DARK MATTER SEARCHES WITH AMS-02 EXPERIMENT

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1 DARK MATTER SEARCHES WITH AMS-02 EXPERIMENT A.Malinin a, For AMS Collaboration IPST, University of Maryland, MD-20742, College Park, USA Abstract. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to be installed on the International Space Station, will provide data on cosmic radiations in a large range of rigidity from 0.5 GV up to 2 TV. The main physics goals in the astroparticle domain are the anti-matter and the dark matter searches. Observations and cosmology indicate that the Universe may include a large amount of unknown Dark Matter. It should be composed of non baryonic Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP). A good WIMP candidate being the lightest SUSY particle in R-parity conserving models. AMS offers a unique opportunity to study simultaneously SUSY dark matter in three decay channels from the neutralino annihilation: e +, anti-proton and gamma. The supersymmetric theory frame is considered together with alternative scenarios (extra dimensions). The expected flux sensitivities in 3 year exposure for the e + /e ratio, anti-proton and gamma yields as a function of energy are presented and compared to other direct and indirect searches. Introduction The first evidence for the existence of Dark Matter comes from the observation of rotation velocities across the spiral galaxies, derived from the variation in the red-shift. The rotation velocities rise rapidly from the galactic center, then remain almost constant to the outermost regions of a galaxy. The observations are consistent with the gravitation motion only if the matter in the Universe is mostly non luminous dark matter. The recent WMAP results [1] confirm that about 83% of the matter in the Universe exists in the form of cold Dark Matter (DM). The mystery of the Dark Matter remains unsolved. Many candidates such as massive neutrino, Universal Extra Dimensions Kaluza-Klein states and Super Symmetry theory (SUSY) heavy neutralinos were proposed. If Dark Matter, or a fraction of it, is non-baryonic and consists of almost noninteracting particles like neutralinos, it can be detected in cosmic rays through its annihilation into positrons or anti-protons, resulting in deviations (in case of anti-protons) or structures (in case of positrons) to be seen in the otherwise predictable cosmic ray spectra [2]. Considering the hypothesis of a possible clumpy DM, the expected fluxes of such primary positrons, γ-s or anti-protons may be enhanced [3] since the annihilation rate is proportional to the square DM density contrary to the direct DM searches which will suffer from a decreased probability for the Earth to be contained into an eventual DM clump. a

2 1 AMS-02 Instrument The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a particle physics experiment in space. Its initial space mission on board of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS- 91) in June, 1998 confirmed the basic concept of the experiment [4]. During this short flight AMS measured of the GeV cosmic-ray fluxes over most of the Earth s surface [5 8], and provided the impetus to upgrade the instrument for the ISS 3 year mission (hereafter called AMS-02). These upgrades include among others a stronger, BL 2 = 0.9T superconducting magnet to achieve the maximal detectable rigidity of 1 TV (the rigidity resolution better than 2% up to 20 GV) in the Silicon Tracker, as well as the addition of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) and an Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL). The upgraded instrument will provide data on cosmic radiation in a large range of energy from a fraction of GeV to 3 TeV with very high accuracy and free from the atmospheric corrections needed for balloon-born measurements. Its main physics goals in the astroparticle domain are the Antimatter and the Dark Matter searches as well as the cosmic ray composition and propagation study. 2 AMS-02 Sensitivity for DM search The Monte Carlo study, based on the AMS-02 mathematical model, was performed to estimate the instrument sensitivity for the indirect DM search channels [9 13]. More than 10 9 events containing p +, He, e + and γ at different energies have been fully simulated [14 17] passing through the detector and then reconstructed. The results of the study in the anti-proton, e + and γ cannels are presented in the figures 1-9. The background rejection factors up to 10 6 necessary to extract the tiny anti-proton and e + signals were achieved by combining the redundant information from the TRD, RICH and ECAL detectors. The selection criteria were tuned and the resulting efficiencies were used to simulate the measured spectra. Comparison with the existing data demonstrates that the AMS-02 will have an adequate sensitivity to address the enhancement in the positron fraction measurement reported by HEAT [9, 10], simultaneously constraining the DM signal parameter space by combining the anti-proton, e + and γ channels [18]. The Galactic Center γ signal measurement by AMS-02 would provide 95% CL exclusion limits for several msugra models in 3 years.

3 Figure 1: The acceptance for the anti-proton signal including the selection efficiency. Figure 2: The background rejection factors for the anti-proton signal.

