# 1. The bar graph below shows one planetary characteristic, identified as X, plotted for the planets of our solar system.

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1 1. The bar graph below shows one planetary characteristic, identified as X, plotted for the planets of our solar system. Which characteristic of the planets in our solar system is represented by X? A) mass B) density C) eccentricity of orbit D) period of rotation 2. What is the approximate eccentricity of the ellipse shown below? 3. Base your answer to the following question on your knowledge of Earth science, the Earth Science Reference Tables, and the diagram below. The diagram represents four planets, A, B, C, and D, traveling in elliptical orbits around a star. The center of the star and letter f represent the foci for the orbit of planet A. Points 1 through 4 are locations on the orbit of planet A. A) 0.50 B) 2.0 C) 0.25 D) 4.0 Using the equation and metric ruler in the Earth Science Reference Tables, the eccentricity of planet A 's orbit is found to be approximately A) 0.10 B) 0.20 C) 0.50 D) 5.0

2 4. What is the eccentricity of an ellipse in which the distance between the foci is 2 centimeters and the length of the major axis is 5 centimeters? A) 2.5 B) 0.2 C) 0.5 D) When the distance between the foci of an ellipse is increased, the eccentricity of the ellipse will A) decrease B) increase C) remain the same 6. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents the path of a planet in an elliptical orbit around a star. Points A, B, C, and D indicate four orbital positions of the planet. 8. The diagram below shows the elliptical orbit of a planet revolving around a star. The star and F2 are the foci of this ellipse. What is the approximate eccentricity of this ellipse? A) 0.22 B) 0.47 C) 0.68 D) What is the eccentricity of the ellipse shown below? The eccentricity of the planet's orbit is approximately A) 0.18 B) 0.65 C) 1.55 D) The diagram below represents the elliptical orbit of a moon revolving around a planet. The foci of this orbit are the points labeled F1 and F2. A) 1.0 B) 0.5 C) 0.25 D) What is the eccentricity of an orbit having a major axis length of 100 million miles and a focal distance of 10 million miles? A) 1 B) 10 C) 0.1 D) 0.01 What is the approximate eccentricity of this elliptical orbit? A) 0.3 B) 0.5 C) 0.7 D) 1.4

3 11. Base your answer to the following question on the Earth Science Reference Tables and the diagram below. The diagram represents the elliptical orbit of a weather satellite around the Earth. Letters A through D represent locations on the satellite's orbit. F1 and F 2 are the foci of the satellite's orbit. 12. The diagram below represents the elliptical orbit of the Earth around the Sun. What is the approximate eccentricity of the satellite's orbit? A) 0.10 B) 0.25 C) 0.36 D) 2.8 Which equation should be used to find the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit? A) eccentricity =299,000,000 km 5,000,000 km B) eccentricity = 5,000,000 km 299,000,000 km C) eccentricity = 299,000,000 km - 5,000,000 km D) eccentricity = 5,000,000 km 299,000,000 km - 5,000,000 km 13. Which planet has an orbit with an eccentricity most similar to the eccentricity of the Moon s orbit around Earth? A) Earth B) Jupiter C) Pluto D) Saturn 14. The diagram below shows a planet's orbit around the Sun. At which location is the planet's orbital velocity greatest? A) A B) B C) C D) D

4 15. The diagram below represents the construction of a model of an elliptical orbit of a planet traveling around a star. The focal point and the center of the star represent the foci of the orbit. The eccentricity of this orbit is approximately A) 1.3 B) 0.8 C) 0.5 D) 0.3 Base your answers to questions 16 and 17 on the Earth Science Reference Tables and the diagram below. The diagram represents planet Z in its orbit around star A. Locations 1 through 4 of planet Z are indicated on the orbit. The sizes of the planet and the star are not drawn to scale. The elliptical orbit of planet Z and the distance between the foci (F1 and F2 ) are drawn to scale. 17. As planet Z travels around star A in a complete orbit starting from location 1, the orbital velocity of the planet will A) decrease, then increase B) increase, then decrease C) continually increase D) remain the same 18. Earth is farthest from the Sun during the Northern Hemisphere's summer, and Earth is closest to the Sun during the Northern Hemispheres winter. During which season in the Northern Hemisphere is Earth's orbital velocity greatest? A) winter B) spring C) summer D) fall 19. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which shows four positions of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun. The diagram indicates relative positions of the Earth to the Sun, but the diagram has not been drawn to scale. As the Earth moves from position B to position C, its orbital velocity will A) decrease B) increase C) remain the same 16. What is the eccentricity of the elliptical orbit of planet Z? A) 1.0 B) 0.75 C) 0.20 D) 0.10

