Justin Vandenbroucke (KIPAC, Stanford / SLAC) for the Fermi LAT collaboration

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1 Measurement of the cosmic ray positron spectrum with the Fermi LAT using the Earth s magnetic field Justin Vandenbroucke (KIPAC, Stanford / SLAC) for the Fermi LAT collaboration International Cosmic Ray Conference, Beijing August 15, 2011

2 Outline 1. Motivation 2. The Fermi Large Area Telescope 3. Charge identification with the geomagnetic field 4. Background subtraction 5. Results ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 1

3 Motivation: PAMELA measurement of increasing positron fraction, GeV Nature 458, 607 (2009) GALPROP diffuse secondary production model (Moskalenko & Strong 1998) Possible explanations: primary astrophysical sources, dark matter, nonstandard secondary production, ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 2

4 Fermi LAT measurement of combined cosmic ray electron + positron spectrum from 7 GeV to 1 TeV see A. Moiseev talk Abdo et al., PRL 102, (2009) Ackermann et al., PRD 82, (2010) Next: can we identify positrons to check the PAMELA rising fraction? 2 challenges: 1) Suppress p + flux which is 3-4 order of magnitude larger than e + : same cuts as e + e - analysis and estimate residual background 2) Distinguish e + from e - : geomagnetic field ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 3

5 The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT): a pair-conversion telescope with ~1 m 2 effective area Anti-Coincidence Detector: charged particle veto surrounding Tracker, 89 plastic scintillator tiles + 8 ribbons, efficiency for tagging singly charged particles ~1.8 m γ Tracker Tracker: 16 modules: tungsten conversion foils + 80 m 2 of silicon strip detectors in 36 layers, 1.5 radiation lengths on-axis Calorimeter: 16 modules: 96 Cesium Iodide crystals per module, 8.6 radiation lengths on-axis, segmented for 3D energy deposition distribution ACD e - e + Calorimeter Atwood et al., ApJ 697, 1071 (2009) ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 4

6 Geomagnetic field + Earth shadow = directions from which only electrons or only positrons are allowed events arriving from West: e + allowed, e - blocked For some directions, e - or e + forbidden Pure e + region looking West and pure e - region looking East Regions vary with particle energy and spacecraft position events arriving from East: e - allowed, e + blocked To determine regions, use code by Don Smart and Peggy Shea (numerically traces trajectory in geomagnetic field) Using International Geomagnetic Reference Field for the 2010 epoch ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 5

7 Time-dependent region selection Deflected horizon = boundary between allowed and shadowed trajectories Use instantaneous spacecraft position to determine two horizons for each energy Three regions: positron-only, electron-only, both-allowed e - deflected horizon (e - forbidden inside) e + deflected horizon (e + forbidden inside) e + only region e - only region both-allowed region ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 6

8 Validation of magnetic field model + tracer code 1. Geographical distribution of geomagnetic cutoffs predicted from code matches LAT data (arxiv: ) 2. Atmospheric positrons (and electrons) detected precisely from deflected direction expected from code: ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 7

9 Exposure maps: 2 example energy bins for all 3 regions GeV e + e GeV e GeV e GeV e + e GeV e GeV e - Exposure units: m 2 s ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 8

10 Two background subtraction methods: (1) Monte Carlo (2) fit transverse shower size in flight data e + + e - region e - region e + region One example energy bin Fit with sum of two Gaussians Wide hadronic + narrow electromagnetic showers ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 9

11 Two background subtraction methods produce consistent results Fit-based background subtraction MC-based background subtraction Three cross checks: Two background subtraction methods consistent Summed flux from e - and e + regions matches flux from both-allowed region Flux from both-allowed region matches previously published e + e - total flux ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 10

12 Effect Systematic uncertainties in spectra MC-based method Fit-based method Effective area ±5% ±5% Onboard filter efficiency ±5% ±5% Atmospheric e ± (<100 GeV) +0%, -3% +0%, -3% Atmospheric e ± (>100 GeV) +0%, -10% +0%, -10% Data-MC p + rate agreement 8% NA Background proton index 2-10% NA Fit parameterization NA 5% Reference θ distribution NA 2-4% Total 8-19% 6-13% Uncertainty of positron fraction is smaller (A eff uncertainty cancels) ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 11

13 Final results: electron-only, positron-only, and both-allowed spectra Use fit-based result (lower uncertainty than MC-based) except for highest energy bin, where statistics insufficient for fitting ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 12

14 Final results: positron fraction Fraction = ϕ(e + ) / [ϕ(e + ) + ϕ(e - )] We don t use the both-allowed region except as a cross check Positron fraction increases with energy from 20 to 200 GeV ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 13

15 extra slides ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 14

16 Angular distribution of events above 100 GeV (with respect to deflected positron horizon, for events below deflected electron horizon) ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 15

17 The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Launched by NASA at Cape Canaveral June 11, 2008 Routine science began August 2008 Two instruments Large Area Telescope: 20 MeV 300 GeV Gamma-ray Burst Monitor: 8 kev 40 MeV Data publicly available since August 2009 Orbit: 565 km, 25.6 o inclination, circular Field of view = 2.4 sr (38% of 2π) Observe entire sky every 2 orbits = 3 hrs Expect thousands of sources, with spectra for hundreds ~0.1 resolution at 10 GeV, ~0.5 at 1 GeV, ~4 at 100 MeV ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 16

