Section 17-1 The Fossil Record (pages )

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1 Name Class Date Section 17-1 The Fossil Record (pages ) Key Concepts What is the fossil record? What information do relative dating and radioactive dating provide about fossils? What are the main divisions of the geologic time scale? Fossils and Ancient Life (page 417) 1. Scientists who study fossils are called 2. What is the fossil record? 3. What evidence does the fossil record provide? 4. Species that died out are said to be 5. Is the following sentence true or false? About half of all species that have ever lived on Earth have become extinct. How Fossils Form (page 418) 6. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about fossils. a. Most organisms that die are preserved as fossils. b. Fossils can include footprints, eggs, or other traces of organisms. c. Most fossils form in metamorphic rock. d. The quality of fossil preservation varies. 7. How do fossils form in sedimentary rock? Interpreting Fossil Evidence (pages ) 8. List the two techniques paleontologists use to determine the age of fossils. a. b. Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. 97

2 Name Class Date 9. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about relative dating. a. It determines the age of a fossil by comparing its placement with that of fossils in other layers of rock. b. It uses index fossils. c. It allows paleontologists to estimate a fossil s age in years. d. It provides no information about absolute age. 10. Is the following sentence true or false? Older rock layers are usually closer to Earth s surface than more recent rock layers. 11. Is the following sentence true or false? Scientists use radioactive decay to assign absolute ages to rocks. 12. The length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay is called a(an) 13. The use of half-lives to determine the age of a sample is called 14. How do scientists calculate the age of a sample using radioactive dating? 15. Is the following sentence true or false? All radioactive elements have the same half-life. Geologic Time Scale (pages ) 16. Fill in the missing eras and periods in the geologic time scale below. Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. 98

3 17. Circle the letter of the choice that lists the eras of the geologic time scale in order from the most recent to oldest. a. Mesozioc, Paleozoic, Cenozoic b. Cenozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic c. Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic d. Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic 18. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about the geologic time scale. a. The scale is used to represent evolutionary time. b. Major changes in fossil organisms separate segments of geologic time. c. Divisions of the scale cover standard lengths of 100 million years. d. Geologic time begins with the Cambrian Period. 19. After Precambrian time, what are the two basic divisions of the geologic time scale? 20. During which era did dinosaurs roam the Earth? 21. During which era did mammals become common? Section 17-4 Patterns of Evolution (pages ) Key Concept What are six important patterns of macroevolution? Introduction (page 435) 1. The large-scale evolutionary changes that take place over long periods of time are referred to as. 2. What are six patterns of macroevolution? a. d. b. e. c. f. Extinction (page 435) 3. What are possible causes of mass extinctions? 4. What effects have mass extinctions had on the history of life? Adaptive Radiation (page 436) 5. The process of a single species or a small group of species evolving into diverse forms that live in different ways is called.

4 6. What led to the adaptive radiation of mammals? Convergent Evolution (pages ) 7. The process by which unrelated organisms come to resemble one another is called 8. Circle the letter of each choice that is an example of convergent evolution. a. Bird s wing and fish s fin b. Shark s fin and dolphin s limb c. Human s arm and bird s wing d. Human s leg and dolphin s limb Coevolution (pages ) 9. The process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time is called. 10. How have plants and plant-eating insects coevolved? Punctuated Equilibrium (page 439) 11. The idea that evolution occurs at a slow, steady rate is called. 12. What are some reasons rapid evolution may occur after long periods of equilibrium? 13. The pattern of long, stable periods interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change is called. 14. Is the following sentence true or false? Evolution has often proceeded at different rates for different organisms. Developmental Genes and Body Plans (page 440) 15. How can hox genes help reveal how evolution occurred? 16. Is the following sentence true or false? Changes in the timing of genetic control during embryonic development can contribute to the variation involved in natural selection. 107

5 Name Class Date Vocabulary Review Completion the chapter. Use the words below to fill in the blanks with terms from convergent macroevolution period era microfossil 1. A microscopic fossil is also called a(an). 2. A(An) is one of the three major subdivisions of time between the Precambrian and the present. 3. is one type of evolution in which unrelated organisms come to resemble one another. 4. A geologic time unit that is smaller than an era is a(an). 5. Large-scale evolutionary changes that occur over long periods of time are called. Completion the chapter. Use the words below to fill in the blanks with terms from extinct paleontologist radioactive relative 6. A scientist who studies fossils is a(an). 7. A species that has died out is considered to be. 8. dating is a type of dating that estimates the age of a fossil by comparing it to the ages of other fossils. 9. dating is the type of dating that uses the half-life of an isotope to determine the age of a sample.

6 Name Class Date Crossword Puzzle Use the clues below to complete the puzzle. Across 2. time span shorter than an era, such as Quaternary 3. fossils used to compare the relative ages of fossils 7. theory that proposes that eukaryotic cells arose from living communities formed by several prokaryotes 8. measures evolutionary time: geologic time 9. span of geologic time that is subdivided into periods 10. record that provides evidence about the history of life on Earth 11. disappearance of many species at the same time: mass Down 1. tiny bubbles formed by large organic molecules: proteinoid 2. scientist who studies fossils 4. describes a species that no longer exists 5. method used to determine a fossil s age by comparing its placement with that of fossils in other layers of sedimentary rock. (2 words) 6. process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time

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