Silicon Detectors for the Search of Cosmic Antimatter and Dark Matter

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1 Silicon Detectors for the Search of Cosmic Antimatter and Dark Matter Piergiorgio Picozza INFN and University of Rome Tor Vergata From e + /e - Colliders to High Energy Astrophysics Trieste, September 7, 2010

2 Astrophysics and Cosmology compelling Issues Apparent absence of cosmological Antimatter Nature of the Dark Matter that pervades the Universe

3 Search for the existence of Antimatter in the Universe PAMELA AMS in Space AMS Accelerators The Big Bang origin of the Universe requires matter and antimatter to be equally abundant at the very hot beginning

4 Gamma Evidence for Cosmic Antimatter? Steigman 1976, De Rujula 1996, Dolgov 2007 Osservation in the 100 MeV gamma range Leading process: p p 0 + Other processes: p p + μ + e + γ 1-10 MeV e + e - γ γ MeV

5 Antimatter Direct research Observation of cosmic radiation hold out the possibility of directly observing a particle of antimatter which has escaped as a cosmic ray from a distant antigalaxy, traversed intergalactic space filled by turbulent magnetic field, entered the Milky Way against the galactic wind and found its way to the Earth. Streitmatter, R. E., 24 th ICRC, Rome, Italy, 1995 Nuovo Cimento, 19, 835 (1996) High energy particle or antinuclei

6 THE UNIVERSE ENERGY BUDGET

7 DM annihilations DM particles are stable. They can annihilate in pairs. Primary annihilation channels Decay Final states σ a = <σv>

8 Gamma Evidence for Cosmic Antimatter and Dark Matter? OSO SAS COS-B GRO: Comptel and EGRET

9 SAS-2 11/1972-7/1973 Anti-Coincidence Dome Spark Chamber Trigger Telescope Cerenkov Counter Energy Calorimeter Cos-B 8/1975-4/1982 The gammaray missions EGRET 4/

10 Cosmic Diffuse Gamma Spectrum P. Sreekumar et al, astroph/

11

12 Robert L. Golden R.

13 Balloon data : Positron fraction before 1990 m =20GeV Tilka 89 dinamic halo leaky box

14 MASS Matter Antimatter Spectrometer

15 MASS 1989 electron proton

16 The Turning Point

17

18

19 Calorimeter Performance

20 TS 93 Si-W Calorimeter

21 Wizard Si-W Calorimeter for Cosmic Antimatter Search Nuclear Physics B 32 (1993) TS 93 NIM A 360 (1995) electron positron

22

23 Elements of a pair-conversion telescope photons materialize into matter-antimatter pairs: E --> m e +c 2 + m e -c 2 electron and positron carry information about the direction, energy and polarization of the -ray (energy measurement) 23

24 GILDA Fermi GLAST

25 CAPRICE FLIGHTS CANADA & NEW MEXICO

26 CAPRICE Calorimeter

27 Caprice Subnuclear physics techniques in space experiments Charge sign and momentum Beta selection Z selection hadron electron discrimination

28 Antiproton Positron

29 positron to electron ratio CAPRICE 94

30 antiproton to proton ratio CAPRICE 98

31 AMS 01

32 AMS-01 Silicon tracker

33 AMS - 01

34 NINA-RESURS km NINA2-MITA km ZENIT rocket Baikonur, Kazakhstan July COSMOS rocket Plesetsk, Russia July

35 Nuclei P-Fe NINA Missions MeV/n Cosmic Rays: Galactic Trapped Solar Flares NINA 1 NINA 2

36 Light Flashes on board Mir Space Station

37 1995 Cosmonaut Sergej Avdeev with the SilEye-1 detector on board of the Mir Station

38 Cosmonaut S. Avdeev during measurements with SilEye-2 apparatus on Mir Space Station

39

40 Antimatter Search Wizard Collaboration MASS 1,2 (89,91) TrampSI (93) CAPRICE (94, 97, 98) BESS (93, 95, 97, 98, 2000) Heat (94, 95, 2000) IMAX (96) BESS LDF (2004, 2007) AMS-01 (1998)

41 Charge-dependent solar modulation Asaoka Y. Et al Cosmic Ray Antimatter Pre-PAMELA Solar polarity reversal 1999/2000 Antiprotons Positrons Moskalenko & Strong 1998 Positron excess? + CR + ISM p-bar + kinematic threshold: 5.6 GeV for the reaction pp pppp CR + ISM ± + x ± + x e ± + x CR + ISM 0 + x e ±

42 What did we need? Measurements at higher energies Better knowledge of background High statistics Continuous monitoring of solar modulation Long Duration Flights

