Basic Biological Principles

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1 Basic Biological Principles Use the diagram below to answer question 1. Moth Life Cycle larva egg pupa Adult 1. Which characteristic of life is best shown by this diagram? A. DNA is the genetic code in an organism. B. An organism is made of one or more cells. C. An organism responds to changes in its environment. D. Changes occur in an organism as it grows and develops.

2 Use the illustrations below to answer question 2. Body Cells nerve cell red blood cell 2. Which statement best explains why these cells have structural differences? A. The cells have different functions. B. The cells evolved in different organisms. C. One of the cells develops into the other type of cell. D. One of the cells is more primitive than the other cell. 3. A jackrabbit has large ears containing blood vessels that help it maintain a constant body temperature by adjusting heat exchange with the surrounding environment. Which characteristic of life is best described by this example? A. growth B. energy use C. organization D. homeostasis

3 Directions: Use the information below to answer questions 4 and 5. Bacteria and Antibiotics Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms. The cell walls of these microorganisms serve as barriers to chemicals that might affect the processes that occur within a bacterial cell. Antibiotics are a type of substance used to stop bacterial growth. Some antibiotics cause the bacterial cell wall to rupture. Antibiotic Action on a Bacterium Antibiotic Rupture Before After 4. The function of which human organ is most like the cell walls of bacteria? A. skin B. liver C. heart D. pancreas 5. Which statement best describes how antibiotics affect cellular homeostasis? A. Antibiotics remove chloroplasts from plant cells to cause starvation. B. Antibiotics interfere with the transport of intracellular and extracellular materials. C. Antibiotics increase the rate of DNA replication in human cells by forming nucleotides. D. Antibiotics decrease the rate of cellular respiration in animal cells by producing oxygen.

4 6. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms? A. the ability to reproduce asexually B. the ability to make their own food C. the need for a source of energy D. the need for oxygen for respiration 7. Life functions are performed at many levels of biological organization. Which level of biological organization is the simplest level at which a structure can support life functions? A. cell B. tissue C. organelle D. organ system 8. All living organisms must maintain homeostasis in order to survive. Which statement best describes one way humans maintain homeostasis? A. Temperature is regulated by giving off carbon dioxide. B. Water content is regulated by giving off carbon dioxide. C. Temperature is regulated by sweating. D. Water content is regulated by sweating. 9. Most prokaryotes and eukaryotes maintain a reserve of ATP. Which feature of prokaryotes and eukaryotes makes the ATP reserve necessary? A. They have cell membranes. B. They can change over time.. C. They use energy to function. D. They have the ability to reproduce.

5 10. Use the diagram below to answer the question. Bacterial flagellum Cell A scientist observes a single-celled organism with several long, whip-like tails. Which function do the whip-like tails most likely perform for the organism? A. defense against predators B. movement through an environment C. detection of the location of a light source D. measurement of atmospheric temperature changes 11. Microbes in the digestive system break down food, which allows nutrients to be absorbed by the body s cells. How will these body cells most likely be affected if an individual suffers from a high fever? A. The body cells will swell because an increase in temperature promotes greater water absorption. B. The body cells will stop absorbing nutrients because the heat melts the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane. C. The body cells will shrivel because the heat eliminates the chemical gradients on either side of the plasma membrane. D. The body cells will bring in fewer nutrient molecules because the transport proteins lose their proper shape due to the high temperature.

6 12. The shivering mechanism in bumblebees often serves the same purpose as it does in mammals. During which condition will the action of shivering most help a bumblebee to maintain homeostasis? A. decrease in available oxygen B. low environmental temperature C. uncontrolled rise in core temperature D. depletion of oxygen in muscle tissues 13. Which statement is a hypothesis? A. The presence of an enzyme increased the reaction rate. B. The reaction rate increased 100% once the enzyme was introduced. C. Introducing an enzyme into a reaction did not increase the rate of the reaction. D. When an enzyme is introduced into a reaction the reaction rate will increase by 100%. Use the statements below to answer question 14. Statement 1: All living things are composed of cells. Statement 2: If soil contains high levels of salt, the plants will die. Statement 3: The temperature reading on the thermometer is 21 C. Statement 4: It must have rained this morning because the soil is wet.

7 14. A teacher lists four statements for students to interpret. Which table of information correctly distinguishes between the statements? A. Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 theory hypothesis observation inference B. Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 fact theory hypothesis observation C. Statement 1 inference Statement 2 observation Statement 3 theory Statement 4 fact D. Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 observation inference fact hypothesis 15. Which statement is true for all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms? A. B. Both types of organisms transform energy from sunlight into chemical energy Both types of organisms assemble proteins through transcription and translation. C. Both types of organisms are made of cells, tissues, and organs that work together. D. Both types of organisms have DNA contained within a nucleus as genetic material.

8 Constructed Response 1. During physical education class, some students ran one mile. After their run, the students recorded changes they experienced. Changes Experienced sweating muscle cramps decreased energy increased heart rate increased breathing rate increased thirst increased body temperature Select three changes experienced by the students and explain how each change can represent a homeostatic mechanism. Change 1: Change 2: Change 3: 2. A student studying muscle contraction made the following hypothesis: A muscle cell will contain a large number of ATP molecules, but other living body cells will have less ATP, or none at all. The student s teacher stated that part of the hypothesis was correct, and part was incorrect. Part A. Describe the role of ATP in the muscle cell. Part B. Part C. Give one reason why the student s teacher stated that part of the hypothesis is correct. Give one reason why the student s teacher stated that part of the hypothesis is incorrect.

9 3. A group of students is given a sample of an unknown substance. The students are asked to gather evidence to determine whether the substance is living or nonliving. The students take a small sample of the substance and observe it using a microscope. Part A: Describe two characteristics of the substance that could be observed to indicate whether it is living or nonliving. Characteristic 1: Characteristic 2:

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