Indirect Dark Matter search in cosmic rays. F.S. Cafagna, INFN Bari

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1 Indirect Dark Matter search in cosmic rays F.S. Cafagna, INFN Bari

2 Indirect Dark Matter search in cosmic rays With PAMELA experiment An experimentalist point of view F.S. Cafagna, INFN Bari

3 Why Anti(particle)matter matters? Earth F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

4 Why Anti(particle)matter matters? Earth R.L. Golden F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

5 Why Anti(particle)matter matters? Earth F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

6 Why Anti(particle)matter matters? Earth F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

7 Why Anti(particle)matter matters? Earth F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

8 CR antimatter detector cookbook Charge identification Good ( 1TV) Maximum Detectable Rigidity (MDR) to defeat particle spillover (pbar) F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

9 CR antimatter detector cookbook -1 Z +1 p p (+ e + ) e - (+ p-bar) spillover p p-bar Deflection: = 1/R 5 GV 1 GV R 100GV F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

10 CR antimatter detector cookbook Charge identification Good ( 1TV) Maximum Detectable Rigidity (MDR) to defeat particle spillover (pbar) Good ( e/h > 10-5 ) particle identification (positron) F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

11 CR antimatter detector cookbook (Proton flux) x 0.01 Electron flux PDG (2010) Positron/Proton rejection factor > 10-5 F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

12 CR antimatter detector cookbook Charge identification Good ( 1TV) Maximum Detectable Rigidity (MDR) to defeat particle spillover (pbar) Good ( e/h > 10-5 ) particle identification (positron) Redundancy to calculate efficiencies and systematic in flight (absolute fluxes) All other useful detectors Very low secondary background -> SPACE F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

13 Milky Way as seen by a CR physicist D. Maurin et al., arxiv:astro-ph/ F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

14 Antimatter from DM calculation M. Cirelli, NOW F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

15 Antimatter from DM calculation M. Cirelli, NOW F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

16 Antimatter from DM calculation M. Cirelli, NOW F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

17 Antimatter from DM calculation M. Cirelli, NOW F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

18 Antimatter from DM calculation M. Cirelli, NOW F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

19 Antimatter from DM calculation M. Cirelli, NOW F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

20 M. Cirelli, NOW Antimatter from DM calculation F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

21 Antimatter from DM calculation M. Cirelli, NOW F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

22 Antimatter from DM calculation M. Cirelli, NOW F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

23 Antimatter from DM calculation M. Cirelli, NOW 2010 F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

24 Italy: PAMELA Collaboration Bari Florence Frascati Naples Rome Trieste CNR, Florence Germany: Siegen Sweden: Russia: KTH, Stockholm F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep Moscow / St. Petersburg

25 PAMELA detectors Main requirements high-sensitivity antiparticle identification and precise momentum measure GF: 21.5 cm 2 sr Mass: 470 kg Size: 130x70x70 cm 3 Power Budget: 360W F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

26 PAMELA detectors Main requirements high-sensitivity antiparticle identification and precise momentum measure Time-Of-Flight plastic scintillators + PMT -Trigger; -Albedo rejection; -Mass identification up to 1 GeV; -Charge identification from de/dx. + - GF: 21.5 cm 2 sr Mass: 470 kg Size: 130x70x70 cm 3 Power Budget: 360W Electromagnetic calorimeter W/Si sampling (16.3 X 0, 0.6 I ) Discrimination e + / p, pbar/e - (shower topology) Direct E measurement for e - Neutron detector & Shower-tail catcher (S4): -High-energy e/h discrimination Spectrometer microstrip silicon tracking system+permanent magnet Magnetic rigidity (R = pc/ze) Charge sign Charge value from de/dx F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

27 Design Performance Antiprotons Positrons Electrons Protons Electrons+positrons Light Nuclei (He/Be/C) 80 MeV GeV 50 MeV 270 GeV up to 400 GeV up to 700 GeV up to 2 TeV (calorimeter alone) up to 200 GeV/n AntiNuclei search sensitivity of 3x10-8 in He/He Simultaneous measurement of many cosmic-ray species New energy range Unprecedented statistics F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

28 PAMELA: the integration F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

29 The Resurs DK-1 spacecraft Mass: 6.7 tons Height: 7.4 m Solar array area: 36 m 2 PAMELA inside a pressurized container Moved from parking to data-taking position few times/year Multi-spectral remote sensing of earth s surface near-real-time high-quality images Built by the Space factory TsSKB Progress in Samara (Russia) Operational orbit parameters: inclination ~70 o altitude ~ km (elliptical) Active life >3 years Data transmitted via Very highspeed Radio Link (VRL) F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

30 PAMELA: in the satellite & launch Launch from Baikonur: June 15th 2006, 0800 UTC. Power On: June 21 st 2006, 0300 UTC. Detectors operated as expected after launch PAMELA in continuous data-taking mode since commissioning phase ended on July 11 th 2006 ~1200 days of data taking (~73% livetime) ~14 TByte of raw data downlinked >1.4x10 9 triggers recorded and under analysis F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

31 TOF & Spectrometer Antiproton Selection e - e + p p TOF & Spectrometer & Charge GV -1 e - e + TOF & Spectrometer & Charge & Calo p p GV -1 p p F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep GV -1

32 High-energy antiproton selection Preliminary R < MDR/10 p-bar spillover p p MDR = 1/s h (evaluated event-by-event by the fitting routine) 10 GV 50 GV MDR depends on: number and distribution of fitted points along the trajectory spatial resolution of the single position measurements magnetic field intensity along the trajectory F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

