Gamma-ray emission at the base of the Fermi bubbles. Dmitry Malyshev, Laura Herold Erlangen Center for Astroparticle Physics

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1 Gamma-ray emission at the base of the Fermi bubbles Dmitry Malyshev, Laura Herold Erlangen Center for Astroparticle Physics On behalf of the Fermi-LAT collaboration TeVPA 2018, Berlin

2 Fermi bubbles surprise discovery Were discovered by Su et al. in 20 Stretch up to 55 o above and below the Galactic center Hard ~ E -2 spectrum up to 0 GeV Narrow edges Fermi 1 < E < 5 GeV kev cm -2 s -1 sr Su et al, ApJ 724 (20) 2

3 Fermi bubbles origin Lobes in other galaxies Active galactic nuclei (AGN)-like activity Star formation or star-burst Chandra VLA Cen A ESO Emission mechanisms Leptonic (inverse Compton) Hadronic p CR Gas e+hνisrf e+γic γ π0 γ 3

4 Diffuse sky before Fermi LAT b All-sky surveys (examples): -90 Radio 408 MHz: Haslam et al +90 X-rays: ROSAT Gamma-rays: EGRET Microwave: WMAP (haze?) b MHz, Haslam+ (1982), Remazeilles+ (2015) WMAP haze b Finkbeiner, ApJ 614 (2004) ROSAT kev, MPE EGRET, E > 0 MeV 4

5 Leptonic scenario puzzle Consider the AGN + leptonic scenario Guo & Mathews, ApJ 756 (2012) Yang et al, ApJ 761 (2012) High energy electrons vs expansion velocity 1 TeV electrons => age < 1 Myr kpc size => expansion velocity ~,000 km/s This is larger than the speed of sound and the observed velocities! Reacceleration of electrons inside the Fermi bubbles? 5

6 Hadronic scenario puzzle Low gas density at high altitudes => large cosmic ray (CR) density Large CR pressure => low gas density No cavity in gas is observed Low gamma-ray signal is predicted from simulations GV 1.7 cm 2 s sr R 2.7 dnp dr Fermi bubbles PAMELA ATIC-2 CREAM Proton CR spectrum CR energy density Gas density Rigidity (GV) Ackermann et al, ApJ 793 (2014) Pfrommer et al, ApJL 847 (2017) 6

7 Look at the base of the Fermi bubbles A study of the gamma-ray emission at the base of the Fermi bubbles can help understand their origin Are the Fermi bubbles connected to the supermassive black hole? Problem: strong and uncertain Galactic gamma-ray emission Fermi LAT data above 1 GeV Uncertainties in Gas distribution Interstellar radiation fields near the GC CR sources Examples of Inverse Compton π0 and bremsstrahlung π0 + bremsstrahlung and IC models derived with GALPROP 7

8 Emission at the base of the FBs Fermi LAT Pass 7 diffuse model Fermi LAT Pass 8 GC analysis SkyFACT Fermi bubbles Hard component masked continuous Fermi bubbles Residual significance in a model without FB 20o b o 0o o 60-20o l Acero et al. (Fermi LAT) ApJS 223 (2016) counts Ackermann et al. (Fermi LAT) ApJ 840 (2017) Storm et al JCAP 08 (2017) 022 Intensity is higher near the Galactic plane The emission at the base of the Fermi bubbles is shifted to the right from the GC 8

9 Spectrum of the FB at low latitudes No cutoff up to ~ 1 TeV for low latitude bubbles emission Should be detectable with CTA H.E.S.S. sensitivity Projected CTA sensitivity Model max Model min HAWC (2017) H.E.S.S. PeVatron Fermi bubbles b < Fermi bubbles b > Fermi LAT data R< GeV cm 2 s sr E 2dN de E (TeV) Adapted from Ackermann et al ApJ 840 (2017) 9

