2012 SECONDARY 1 SCIENCE SCHEME OF WORK

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1 2012 SECONDARY 1 SCIENCE SCHEME OF WORK Term 1 1 Orientation 2 Introduction to Science Lab Safety 3 Physical Quantities and Units 1. All physical quantities consist of a numerical magnitude and a unit 2. Base quantities and their units: mass (kg), length (m), time (s), current (A) 3. Prefixes and their symbols: nano (n), micro ( ), milli (m), centi (c), deci (d), kilo (k), mega (M) 4. Orders of magnitude of the sizes of common objects ranging from a typical atom to the Earth 4-5 Speed (Kinematics) 1. Speed is the distance travelled per unit time 2. Instantaneous speed is the speed at a particular instant 6-7 Dynamics (Forces) 1. Force is a push or pull 2. Force can change the speed and direction of a body 3. The SI unit for Force is Newton (N) 4. Friction always opposes the motion of objects in contact 5. Mass is a measure of the amount of substance in a body 6. Gravitational field strength (gravity) g is defined as gravitational force per unit mass 7. Weight = mass x gravitational field strength 7: Level Test 1 (5%) 7: Briefing on Performance Task 8-9 Moments 1. Moment is the turning effect of a force 2. The SI unit for Moment is Nm 3. Moment of a force (or torque) = force x perpendicular distance from the pivot 4. When the body is in equilibrium, the sum of the clockwise moment about a pivot is equal to the sum of anticlockwise moment about the pivot 8: Performance Task Check Point 1 10 Energy 1. Energy is the capacity to do work and the SI unit for Energy is joule (J) 2. Different forms of potential energy Chemical potential energy Elastic potential energy Gravitational potential energy 10: Performance Task Check Point 2 Page 1 of 6

2 Term 2 1 Kinetic Particle Theory 1. Particulate model to show that matter is made up of small discrete particles which are in constant and random motion 2. Particulate model to show the different states of matter i.e. solids, liquids and gases in terms of the arrangement and movement of the particles Note: e-learning in 1 2 Energy, Work and Power (cont d) 1. Energy in moving objects is known as kinetic energy. 2. Stored energy is known as potential energy 3. Total amount of energy after conversion is the same as before conversion 2: Submission of Performance Task (10%) 3 Kinetic Particle Theory (cont d) 1. Evidence for movement of particles in liquids and gases 2. Conversion of the states of matter e.g. melting, boiling. 3: Level Test 2 (5%) 4-5 Separation techniques 1. Pure substances have only one type of element or compound 2. Tests for purity of a substance 3. Solutions and suspensions are examples of mixtures 4. Solution is made up of solute and solvent 5. Suspension is made up of an insoluble substance in a fluid 6. Properties of constituents are used to separate them from a mixture, such as magnetic attraction, filtration, crystallisation, distillation, use of separating funnel and paper chromatography 6 Revision 7 Common Test (20%) 8 Review of Common Test 8 Elements, Compounds and Mixtures 1. Substances can be classified as elements, compounds and mixtures 2. Elements are the basic building block of matter 3. Compounds are substances consisting of two or more chemically combined elements 4. Mixtures comprise two or more elements and /or compounds that are not chemically combined 9 Atomic structure 1. An atom is an electrically neutral entity made up of a positively charged nucleus (protons and neutrons) with negatively charged electrons moving round the nucleus 2. Atoms of elements are represented by chemical symbols 3. Electronic configuration is the arrangement of electrons in the electron Page 2 of 6

3 shells. Valence electrons are electrons found in the outermost shell 4. An ion is formed when an atom gains or loses electron(s) 5. Atoms of the same element contain the same number of protons and those of different elements contain different numbers of protons 6. Isotopes are atoms of the same element having the same number of protons but different number of neutrons 7. Molecules of an element consist of a fixed number of the same type of atoms combined together 8. Molecules of a compound consist of a fixed number of different types of atoms combined together 9. The number and types of atoms can be determined given the chemical formula of a compound 10. The Periodic Table is a classification of elements and it can be used to predict the properties of elements. 11. The Periodic Table arranges elements in order of their increasing proton numbers 12. Horizontal rows are called periods. The period number indicates the number of electron shells. 13. Vertical columns are called groups. The group number indicates the number of valence electrons in the outermost shell. Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties. 10 Classes of Materials (self-study unit) 1. Different properties of materials such as density strength hardness flexibility electrical conductivity thermal conductivity boiling / melting point 2. Materials can be classified in many ways based on their characteristic properties 3. Properties of main classes of materials e.g. metals, ceramics, glass, plastics and fibres Note: Global Citizenship Programme (GCP) in 10 Term Acids and Bases 1. Chemical reaction is a process leading to the formation of new products 2. Different types of reactions such as combustion, thermal decomposition, oxidation 3. A chemical change is one which leads to the formation of new product(s) 4. Word equations can represent chemical reactions 5. Physical and chemical properties of acidic and alkaline solutions 6. Chemical equations to represent reactions of acids and alkali 7. Indicators are substances that change colour when an acid or alkali is Page 3 of 6

