synchrotron Large solar modulation excluded by synchrotron!

42 -1.0 Electron injection index electrons Small solar modulation OK OK synchrotron Large solar modulation excluded by synchrotron!

43 Reacceleration model in trouble with synchrotron ELECTRONS

44 Model Synchrotron spectral index 408 MHz 23 GHz Model predicts small but systematic variations. Reality is of course much more complex. The model gives a minimum underlying variation from electron propagation..

45 'Fermi bubbles' Su, Slayter & Finkbeiner 724 (2010) 1044 kpc-scale features centred on GC Details depend on foreground model used (features ~ 10% of total intensity)! Presumably inverse Compton electrons -> radio > relevant to Planck Joint Fermi + Planck analysis desirable in future.

46 Inner Galaxy: kev to TeV INTEGRAL SPI COMPTEL Fermi

47 AN ALIEN'S VIEW OF THE GALAXY

48 Astrophysical Journal Letters 10 October

49 Since we live inside the Galaxy, global properties like multiwavelength luminosity (SED) are not easy to deduce.

50 what does it look from out there?

51 EXPERIMENTS THEORY intergalactic space HALO Secondary: 10 Be, 10,11B... Fe.. Secondary: e+- p cosmic-ray sources: p, He.. Ni, e- πo B-field gas ISRF bremsstrahlung inverse Compton γ rays GALPROP : synchrotron models all that!

52 Milky Way Galaxy is a special target for multi-wavelength studies because... We know much more about our Galaxy than external galaxies: * cosmic rays directly measured * gamma rays mapped in detail * synchrotron mapped in detail * magnetic fields measured so study of the Galaxy allows a better understanding of the detailed inner workings to clarify the overall picture including e.g. cosmic-ray CALORIMETRY

53 Galaxy luminosity over 20 decades of energy IR/optical cosmic rays p He radio γ-rays e

54 Galaxy luminosity over 20 decades of energy IR/optical Cosmic-ray Electron Calorimeter! cosmic rays p He e

55 FIR / radio correlation Cosmic ray electron Calorimetry Star-formation V Cosmic rays V Synchrotron

56 FIR / radio correlation Cosmic ray electron Milky Way: Calorimetry 0.45e10 2e21 Star-formation V Milky Way Cosmic rays V Synchrotron

57 Galaxy luminosities based on GALPROP model Fermi gamma rays and electrons Cosmic-ray nuclei 1041 Cosmic-ray electrons Gamma rays > 100 MeV o-decay bremsstrahlung inverse Compton erg s -1 < 100 MeV: Synchrotron Optical + IR % of nuclei energy converts to gamma rays 75% of electron energy converts to inverse Compton gamma rays 25% of electron energy converts to synchrotron radiation Galaxy is electron calorimeter! - but only if inverse Compton is included, not just synchrotron

58 M31 first external galaxy detected in gammas (beyond LMC/SMC) Milky Way scaled

59 Search for more normal + starburst galaxies with Fermi underway!

60 Outlook Fermi operational, 2 years so far. Diffuse emission results appearing. Significant implications for Planck Galactic science. Essential to exploit synergy between cosmic-rays - gammas microwave - radio

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