10 Data selection We use 9 years of Fermi-LAT data (Aug 4, 2008 to Aug 3, 2017) Source class, Pass MeV 1 TeV in 27 logarithmic bins 0.5 deg pixel size (HEALPix nside = 128) Herold & Malyshev, in preparation

11 Low energy data as a model of the foreground The foreground and PS spectra are softer than the FB spectrum Use the data between 300 MeV and 1 GeV to model the soft components above 1 GeV Smooth the data above 1 GeV to correct the difference in PSF Fit the data outside of 20 o < Lon < 20 o in 4 o latitude stripes Model: Low energy data Exposure Extrapolate the model inside 20 o < Lon < 20 o Herold & Malyshev, in preparation 11

12 Residual low energy model Residual in the model that uses the data between 300 MeV and 1 GeV as a model of the soft foreground components Herold & Malyshev, in preparation 12

13 Rectangles model of the FBs Instead of masking the bubbles region we tile the bubbles with rectangles (left and right of the GC) Rectangles model of the Fermi bubbles Residual + FB model Herold & Malyshev, in preparation 13

14 Modeling uncertainty In order to estimate the modeling uncertainty in the spectrum of the emission at the base of the Fermi bubbles, we have used several models of the foreground emission Different energy ranges for the low energy data model: GeV, GeV, GeV GALPROP-based templates UltraCleanVeto data instead of the Source data Preliminary Herold & Malyshev, in preparation 14

15 Emission near the GC scenario The emission at the base of the Fermi bubbles can be anywhere along the line of sight If we assume that it is near the GC, we can derive the required densities of CR electrons and protons The range corresponds to different foreground models Can be explained with ~ 700 (3000) SNRs in π o (IC) models Electron model Proton model Preliminary Preliminary Herold & Malyshev, in preparation 15

16 Neutrinos and high energy gamma-rays We compare the minimal and maximal models in π 0 scenario with CTA and KM3NeT sensitivities for a 2 o radius source estimated by Ambrogi et al APh 0, (2018) 8 9 CTA 50 hours Model max Model min erg cm 2 s E 2dN de Preliminary E (TeV) Preliminary 8 9 KM3NeT years Model max Model min In this case, KM3NeT is barely sensitive to the max model after years of observations erg cm 2 s E 2dN de Herold & Malyshev, in preparation Preliminary E (TeV) 16

17 Superbubble interpretation What if the emission at the base of the FB is not near the GC but is much closer to us, e.g., similar to the gamma-ray emission from the Cygnus cocoon? The flux and the size ~ 2o of the maximal emission area are comparable to the emission in the Cygnus cocoon One needs ~ 0x fewer SNRs than in the GC scenario, i.e., about in the πo model E 2 dn de erg cm2 s Cygnus cocoon CTA 50 hours Model max Model min Cygnus cocoon (3FGL) Cygnus cocoon (LAT 2011) Cygnus cocoon (Milagro 2007) Preliminary E (TeV) Ackermann et al Science 334 (2011) Herold & Malyshev, in preparation 17

18 Future outlook Add ultra-high energy gamma rays and neutrinos to the list of observations of the Fermi bubbles Is there a PeVatron at the base of the Fermi bubbles? Spectrum (cutoff) and morphology can be studied with Cherenkov telescopes, e.g., H.E.S.S. and CTA, but the analysis is challenging due to source extension Overlap with other sources Uncertainties in the CR proton contamination Spectrum derived with Cherenkov telescope at high gammaray energies is essential for predicting the neutrino signal KM3NeT should be able to detect the base of the Fermi bubbles, if the cutoff is not too low 18

19 Thank you! 19

20 Extra slides 20

21 Fermi LAT Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma ray space telescope Launched on June 11, MeV to more than 1 TeV 2.4 sr field of view Better than 1 o resolution above 1 GeV 21

22 Profile plots The emission is more intense to the West of the GC relative to the emission to the West and at high latitudes Preliminary Preliminary Herold & Malyshev, in preparation 22

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