33 Antiproton to Proton Ratio Adriani et a., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, (Published September 13, 2010) Stat. & Sys. Errors plotted F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

34 Antiproton Flux Stat. & Sys. Errors plotted Adriani et a., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, (Published September 13, 2010) F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

35 Positron selection with calorimeter 51 GV Positron 80GV Proton Fraction of charge released along the calorimeter track Energy (calo) Momentum (spectrometer) match plan es LEFT HIT RIGHT strips e - e R M p p, d F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

36 The pre-sampler method The electromagnetic calorimeter Characteristics: 44 Si layers (X/Y) +22 W planes 16.3 X o / 0.6 l channels Dynamic range 1400 mip Self-trigger mode (> 300 GeV GF~600 cm 2 sr) PROTON SELECTION 2 W planes: 1.5 X 0 20 W planes: 15 X 0 F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

37 The pre-sampler method The electromagnetic calorimeter Characteristics: 44 Si layers (X/Y) +22 W planes 16.3 X o / 0.6 l channels Dynamic range 1400 mip Self-trigger mode (> 300 GeV GF~600 cm 2 sr) POSITRON SELECTION 20 W planes: 15 X 0 2 W planes: 1.5 X 0 F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

38 e + background estimation from data Fraction of charge released along the calorimeter track Constrains on: Energy momentum match Shower starting-point presampler p e - p e + Rigidity: GV F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

39 Positron to All Electron Fraction Adriani et al., Astropart. Phys. 34 (2010) 1 - arxiv: F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

40 DM? PAMELA ability of measuring both proton and electron charge ration, make it possible to put several constrains to the models M. Cirelli, M. Kadastik, M. Raidal, A. Strumia arxiv: v3 F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

41 Leptophilic DM DM only annihilates into charged leptons. DM masses between 0.4 and 2 TeV, but boost factors on the order of D. Grasso et al. Astrop. Phys. 32 (2009), arxiv: v3 F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

42 I. Cholis et al. arxiv: v1 I. Cholis et al. arxiv: v1 F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., SeeSep. Neal 2010 Weiner s talk 42

43 F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

44 Gamma constrains Fermi HESS Bertone, Cirelli, Strumia, Taoso Cirelli, Panci, Serpico Decaying DM excluded, leptonic annihilation with fine-tuned parameter F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

45 Wino Dark Matter in a non-thermal Universe G. Kane, R. Lu, and S. Watson arxiv: v3 [astro-ph] F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

46 Astrophysical Explanation Pulsars S. Profumo Astro-ph Mechanism: : the spinning B of the pulsar strips e - that accelerated at the polar cap or at the outer gap emit that make production of e ± that are trapped in the cloud, further accelerated and later released at τ ~ 10 5 years. Young (T ~10 5 years) ) and nearby (< 1kpc) If not: too much diffusion,, low energy, too low flux. Geminga: : 157 parsecs from Earth and 370,000 years old B : 290 parsecs from Earth and 110,000 years old Many others after Fermi/GLAST Diffuse mature pulsars F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

47 Positrons from Pulsar H. Yüksak et al., arxiv: v2 Contributions of e- & e+ from Geminga assuming different distance, age and energetic of the pulsar Diffuse mature & nearby young pulsars Hooper, Blasi, and Serpico arxiv: F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

48 Astrophysical Explanation: Pulsars Young, nearby pulsars Geminga pulsar Not a new idea: Boulares, ApJ 342 (1989), Atoyan et al (1995) F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

49 Astrophysical Explanation: Pulsars contribution of all nearby pulsars in the ATNF catalogue (~150 pulsars) with d < 3 kpc with age < T < 107 yr D. Grasso et al. Astrop. Phys. 32 (2009), arxiv: v3 F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep A. Bruno Vulcano Workshop, May

50 Antiprotons & positrons from old SNR s P.Blasi Astro-ph.HE P. Blasi Antiproton Positrons positrons created as secondary products of hadronic interactions inside the sources secondary production takes place in the same region where cosmic rays are being accelerated Antiproton/proton and B/C increase for E> 100GeV F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

51 Antiprotons & positrons from old SNR s Adriani et a., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, (Published September 13, 2010) F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

52 Antiprotons & positrons from old SNR s Increase for E > 100 GeV/n? Preliminary F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

53 Positron Fraction Theoretical Uncertainties Less significant Most significant γ = 3.54 γ = 3.34 T. Delahaye et al., arxiv: v3 F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

54 Electron Flux Preliminary F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

55 Electron flux (calorimeter based) Preliminary F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

56 Electron Flux Preliminary F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

57 Electron flux Preliminary F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

58 Galactic H & He Preliminary F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

59 Galactic H & He Preliminary F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

60 Conclusions We are entered in the new era of precision measurements of (anti)particle fluxes in CR. This opens new scenarios in indirect detection of DM but force us to improve our knowledge of the background investigating standard astrophysics. PAMELA data show anomalies only in the positron sector favoring a lepthophilic DM but combined analysis of PAMELA, FERMI and HESS put strong constraints on that DM model. The knowledge of background and particle fluxes must be improved, stay tuned for new PAMELA data on e ±, p & He, B & C fluxes! THANKS!!!! F.S. Cafagna, ERICE 32nd Course: Particle and Nuclear Astroph., Sep

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