18 ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter): bump in combined electron + positron spectrum at GeV Nature 456:362, 2008 ATIC AMS-01 BETS, PPB-BETS PPB-BETS x PPB-BETS - GALPROP --- GALPROP with solar modulation 3 balloon flights in Antarctica, events between 300 and 800 GeV ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 17

19 Recently updated PAMELA electron + positron analysis PRL 106, (May 20, 2011) ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 18

20 Recently updated PAMELA electron + positron analysis e - spectrum positron fraction PRL 106, (May 20, 2011) ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 19

21 PAMELA proton and alpha spectra Science 332 (6025): (2011) protons alphas ~E -2.7 power law Proton flux an order of magnitude larger than alpha flux ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 20

22 PAMELA antiproton fraction PRL 102, (2009) Consistent with diffuse model, unlike positron spectrum ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 21

23 Fermi LAT orbits and exposure Nearly uniform exposure every two orbits Typical point on sky viewed for 30 minutes every 3 hours Atwood et al., ApJ 697, 1071 (2009) Rocking: alternate North-pointing orbit with South-pointing orbit This survey mode has been used exclusively except for an initial pointed-mode commissioning period and several pointed-mode observations of a few days each (Crab Nebula twice, Cyg X-3 once, and very bright blazar flare 3C once) ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 22

24 Fermi LAT data taking Launched June 11, 2008 (3 years old!) Normal data taking since August 4, 2008 Data are publicly available, along with analysis software, from the Fermi Science Support Center ( 175 billion events at trigger level as of May 10, 2011 (~2 khz) 40 billion events sent from satellite to ground (after onboard filtering) Photons available for download, few hours after being detected As of May 2011, ~600 million photon events available, collected since August 4, 2008 Detecting 6.3 gamma rays per second ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 23

25 Separating electrons and positrons from gammas and protons Anti-coincidence detector (ACD = set of scintillator tiles surrounding instrument) usually required to not fire, to reject charged particles and keep gamma rays Here we require the ACD to fire, to select charged particles and reject the gamma ray background Proton rejection: require broader, clumpier shower in CAL, TKR, and ACD: Increasing cut level and background rejection: required ~10 3 to 10 4 proton rejection achieved ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 24

26 Hadron-lepton separation and data Monte Carlo comparison after calorimeter cuts after tracker cuts after anti-coincidence cuts after classification tree cuts ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 25

27 Acceptance and residual background contamination Acceptance ( geometric factor) = 1-3 m2sr in 20 GeV to 1 TeV range Residual hadron contamination = 5 to 20 % ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 26

28 Low-energy and high-energy data streams LE: minimum bias set, 1 of every 250 triggered events sent to ground HE: any event that deposits 20 GeV in calorimeter sent to ground Two parallel analyses for two streams, with good consistency in overlap region ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 27

29 Energy resolution, measured with beam test: ~15% ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 28

30 e + e - interpretation 1: conventional diffuse model Black: electron + positron, blue: electron only Dashed: without solar modulation ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 29

31 e + e - interpretation 2: softer diffuse secondary model, plus additional source at high energy Tuned to the data: softer diffuse injection spectrum, plus an additional component at high energy (pulsar? dark matter?) ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 30

32 Search for anisotropy in cosmic ray electron + positron flux upper limits Ackermann et al, PRD 82, (2010) 1.6 M candidate electrons above 60 GeV in first year Entire sky searched for anisotropy with range of angular scales (10 to 90 ) and energies Dipole upper limits: 0.5% to 10% (comparable to expectation for single nearby source: models are not constrained) ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 31

33 Cosmic ray electron/positron separation at ~ TeV with MAGIC and the Moon shadow? e+ shadow e- shadow MAGIC, arxiv: Measure electrons/positrons using imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes like HESS, but use the Moon shadow to separate electrons and positrons (two shadows separated by ~1 at ~1 TeV) Moon phase must be < ~50% to avoid damaging PMTs They have made observations and are analyzing ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 32

34 Geomagnetic cutoff rigidities Below 20 GeV, we need to consider the shielding effect of the geomagnetic field Determine geomagnetic cutoff energy as a function of geomagnetic orbital coordinates (higher McIlwainL lower cutoff energy) in each McIlwainL interval, measure spectrum for primary component above the cutoff, then recombine different spectra in the global spectrum BONUS: this can be used to measure the absolute energy scale of the LAT ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 33

35 Spectra: p +, e + e -, e +, p-bar From A. Strong cosmic ray database and M. Pesce-Rollins PhD thesis ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 34

36 Proton flux 3-4 orders of magnitude larger than positron flux From A. Strong cosmic ray database and M. Pesce-Rollins PhD thesis ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 35

37 Example interpretation with modified secondary production Diffuse Galactic gammas pair produce on stellar photon field Requires high starlight and gas densities Both could be high near primary sources (e.g. SNRs) Stawarz et al., ApJ 710:236 (2010) ICRC 2011, Beijing Justin Vandenbroucke: Fermi LAT positron spectrum 36

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