Indirect Dark Matter Detection

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1 Indirect Dark Matter Detection Martin Stüer

2 Contents 1. Theoretical Considerations 2. PAMELA 3. Fermi Large Area Telescope 4. IceCube 5. Summary Indirect Dark Matter Detection 1

3 1. Theoretical Considerations 1. Theoretical Considerations Two dark matter detection methods: 1. direct detection: detect scattering of dark matter (DM) particles with detector material 2. indirect detection: search for DM annihilation into antimatter gamma-rays neutrinos Indirect Dark Matter Detection 2

4 1. Theoretical Considerations Where to find DM Annihilation in our Galaxy? Galactic Center Milky Way halo individual DM substructures satellite galaxies Sun or Earth Indirect Dark Matter Detection 3

5 1. Theoretical Considerations The Neutralino χ one of the main candidates for dark matter is the class of weakly interacting, massive particles (WIMPs) the leading WIMP candidate would be a stable and neutral majorana fermion Neutralino χ Indirect Dark Matter Detection 4

6 1. Theoretical Considerations A Few Example Decays Indirect Dark Matter Detection 5

7 1. Theoretical Considerations Gamma-ray Flux The flux for photons of a certain energy E and at an observation direction angle ψ with respect to the galactic center is given as: φ γ (E, ψ) = 1 σv WIMP 2 4π f dn f de B f LOS dl(ψ) ρ(l)2 WIMP m 2, WIMP where is along the line of sight of the assumed WIMP density ρ(l) 2 WIMP. Indirect Dark Matter Detection 6

8 1. Theoretical Considerations The antiproton flux is given by Antiproton Flux φ p (E) = σv WIMP f dn f de B f ρ 2 WIMP m 2 WIMP C prop (E). Here, C prop (E) describes the antiproton propagation effect. Indirect Dark Matter Detection 7

9 1. Theoretical Considerations Neutrinos: WIMP Capture in the Sun Indirect Dark Matter Detection 8

10 1. Theoretical Considerations Capture rate of WIMPs in the Sun is approximately given by C φ WIMP (m /m p )σ WIMPp, There, the WIMP annihilation rate at a given time t is given by Γ = 1 ( ) t 2 C tanh 2, τ eq where τ eq is the time scale required to reach equilibrium between capture and annihilation. It reaches saturation for t/τ 1. Indirect Dark Matter Detection 9

11 1. Theoretical Considerations The muon neutrino flux reaching Earth is then where φ ν µ = Γ 4πd 2 f dn f de e E/150GeV, d is the Sun-Earth distance, f the decay channel, dn/de the corresponding energy spectrum and e E/150GeV a depletion factor of the spectrum caused by scattering with the solar medium. Indirect Dark Matter Detection 10

12 1. Theoretical Considerations Experimental Signatures If the final decay product is antimatter (e.g. e + or p) PAMELA gamma radiation Fermi-LAT neutrinos IceCube PAMELA and Fermi-LAT search for cosmic sources, whereas IceCube s neutrinos are mainly produced in the Sun. Indirect Dark Matter Detection 11

13 2. PAMELA 2. PAMELA Indirect Dark Matter Detection 12

14 2. PAMELA Experimental Set-Up Indirect Dark Matter Detection 13

15 2. PAMELA Experimental Set-Up Time-of-Flight System triggers measurements, detects de/dx and gives a rough estimate of the particles direction made of 3 2 scintillators Spectrometer measures rigidity (momentum / charge) and deflection of incoming particles contains a 0.43T permanent magnet and a tracking system of 6 evenly spaced silicon detectors TOF and tracking system measure ionization losses absolute charge (Z) of particles may be determined at least up to Z = 8 (Oxygen) Indirect Dark Matter Detection 14

16 2. PAMELA Calorimeter and Neutron Detector Neutron detector comprises 36 3 He proportional counters, arranged in two layers and surrounded by a polyethylene moderator (9cm thick) Calorimeter selects e + and p from the p and e background as it is 16.3 radiation lengths deep, the calorimeter will completely contain the EM shower of an e ± a p will cause a hadronic shower, where hadronisation products like neutrons may leave the calorimeter enables PAMELA to distinguish between e + and p or e and p! Indirect Dark Matter Detection 15

17 2. PAMELA 92GV Positron and 29GV Antiproton Example Events Indirect Dark Matter Detection 16

18 2. PAMELA Two Kinds of Errors 1. Spillover p in p or e in e + sample due to incorrect determination of charge s sign can be eliminated by imposing strict selection criteria on quality of fitted tracks 2. mis-identification of like-charged particles e in p or p in e + sample due to electron-hadron separation performance since leptons cause electromagnetic showers in the calorimeter find e in p sample with high accuracy Indirect Dark Matter Detection 17

19 2. PAMELA First Results p/p and e + /(e + e + )-ratios: Indirect Dark Matter Detection 18

20 2. PAMELA Model Expectation p/p-ratio agrees with models e + /(e + e + )-ratio does not agree with models: ratio increases with energy possible explanation: a pulsar produces the e + excess another explanation: ratio would increase due to WIMP annihilation could hint at existence of WIMPs! Indirect Dark Matter Detection 19

21 3. Fermi Large Area Telescope 3. Fermi Large Area Telescope LAT is the main instrument of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (other instrument: Gamma-ray Burst Monitor GBM) has a volume of 1.8m m and a mass of 2789kg. orbits Earth in 96 mins, points upward so its view is not blocked by the Earth Indirect Dark Matter Detection 20