5 20. Diagrams A through D below represent phases of a planet as seen by an observer on Earth using a telescope. The diagram is drawn to scale. Which is the most logical conclusion about this planet? A) The planet has a slower orbital velocity than the Earth. B) The planet is closest to the Earth at position C. C) The apparent diameter of the planet varies throughout the year. D) The planet does not rotate on its axis. 21. The elliptical shape of the Earth's orbit results in A) changes in the orbital velocity of the Earth B) tilting of the Earth's axis C) the oblate spheroid shape of the Earth D) the phases of the Moon 22. Differences in Earth's orbital velocity around the Sun are caused primarily by changes in the A) inclination of Earth's axis B) rate of rotation of Earth C) distance between Earth and the Sun D) oblate spheroid shapes of Earth and the Sun

6 23. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram of the ellipse below. a. Calculate the eccentricity of the ellipse to the nearest thousandth. b. State how the eccentricity of the given ellipse compares to the eccentricity of the orbit of Mars.

7 24. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents Mars orbit around the Sun. On the diagram above: a Draw and label the major axis of Mars orbit. b Place an X on the orbit to show the location of Mars greatest orbital velocity.

8 Base your answers to questions 25 and 26 on "the diagram below, which represents the elliptical orbit of a planet traveling around a star. Points A, B, C, and D are four positions of this planet in its orbit. 25. The calculated eccentricity of this orbit is approximately A) 0.1 B) 0.2 C) 0.3 D) As the planet revolves in orbit from position A to position D, the orbital velocity will A) continually decrease B) continually increase C) decrease, then increase D) increase, then decrease "

9 27. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents an exaggerated model of Earth's orbital shape. Earth is closest to the Sun at one time of year (perihelion) and farthest from the Sun at another time of year (aphelion). State the relationship between Earth's distance from the Sun and Earth's orbital velocity.

10 28. The diagram below shows a satellite in four different positions as it revolves around a planet. A) B) Which graph best represents the changes in this satellite's orbital velocity as it revolves around the planet? C) D)

11 29. In each diagram below, the mass of the star is the same. In which diagram is the force of gravity greatest between the star and the planet shown? A) B) C) D) Base your answers to questions 30 and 31 on on the diagram below, which represents a model of Earth's orbit. Earth is closest to the Sun at one point in its orbit (perihelion) and farthest from the Sun at another point in its orbit (aphelion). The Sun and point B represent the foci of this orbit. 30. Explain why Earth's orbit is considered to be elliptical. 31. Describe the change that takes place in the gravitational attraction between Earth and the Sun as Earth moves from perihelion to aphelion and back to perihelion during one year.

12 32. Base your answer to the following question on the passage below. The Moon Is Moving Away While Earth's Rotation Slows Tides on Earth are primarily caused by the gravitational force of the Moon acting on Earth's surface. The Moon causes two tidal bulges to occur on Earth: the direct tidal bulge occurs on the side facing the Moon, and the indirect tidal bulge occurs on the opposite side of Earth. Since Earth rotates, the bulges are swept forward along Earth's surface. This advancing bulge helps pull the Moon forward in its orbit, resulting in a larger orbital radius. The Moon is actually getting farther away from Earth, at a rate of approximately 3.8 centimeters per year. The Moon's gravity is also pulling on the direct tidal bulge. This pulling on the bulge causes friction of ocean water against the ocean floor, slowing the rotation of Earth at a rate of second per 100 years. Explain why the force of gravity between the Moon and Earth will decrease over time. 33. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents Earth in its orbit around the Sun. The position of Earth on the first day of each season is labeled A, B, C, and D. Which event is caused by Earth's revolution? A) the apparent shift in the path of a Foucault pendulum B) deflection of planetary winds to the right in the Northern Hemisphere C) the apparent rising and setting of the Sun D) different constellations observed in the night sky throughout the year

