DIETRICH MÜLLER University of Chicago SLAC SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011

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1 SEARCHES FOR ANTIMATTER DIETRICH MÜLLER University of Chicago SLAC SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011

2 OUTLINE Early History Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe? Current Limits on Antimatter Nuclei from Distant Galaxies Antiprotons t in Cosmic Rays Positrons in Cosmic Rays Outlook and conclusionsc o s 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

3 EARLY HISTORY 1932 Anderson and Neddermeyer (Caltech): Discovery of Positron (1936 Nobel for Anderson) 1955 Segre et al. (Berkeley) Discovery of Antiproton (1959 Nobel for Segre and Chamberlain) 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

4 POSITRON TRACK IN CLOUD CHAMBER AND MAGNETIC FIELD QUANTITIES TO IDENTIFY THE PARTICLE: Momentum Lorentz Factor Anderson & Neddermeyer 1933 Direction Charge sign Charge number Z 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

5 COMMENT First observation of apparently positive electrons in cloud chamber pictures by Skobeltsyn in 1920 s, but ignored then. Dirac theory proposed in 1928/29: Thus, Anderson knew what to look for! It was not known that primary cosmic rays are mostly protons, not positrons, until 1940 s (M. Schein) 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

6 COMMENT ON ANTI-PROTONS Discovery of pbar was made at Bevalac accelerator, energy barely sufficient for pbar production. A single antiproton event from cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere was seen by E. Amaldi, also in 1955, by observation of annihilation star in nuclear emulsion. 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

7 ANTIMATTER IN THE UNIVERSE? General Assumption: Baryon Symmetry y at Big Bang: t=0: B=0 Baryogenesis now: Universe dominated by matter Universe remains baryon symmetric: Anti-matter domains exist 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

8 COMMENT ON BARYOGENESIS It is not easy! Sakharov Conditions (1967): (1) ViolationofBnumber of B-number conservation (2) Violation C- and CP conservation (3) Interactions outside of thermal equilibrium 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

9 BARYON-SYMMETRIC UNIVERSE? Anti-matter in anti-stars and anti-galaxies? 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

10 Anti-matter domains in the universe, cannot be close to our galaxy! Otherwise, annihilation gamma rays would be seen: p+p π +, π -, π 0 e +, e -, γ, neutrinos (~100 MeV energies) COMMENT BY TARLE AND SWORDY (Scientific American 1998): If a human and an anti-human shook hands,the resulting explosion would be equivalent to 1,000 one-megaton nuclear blasts, each capable of destroying a small city 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

11 BARYON-SYMMETRIC UNIVERSE? Anti-matter in anti-stars and anti-galaxies? If these exist, they must be at least 100 Mpc away: Otherwise, annihilation gamma rays would be observable. These would not look different from regular stars when seen in visible light. Can Cosmic rays from such distances reach us? 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

12 COSMIC RAYS FROM DISTANT GALAXIES C.R. particle needs 300 Myears for straight-line traversal of 100 Mpc. Even a minute intergalactic magnetic field (~10-12 Gauss) could stretch this time to approach the age of the Universe. Et Extra-galactic ti cosmic rays may have difficulty entering the Galaxy. Any search must look for heavy anti-nuclei; anti-protons can be locally produced! 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

13 Illustration of Particle Transport between Galaxies 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

14 UPPER LIMITS FOR RELATIVE ANTI-HELIUM ABUNDANCE IN COSMIC RAYS GV 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

15 AMS-1 (Space Shuttle,1998) 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

16 ANTIHELIUM UPPER LIMIT vs. RIGITY FROM AMS-1 Alcaraz et al /26/11 dmuller SSI

17 ANTIHELIUM UPPER LIMIT vs. RIGITY FROM AMS-1 PREDICTED LIMITS: 3x10-8 FOR BESS-POLAR ~ 10-9 FOR AMS-2 Alcaraz et al /26/11 dmuller SSI

18 COMMENT: Anti-helium if it exists could either come from primordial nucleo-synthesis, or from material processed in stars Heavier anti nuclei (anti-carbon, anti-oxygen, etc.) must have been produced by nucleo-synthesis in anti-stars 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

19 ANTI-MATTER FRACTION IN HEAVY C. R. NUCLEI (Z= 3 to 8) AMS 1 data (1998) from thesis Cristinziani (unpublished?) 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

20 COSMIC-RAY PROTONS IN THE ISM Accelerated in primary sources in the galaxy (presumably SN-remnants) Energy spectrum ~ E Interactions: p+h p+p+p+p p+h π +, π -, π 0, + e +,e, -, γ, + Relative intensities of secondary positrons and of secondary antiprotons of order /26/11 dmuller SSI

21 INDIVIDUAL ENERGY SPECTRA OF THE MAJOR PRIMARY NUCLEI (Particle Physics Data Handbook, 2008 edition) 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

22 ANTIPROTONS IN THE COSMIC RAYS Can be produced in the interstellar p+p p collisions, expected level pbar/p 10-4 Background on balloons : atmospheric pions First identified in 1990 s (IMAX, BESS) Kinematic cut-off in intensity below 1 GeV (softened by solar modulation) Search for new Physics at low energies 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

