Recent Observations of Supernova Remnants

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1 1 Recent Observations of Supernova Remnants with VERITAS Tülün Ergin (U. of Massachusetts Amherst, MA) on behalf of the VERITAS Collaboration (

2 2 Contents Supernova Remnants and the Galactic CR acceleration Results Crab Nebula Cassiopeia A IC 443 Summary

3 Supernova Remnants and Galactic Cosmic Ray Acceleration 3 Composition of cosmic rays Protons (86%) and heavy nuclei (12%) for energies below 1015 ev (1 particle per m 2 second) Small fraction is gamma rays and neutrinos 2 (1 particle per m year ) Cosmic rays below the knee are galactic in origin (1 particle per km 2 year ) Supernova remnants are prime candidates for CR acceleration >diffuse shock acceleration models, amplified magnetic fields >accelerate electrons or charged particles

4 Gamma Rays from a Pulsar Wind Nebula (Plerion) 4 A PWN is a supernova remnant with a pulsar, which is injecting continuously electrons into its nebula, where electrons get shock accelerated to high energies through this mechanism. These electrons interact with ambient photons and up scatter them to very high energies. X ray / Chandra Optical / Palomar Radio / VLT

5 5 Gamma Rays from Shell type Supernova Remnants No electrons supplied by the pulsar wind X ray image Shells of the remnants possibly hadron or electron acceleration sites Gamma rays from hadrons through π0 γγ Gamma rays from electrons through inverse Compton scattering Gamma ray signal from shell regions may give hints for hadron acceleration Signal could be enhanced by shell interacting with nearby molecular clouds Gamma ray source spectrum

6 6 VERITAS at F.L. Whipple Observatory in Amado, Arizona Geographic Location: North, West, Altitude: 1268 masl. u a ry n Ja T T1 T4 April m 108m 85m 85m December 2006 T3 109m FoV: 3.5 Energy Range: 100 GeV 30 TeV Point source Sensitivity: 1% of the Crab Nebula detected at 5 in 50 hours at 20 zenith

7 The Crab Nebula: A Plerion as Standard Candle 7 VERITAS Observations 3 telescope data from January February 2007 Sensitivity: 30.4 hrs Gamma ray rate: 6.93 /min 4 telescope data from Fall 2007 Sensitivity: 30.9 hrs Gamma ray rate: 7.86 /min More results on the Crab Nebula > see O.Celik's talk. Point like gamma ray emission = 0.07 ± 0.01

8 Cassiopeia A: A Young Shell type Supernova Remnant 8 Youngest known supernova remnant in our galaxy (First record in 1680) Cas A (X ray Image) CHANDRA picture (NASA) Distance = 3.4 kpc Brightest shell type remnant in radio waveband Strong X ray source SNR shell diameter is 4' (4 pc at 3.4 kpc) X ray measurements revealed central object

9 Cassiopeia A TeV Gamma ray Observations 9 HEGRA Observations and detection in hours of observations Flux(>1 TeV) is 3 % of the Crab Nebula MAGIC Observations between July 2006 and January hours of observation Significance 5.2 Flux and spectral index in agreement with HEGRA

10 10 Cassiopeia A VERITAS Results VERITAS 4 telescope data from September to November 2007 Average zenith angle: 32 Observation Time: 21 hours Point Source Search: ² ² Significance: 9.2 PSF Gamma ray Rate: 0.09 ±0.01 /min Background Rate: 0.08 ± 0.02 bkg/min Flux(>300 GeV) is 3 % of the Crab Nebula

11 Cassiopeia A: Extension of the Gamma ray Emission 11 2D Gaussian fit location RA = ± (0.05 )stat ± (0.05 )sys Dec =+58.6 ± (0.05 )stat ± (0.05 )sys Point like profile of the gamma ray emission, fit simple gauss function to theta squared plot = ±(0.015 )stat ± (0.04 )sys

12 CHANDRA picture (NASA) IC 443: A Supernova Remnant Interacting with Molecular Clouds 12 An SNR within dense molecular cloud region and some OB associations Distance = 1.5 kpc, Age = 3 30 kyrs Strong X ray source SNR shell diameter is 20 pc (45' for 1.5 kpc) Associated with neutron star CXOU J Associated with an unidentified EGRET source (E > 100 MeV) X ray / Chandra Optical Radio

13 IC 443 TeV Gamma ray Observations IC MAGIC J Observed between December 2006 and January hours of observation Significance 5.7 VLA Radio ROSAT X ray Molecular Clouds Flux Measurement d /de = (1.0 ± 0.2) (E/0.4 TeV) 3.1±0.3 cm 2 s 1 TeV 1 MAGIC, astro ph/ v1 MAGIC, ApJ, 664, L87 L90 (2007)

14 14 IC 443 VERITAS Results 3 telescope data February March 2007 and 4 telescope data October November 2007 Average zenith angle: 18 Point Source Search: ² ² Max Significance Position: RA: 94.19, Dec: PSF Combined Significance: 8.6 Gamma ray rate: 0.18 ±0.03 /min Background rate: 0.93 ±0.01 bkg/min Flux(>300 GeV) is 3 % of the Crab Excluded 3rd magnitude star Nebula (HIP29655), 0.5 away from the remnant location