4 Figure 3: The simulated AMS-02 three year combined measurement of the cosmic p spectrum and the residual background (left plot). The comparison of the AMS-02 expected three year p spectrum measurement with existing data (right plot). Lines show different secondary anti-proton flux models. Figure 4: MC prediction for the AMS-02 positron energy reconstruction (left plot). The simulated AMS-02 three year combined measurement of the cosmic e + spectrum (right plot).

5 Figure 5: The HEAT positron fraction data with an example of estimated 1 year AMS-02 measurement. Solid lines show one of the most favorable SUSY neutralino scenario and the standard LBM prediction. SUSY signal enhancement 100 (clumpy DM) is necessary to fit data. Figure 6: The integrated γ flux from the Galactic Center as a function of m χ for the NFW halo profile (left plot) and cuspy NFW halo (right plot) parameterizations with the standard set of parameters. The considered models are the msugra scheme, AMSB scenario and Kaluza-Klein Universal Extra Dimensions. The various selections were done by varying Ωh 2 cuts.

6 Figure 7: Combined example. The anti-proton flux as a function of kinetic energy, assuming 150 GeV SUSY neutralino mass (left plot) and 50 GeV Kaluza-Klein boson mass (right plot) for 3 years of AMS-02 data taking. Figure 8: Combined example. The positron flux as a function of energy, assuming 150 GeV SUSY neutralino mass (left plot) and 50 GeV Kaluza-Klein boson mass (right plot) for 3 years of AMS-02 data taking. Figure 9: Combined example. The γ flux as a function of energy, assuming 150 GeV SUSY neutralino mass (left plot) and 50 GeV Kaluza-Klein boson mass (right plot) for 3 years of AMS-02 data taking. IMBH associated DM clumps at different distance: 20 kpc (case 1) and 2 kpc (case 2) are shown.

7 Conclusions During the 3 year mission in space, AMS-02 will perform precise, high statistics cosmic ray measurements in the 1 GeV to few TeV energy range. It will allow to combine all indirect Dark Matter search channels, constraining the existing models and will have a high discovery potential of the Dark Matter signal. References [1] D.N.Spergel et al., ApJS, 148, 175 (2003). [2] I.V.Moskalenko and A.W.Strong, Adv.Space Res. 27, 717 (2001). [3] E.A.Baltz et al. Cosmic-ray positron excess and neutralino dark matter,phys.rev. D (2002). [4] G.M.Viertel, M.Capell, The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, Nucl.Inst.Meth. A 419, 295 (1998). [5] J.Alcaraz et al., Search for Antihelium in Cosmic Rays, Phys. Lett. B 461, 387 (2000). [6] J.Alcaraz et al., Protons in Near Earth Orbit, Phys.Lett. B 472, 215 (2000). [7] J.Alcaraz et al., Leptons in Near Earth Orbit, Phys.Lett. B 484, 10 (2000). [8] J.Alcaraz et al., Cosmic Protons, Phys.Lett. B 490, 27 (2000). [9] S.W.Barwick et al. (HEAT Collaboration), Measurements of the Cosmic-Ray Positron Fraction from 1 to 50 GeV, Astro-phys.J. 482, L191 (1997). [10] S.Coutu et al. (HEAT-pbar Collaboration), Positron Measurements with the HEAT-pbar Instrument, in (Proceedings of 27 th ICRC), [11] R.L.Golden et al., Observation of cosmic ray positrons in the region from 5 to 50 GeV, A&A 188, 145 (1987). [12] L.Bergstrom, J.Edsjo, P.Ullio, Cosmic Antiprotons as a Probe for Supersymmetric Dark Matter, Astro-phys.J. 526, 215 (1999). [13] D.Hooper, G.Kribs, Kaluza-Klein Dark Matter and the Positron Excess, Phys.Rev. D (2004) [14] R.Brun et al., GEANT 3, CERN/DD/EE/84-1, [15] S.Giani et al., GEANT 4 An Object-Oriented Toolkit for Simulation in HEP, CERN/LHCC/98-44, [16] V.Choutko, G.Lamanna, A.Malinin, (Trento II International Workshop on Matter Antimatter and Dark Matter Proceedings), Int.J.Mod.Phys. A 17, N12-13, 1817 (2002). [17] A.Jacholkowska, et al., An indirect dark matter search with diffuse gamma rays from the Galactic Centre with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, arxiv:astro-ph/ , 23 May [18] S.Rosier-Lees in (Proceedings of 30 th ICRC), ID0618, Merida, 2007.

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