23 BESS INSTRUMENT (Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting magnet rigidity Spectrometer) G > 3,000 cm 2 sr 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

24 BESS 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

25 BESS-Polar 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

26 Balloon Flight of BESS-polar 25 days in 2007/8 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

27 AT FLOAT 40 km altitude (3 mbar) 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

28 DETECTION OF ANTIPROTONS WITH BESS 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

29 Antiproton Fraction measurements consistent with purely secondary production secondary from p-p collisions neutralino primordial black hole 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

30 MEASUREMENT OF Pbar IN SPACE WITH PAMELA (2011) ENERGY SPECTRUM pbar/p RATIO 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

31 ANTI-DEUTERONS PERHAPS FROM EVAPORATING PRIMORDIAL BLACK HOLES NOT FOUND IN COSMIC RAYS Data from BESS: Fuke et al. PRL 95, (2005) 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

32 SUMMARY OF BESS RESULTS for Pbar and anti-d Mitchell & Yamamoto (2009) 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

33 POSITRONS IN COSMIC RAYS Electrons and Positrons discovered in 1960 s in c.r. (e + +e - )/p 10-2 ; e + /(e + +e - ) 10-2 at a few GeV Direct acceleration in cosmic-ray sources possible for negative electrons but unlikely for positrons Interstellar secondary production: p+p collisions, leading to pions which decay into positrons and electrons: expected ratio e + /p /26/11 dmuller SSI

34 COMMENT ON DETECTION OF ELECTRONS (e + + e - ) Rejection against protons (and pions) required at least at the 10-3 level Commonly used device: Electro-magnetic calorimeter which will also register hadron-induced showers! Background problems in many early observations Problem is worse by factor 100 for positron detection 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

35 EARLY MEASUREMENTS OF POSITRON FRACTION e + /(e + +e - ) (Magnet spectrometers with spark chambers on balloons) 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

36 POSITRONS FROM EXOTIC SOURCES? Pair-production in pulsar magnetospheres? WIMPs as dark matter candidates: Annihilation i of neutralinos leading to electron-positron pairs (and characteristic gamma rays)? Hadronic production in giant molecular clouds? 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

37 TREE INSTRUMENT (Chicago 1970 s) measures e + + e - Transition Radiation Detector (TRD): Proton rejection 100 Shower Counter (longitudinal profile) Proton rejection 100 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

38 THE EARTH S MAGNETIC FIELD AS SPECTROMETER Müller & Tang ApJ 312, 183 (1987) 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

39 FERMI-LAT IN THE EARTH S MAGNETIC FIELD 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

40 POSITRON- FRACTION Müller & Tang, /26/11 dmuller SSI

41 HEAT e +/- Electron/Positron Spectrometer TRD High Energy Antimatter Telescope (1990 s) Chicago Michigan Indiana Irvine Penn State (D. Müller, P.I.) Magnet Shower Counter (longitudinal) Total rejection: 10 5 or better 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

42 The Positron Fraction, e+/(e + +e - ) (Measurements in the 1990 s) 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

43 68 GeV e+ PAMELA Launched 2006 Positron identification from magnet spectrometer plus imaging calorimeter 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

44 QUESTIONS INTENSIFY WITH RECENT POSITRON OBSERVATIONS Positron Fraction Electron/Positron pairs from WIMP-decay??? 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

45 Low E positron ratio from PAMELA corrected for solar modulation 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

46 e + /e - pair production in nearby pulsar (GEMINGA) 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

47 e+/e- from 200 GeV neutralino 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

48 M. Schubnell (Michigan) (2009) Contributions from background protons at level 2x10-4 Note: cosmic-ray protons have harder energy spectrum than electrons 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

49 Proton contamination Geminga pulsar 200 GeV neutralino Analysis by M. Schubnell (2009) 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

50 OUTLOOK AMS: Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (S. Ting and many collaborators) Flight on Space Station Launch 20xx 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

51 AMS UPGRADE Tesla Tesla 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

52 CONCLUSIONS There is no indication for anti-nuclei heavier than antiprotons. The upper limit for α/α currently stands around 10-7 ; AMS promises to push this down to Antiprotons in the cosmic rays seem to be exclusively generated by nuclear interactions in the interstellar medium. Intensity and energy spectrum from 0.1 to 100 GeV are well fitted by standard cosmic-ray models There is a clear anomaly in the reported intensity of positrons between 10 and 100 GeV. The explanation may require new physics or new astrophysics. Confirmation of this discovery may become the most important result from AMS. 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

53 CONCLUSIONS, cont d.: Even if the anti-particles in the cosmic rays are all just ordinary secondary particles, their intensities and energy spectra will provide long-sought detail about the propagation of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. AMS will provide this information with much greater accuracy than balloon instruments could. 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

54 GALACTIC COSMIC-RAY SOURCES? c.r. * Source GALAXY Observer Characteristics of sources of primary cosmic rays must be deduced from measurements near Earth. Production characteristics for secondary particles from proton interactions throughout the Galaxy are essentially known. 2/26/11 dmuller SSI

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