15 15 IC 443: Extension of the Gamma ray Emission Intrinsic Extension: ( ² IC443)Measured = ( ²Crab)Measured+ ( ² IC443) Intrinsic Measured Extension by fitting simple Gaussian = 0.18 ± (0.05 )stat ± (0.04 )sys Intrinsic extension of IC 443 = 0.17 ± (0.05 )stat ± (0.04 )sys

16 16 IC 443: Extension of the Gamma ray Emission Asymmetric Source Morphology Max Excess fit location RA = ± (0.07 )stat ± (0.05 )sys Dec = ± (0.07 )stat ± (0.05 )sys Work ongoing! PSF

17 17 IC 443: Multi wavelength Comparison ROSAT PWN CO Data MAGIC 3EG J Spatial overlap between the peak of the gamma ray excess and the CO data Declination (J2000) [degrees] VERITAS detected gamma ray excess region consistent with MAGIC gamma ray position and the optical and X ray counterpart Models of gamma ray production Right Ascension (J2000) [degrees] by pion decay that is a product of proton interactions. by interactions of relativistic electrons from the SNR with the ambient photons Some modeling papers: Bartko & Bednarek MNRAS, 385, (2008), D.F. Torres, astro ph/

18 18 Conclusion Supernova Remnants are candidate sites of galactic CR acceleration From the observations from 2007 Fall to 2008 Spring VERITAS detected two supernova remnants each having gamma ray fluxes of 3% of the Crab Nebula The shell type supernova remnant Cassiopeia A has a point like gamma ray extension IC 443 is a slightly extended gamma ray source that might be interacting with the surrounding molecular clouds Detailed extension and spectral analysis is ongoing! Sensitive measurements of the spectra of these sources might help constraining the gamma ray emission mechanisms

19 19 Backup Slide: IC 443 VERITAS Results VERITAS 3 telescope data from February March 2007 VERITAS 4 telescope data from October November 2007 Average Zenith Angle: 20 Observation Time: 17.8 hours Average Zenith Angle: 16 Observation Time: 17.5 hours Significance: 7.4 Significance: 6.7 Gamma ray rate: 0.24 ±0.03 /min Gamma ray rate: 0.19 ±0.03 min Background rate: 0.92 ±0.01 bkg/min Max Significance Position RA: 94.22, Dec: Background rate: 1.00 ± 0.01 bkg/min Max Significance Position RA: 94.26, Dec: 22.46

20 20 VERITAS TIME ALLOCATION About 800 hours allocated for science observations and ~ 90 hours for Group engineering per year. Proposals 40% Key Science Projects Sky Survey (Preliminary scan and follow up observations) Dark Matter (Deep observations of selected candidate sources) Supernova Remnants (Intensive observations, search for new sources) Blazars (MWL campaign for large flare, intensive observation of some AGN, search for new blazars) DDT 10% Key Science Projects 50% Groups proposals administered by VERITAS Time Allocation Committee (TAC) Director s discretionary time (DDT) for engineering, ToO.

21 21 The Telescope Design 345 Mirror Facets Camera 499 PMTs 12 m 3.5 Mirror Area: 110 m2 12 m Mirror Reflectivity: (at 320 nm) > 90 % PMT size Light Collector Reflectivity: (at 260 nm) > 85 % Light Collector Tracking Accuracy: 0.02 PSF: ~ 0.06 FWHM measured at Polaris (elevation 31 ) Camera Pixel Spacing: 0.15 Energy Threshold: ~100 GeV

22 22 Stereoscopic Reconstruction Angular Resolution (energy dependent) Core Location Precision ~15 25 m (energy dependent) Energy Resolution %

23 23 The Crab Nebula Effective Area: m2 Flux of the Crab Nebula (3 telescopes) d E = 0 where E 0=1TeV de E0 0=(3.87± 0.10stat) cm 2 s 1 TeV 1 = 2.46± 0.03stat Analysis Energy Threshold: ~ 200 GeV O.Celik, HEAD 2008

24 24 VERITAS Performance Sensitivity Crab Nebula detected (5 ) Flux of the Crab Nebula (3 telescopes) with 3 telescopes in 1.9 minutes. d E = 0 where E 0 =1TeV For 5 detection of a source de E0 having 10 % of the Crab stat =(3.63± 0.15 ) 10 cm s TeV Nebula flux 3.3 hours (2 telescopes) = 2.54± 0.05stat 1.2 hours (3 telescopes) (> 1 TeV)=(2.35± 0.12stat) cm 2 s 1 <1 hours (4 telescopes) Effective Area: m2 Analysis Energy Threshold: ~ 200 GeV

25 Comparison of H.E.S.S. and VERITAS Performances HESS Crab Nebula detection at zenith: 0.01 Crab : ~25 h 0.05 Crab : ~1 h 0.10 Crab : ~15 min 1.00 Crab : ~10 s VERITAS A source having 1% of the Crab Nebula flux is detected at 5 in less than 50 hours for observations ~ 20. For 5 detection of a source having 10 % of the Crab Nebula flux 3.3 hours (2 telescopes) 1.2 hours (3 telescopes) <1 hours (4 telescopes) 25

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