4 added to them 3-4 Cell structure, function and organisation 1. Organelles of typical plant and animal cells e.g. chloroplasts, cell membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, cell vacuoles (large, sap-filled in plant cells; small, temporary in animal cells), nucleus, mitochondria. 2. Functions of organelles 3. Simple relationship between cell function and cell structure e.g. absorption by root hair cells, conduction and support by xylem vessels, transport of oxygen by red blood cells, movement by muscle cell, reproduction by sperm cell 4. Organisation of multicellular organisms from cells to tissues to organs and to systems 5. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are able to become different kinds of cells in the body 6. Cancer is uncontrolled cell division 7. Some causes of cancer 5-7 Digestion and Cellular Respiration 1. Need for food: energy for vital activities of the body, for growth and repair of worn out parts of the body and for reproduction, and for maintenance of health 2. Classes of food: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, fibre, mineral salts, vitamins and water 3. Functions, sources and energy value of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins 4. Role of enzymes e.g. amylase, pepsin and trypsin in digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats (including end-products 5. Balanced diet contains the right amount of nutrients to meet the daily requirements of the body. 6. Effects of unbalanced diet e.g. obesity, coronary heart diseases 7. Need for special diets for certain health conditions e.g. diabetes, high blood pressure and cholesterol 8. Nutrition is the process that converts food substances into living matter 9. Human nutrition comprises ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion. 10. The main parts of a digestive system and their roles in digestion and absorption of food: mouth, salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, pancrease, gall bladder, liver, small intestines, large intestines, rectum, anus 11. Role of bile in aiding digestion 12. Digested food is absorbed into the bloodstream in the small intestines by diffusion 13. Energy found in food is released during cellular respiration 14. Uses of energy in human beings 15. Relationship between breathing and respiration 5: Level Test 3 (5%) 6: Practical Test (10%) Note: National Day holidays in 7 Page 4 of 6

5 8-10 Transport in Humans 1. Diffusion and osmosis are involved in the transport system. 2. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration 3. Osmosis involves the movement of water molecules when two solutions of unequal concentration are separated by a partially permeable membrane 4. Factors affecting rate of diffusion and osmosis e.g. surface area, concentration gradient 5. Role of diffusion in the transport of oxygen 6. Effects of osmosis on red blood cells 7. The need for a transport system in human beings 8. The composition of blood red blood cells, white blood cells (phagocytes, lymphocytes), platelets and plasma 9. Blood as a transport medium for useful substances e.g. transport of oxygen by red blood cells, transport of food by plasma; metabolic wastes e.g. transport of carbon dioxide by plasma, as well as disease-causing microbes like viruses and bacteria 10. Blood has protective function e.g. white blood cells ingesting diseasecausing microbes (by phagocytes), neutralizing toxins produced by disease-causing microbes (by lymphocytes) and platelets in forming blood clot. 11. Structures and functions of blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries. 12. Importance of transport-related techniques/technologies in saving lives, e.g. CPR, defibrillator, blood transfusion, heart transplant, etc. 9: Level Test 4 (5%) Note: Teachers Day holidays in 10 Term Reproduction in Humans 1. Heredity is a process where genetic information is transmitted from one generation to another, and hence, certain traits can be passed on from one generation to the next 2. Sexual reproduction is the formation of a new individual through the union of an egg and a sperm, followed by cellular division and differentiation 3. Differences between an egg and a sperm 4. A new individual formed through sexual reproduction receives genetic information from its mother (via the egg) and its father (via the sperm) 5. Some physical changes that occur during puberty and early adolescence 6. The structures and functions of human male and female reproductive systems 7. The menstrual cycle and fertilization (treated briefly). 8. Methods of contraception - a temporary and a permanent method of birth control. 9. Consequences and issues relating to abortion and premarital sex. 10. Harmful consequences of sexually transmitted infections. Page 5 of 6

6 3-4 Revision 5 End-of-Year Examinations (40%) 6 Review of End-of-Year Examinations 7-9 Post-examination activities 10 School closes correct as of 27 Dec 2011, any updates will be communicated to students through the subject teachers. Curriculum may differ from the MOE Lower Secondary syllabus for mainstream schools. School will make responsive changes if necessary in the interest of students learning Page 6 of 6

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