22 3. Fermi Large Area Telescope high energy gamma rays can t be reflected or refracted solution: turn them into an e + e pair! the gamma-ray will pass through the tracker until it hits one of the conversion foils, where it produces an e + e pair the e ± will cause electromagnetic showers inside the calorimeter Indirect Dark Matter Detection 21

23 3. Fermi Large Area Telescope Tracker and Calorimeter Tracker converts incoming gamma-rays to e + e their direction pairs and measures consists of 16 stacks of 18 x, y tracking layers, where every layer is made of a Tungsten conversion foil and two silicon detectors Calorimeter measures the energy disposition of the electromagnetic showers and images the shower development profile to discriminate background made of 96 CsI scintillators arranged in 8 12 layers length of calorimeter: 8.6 radiation lengths (total instrument: 10.1 rl) Indirect Dark Matter Detection 22

24 3. Fermi Large Area Telescope First Results Measurement of the isotropic gamma-ray background radiation (IGRB): E 2 0 dφ/de0 [MeVcm 2 s 1 sr 1 ] EGRET (Sreekumar et al. 1997) EGRET (Strong et al. 2004) Fermi (Abdo et al. 2009) µ + µ b b 1.2 Tev µ + µ 200 GeV b b 180 GeV γγ //, with energy disp. //, τ - Stecker et al. γγ E 0 [MeV] Indirect Dark Matter Detection 23

25 4. IceCube 4. IceCube Indirect Dark Matter Detection 24

26 4. IceCube Principle of Detection After a cosmic (or atmospheric) neutrino has reached the ice, it may interact weakly through deep inelastic scattering with the ice s nucleons N: ν l + N l + X (charged current) ν l + N ν l + X (neutral current) The decay products will then emit Cherenkov radiation as it travels through the ice, which will be detected by the Digital Optical Modules (DOMs). Indirect Dark Matter Detection 25

27 4. IceCube Indirect Dark Matter Detection 26

28 4. IceCube Experimental Set-Up located at geographical South Pole at the Amundsen-Scott Station upon completion in 2011 it will consist of 80 strings buried in the icecube each string carries 60 DOMs (whole detector 4800 DOMs) a DOM is made of a Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) and read-out electronics expectation: approximately one neutrino event every 10 minutes Indirect Dark Matter Detection 27

29 4. IceCube Indirect Dark Matter Detection 28

30 4. IceCube ν µ produce µ, which typically have track-like signatures ν e produce e, which immediately produce EM showers (cascades) ν τ produce τ, which typically produce two showers IceCube mainly looks for muon neutrinos! Indirect Dark Matter Detection 29

31 4. IceCube Sources of Visible Muon Traces Secondary particles can originate from interaction of cosmic rays with atmosphere, e.g. p + p X + π ±, with π ± µ ± + ( ) ν µ. Thus IceCube mainly detects three kinds of particles: 1. atmospheric muons: comprise major part of background noise 2. atmospheric neutrinos: act either as irreducible isotropic background or can be examined on their own 3. signal neutrinos: originating from Sun or Earth s center, what IceCube is looking for Indirect Dark Matter Detection 30

32 4. IceCube Signal and Background To get rid of atmospheric muon background: use Earth as filter! Indirect Dark Matter Detection 31

33 4. IceCube First Results from IC22 Angle between direction of Sun and reconstructed track: Indirect Dark Matter Detection 32

34 4. IceCube Upper limits at 90% confidence level: First Results from IC22 Indirect Dark Matter Detection 33

35 4. IceCube no excess events from the Sun have been observed with IC22 yet IC22 s upper limits are an improvement compared to those set by AMANDA, MACRO and Super-Kamiokande and is on par with the upper limits set by CDMS and XENON10 expect IceCube (80) to improve upper limit bounds! Indirect Dark Matter Detection 34

36 5. Summary 5. Summary a class of dark matter candidates are WIMPs WIMPs can annihilate through many different channels into gamma-rays, antimatter and neutrinos PAMELA and Fermi-LAT look for gamma-rays and antimatter from galactic and extragalactic sources, whereas IceCube searches for neutrinos, mainly from the Sun PAMELA s data could be indicative of the existence of WIMPs Fermi-LAT and IceCube have neither produced data arguing for or against the existence of WIMPs so far Indirect Dark Matter Detection 35

37 5. Summary Bibliography: PAMELA and indirect dark matter searches, New Journal of Physics 11 (2009) arxiv: v2 [astro-ph] arxiv: v1 [astro-ph.im] arxiv: v1 [astro-ph.he] arxiv: v1 [astro-ph.co] arxiv: v3 [astro-ph.co] Indirect Dark Matter Detection 36

38 5. Summary arxiv: v2 [astro-ph.he] arxiv: v1 [astro-ph.he] Supersymmetric Dark Matter, G. Jungman, M. Komionkowski, K. Griest arxiv: v2 [hep-ph] Search for neutralino dark matter with the AMANDA neutrino detector, talk by D. Hubert, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium Neutrinos from Neutralino Dark Matter, talk by Joakim Edsjö, Stockholm University IceCube and Deep Core, talk by Paolo Desiati, University of Wisconsin - Madison Indirect Dark Matter Detection 37

39 5. Summary doi: / /2005/09/010 PAMELA, Fermi and IceCube Websites Lecture notes of Prof. Kowalski Indirect Dark Matter Detection 38

40 5. Summary Example: Einasto Profile ρ(l) exp( Al α ) Indirect Dark Matter Detection 39

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