43 Antimatter and Dark Matter Space Missions PAMELA AGILE Fermi/GLAST AMS

44 PAMELA Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light Nuclei Astrophysics

45 PAMELA Instrument GF ~21.5 cm 2 sr Mass: 470 kg Size: 130x70x70 cm 3

46 100 MDR ~ 1.2 TeV

47 PAMELA The tracking system SPECTROMETER Main tasks: Rigidity measurement Sign of electric charge de/dx Characteristics: 6 planes double-side (x&y view) microstrip Si sensors channels Dynamic range 10 MIP Performances: Spatial resolution: 3 4 m MDR ~1.2TV (from flight data) Mirko Boezio, COSPAR, Bremen, 2010/07/18

48 PAMELA Si-W Calorimeter

49 Flight data: GeV/c antiproton annihilation

50 Flight data: GeV/c antiproton annihilation Mirko Boezio, COSPAR, Bremen, 2010/07/18

51 Flight data: 84 GeV/c interacting antiproton

52 Flight data: 92 GeV/c positron

53 Flight data: 14.7 GV Interacting nucleus (Z = 8) Mirko Boezio, COSPAR, Bremen, 2010/07/18

54 Antimatter and Dark Matter Search

55 ANTIPROTONS

56 Antiproton Flux (0.06 GeV GeV) Donato et al. (ApJ 563 (2001) 172) Systematics errors included Ptuskin et al. (ApJ 642 (2006) 902) Adriani et al., astro-ph PRL in press

57 Antiproton to proton ratio (0.06 GeV GeV) Simon et al. (ApJ 499 (1998) 250) Ptuskin et al. (ApJ 642 (2006) 902) Donato et al. (PRL 102 (2009) ) Systematics errors included Adriani et al., astro-ph PRL in press

58 Wino Dark Matter in a non-thermal Universe G. Kane, R. Lu, and S. Watson arxiv: v3 [astro-ph.he)

59 Trapped antiprotons in SAA PAMELA Trapped GCR

60 Trapped antiprotons in SAA Trapped PAMELA GCR

61 Positrons

62 Positron to Electron Fraction Secondary production Moskalenko & Strong 98 Adriani et al, Astropart. Phys. 34 (2010) 1 arxiv: [astro-ph.he]

63 A Challenging Puzzle for CR Physics P.Blasi, PRL 103 (2009) ; arxiv: Y. Fujita arxiv Positrons (and electrons) produced as secondaries in the sources (e.g. SNR) where CRs are accelerated. But also other secondaries are produced: significant increase expected in the p/p and B/C ratios. I. Cholis et al., Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) ; arxiv: v1 Contribution from DM annihilation. D. Hooper, P. Blasi, and P. Serpico, JCAP 0901:025,2009; arxiv: Contribution from diffuse mature &nearby young pulsars.

64 A Challenging Puzzle for Dark Matter Antiprotons in CRs are in agreement with secondary production

65

66 Cosmic Ray Spectra

67 Cosmic Rays Propagation in the Galaxy

68 Electrons

69 Electron (e - ) Spectrum

70

71

72 All electrons e + + e -

73 All electron spectrum ATIC GLAST 96 CsI(Tl) 8 layers HESS

74 All three ATIC flights are consistent Preliminary Preliminary ATIC ATIC 1 ATIC 2 ATIC 4 Source on/source off significance of bump for ATIC1+2 is about 3.8 sigma J Chang et al. Nature 456, 362 (2008) ATIC-4 with 10 BGO layers has improved e, p separation. (~4x lower background) Bump is seen in all three flights. Significance for ATIC1+2+4 is 5.1 sigma

75 Fermi (e + + e - ) M. Ackermann et al. astro-ph

76 Fermi (e + + e - ) M. Ackermann et al. astro-ph

77 The Completed AMS Detector on ISS Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) Time of Flight Detector (TOF) Silicon Tracker Magnet Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) Ring Image Cerenkov Counter (RICH) Size: 3m x 3m x 3m Weight: 7 tons

78 AMS-02 new configuration

79 antiprotons Unique Feature of AMS positrons Combining searches in different channels could give (much) higher sensitiviy to SUSY DM signals gamma rays anti deuterons

80 The Future

81 Gamma Space Experiments AGILE Fermi/GLAST W. B. Atwood Talk

82 AGILE the most compact instrument for highenergy astrophysics It combines for the first time a gamma-ray imager (30 MeV- 30 GeV) with a hard X-ray imager (18-60 kev) with large FOVs (1-2.5 sr) and optimal angular resolution

83 AGILE in orbit April 23, 2007 ISRO Sriharikota base, PSLV-C8

84 Dark Matter Fermi astro-ph

85 Third EGRET Catalog , 270 sources, 1.5 M s

86 AGILE 2.5 yr gamma ray map

87 arxiv: FERMI Catalog (11 months, 1451 sources)

88 Many Thanks Guido!

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