13 34. Base your answer to the following question on the Earth Science Reference Tables and the diagram below. The diagram represents the orbits of three planets (X, Y, and Z) around star A. Star A is located at one focus and point B is the other focus. Numbers 1 through 9 represent different positions of the three planets. The arrows show the direction of revolution. The orbital paths of these planets around star A can best be described as having A) the same period of rotation B) of the same length C) an elliptical shape, with star A at one focus D) a circular shape, with star A at one focus 35. The speed of a planet in its orbit around the Sun depends primarily on the planet's A) direction of revolution B) distance from the Sun C) polar circumference D) axial tilt

14 36. Base your answer to the following question on the information, data table, and diagram below. Astronomers have discovered strong evidence for the existence of three large extrasolar (outside our solar system) planets that orbit Upsilon Andromedae, a star located 44 light years from Earth. The three planets are called planet B, planet C, and planet D. Some of the information gathered about these three new planets is shown in the table below. The period of revolution for planet C has been deliberately left blank. The diagram below compares a part of our solar system to the Upsilon Andromedae planetary system. Planet distances from their respective star and the relative size of each planet are drawn to scale. [The scale for planet distances is not the same scale used for planet size.] As planet B travels in its orbit, describe the change in orbital velocity of planet B as the distance between Upsilon Andromedae and planet B decreases. 37. The Foucault pendulum provides evidence of Earth's A) revolution around the Sun in a geocentric solar system B) revolution around the Sun in a heliocentric solar system C) rotation on its axis in a geocentric solar system D) rotation on its axis in a heliocentric solar system 38. The Earth's planetary winds are deflected as a result of the Earth's A) revolution around the Sun B) seasonal changes C) rotation on its axis D) tilted axis

15 39. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents the planetary wind and moisture belts in Earth's Northern Hemisphere. The paths of the surface planetary winds are curved due to Earth s A) revolution B) rotation C) circumference D) size 40. Winds appear to curve toward the right in the Northern Hemisphere. This curving to the right is caused by the Earth's A) revolution B) rotation C) size D) shape 41. Compared to Jupiter and Saturn, Venus and Mars have greater A) periods of revolution B) orbital velocities C) mean distances from the Sun D) equatorial diameters 42. In what way are the planets Mars, Mercury, and Earth similar? A) They have the same period of revolution. B) They are perfect spheres. C) They exert the same gravitational force on each other. D) They have elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus.

16 43. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents an exaggerated view of Earth revolving around the Sun. Letters A, B, C, and D represent Earth's location in its orbit on the first day of each of the four seasons. Earth's rate of revolution around the Sun is approximately A) 1 per day B) 360 per day C) 15 per hour D) 23.5 per hour 44. Which event takes the most time? A) one revolution of Earth around the Sun B) one revolution of Venus around the Sun C) one rotation of the Moon on its axis D) one rotation of Venus on its axis 45. An observer in New York State sees different constellations in the winter nighttime sky than she sees in the summer nighttime sky. Which statement best explains the reason for this difference? A) The Earth rotates on its axis. B) The Earth revolves around the Sun. C) Constellations revolve around the Earth. D) Constellations revolve around the Sun. 46. Some constellations (star patterns) observed in the summer skies in New York State are different from those observed in the winter skies. The best explanation for this observation is that A) the Earth revolves around the Sun B) the Earth rotates on its axis C) constellations are moving away from the Earth D) constellations revolve around the Earth

17 47. Base your answer to the following question on diagram 1 and diagram 2 below, which show some constellations in the night sky viewed by a group of students. Diagram 1 below shows the positions of the constellations at 9:00 p.m. Diagram 2 below shows their positions two hours later. Circle Polaris on diagram 2 provided above.

18 48. In October, observers in Ohio looking due south at the night sky would see a different group of constellations than they had seen in March. What is the best explanation for this change in the night sky? A) Constellations revolve around Earth. B) Constellations revolve around the Sun. C) The Sun revolves around the center of our galaxy. D) Earth revolves around the Sun. 49. In New York State, the constellation Pisces can be seen in the night sky between the middle of summer and the middle of winter. The constellation Scorpio can be seen in the night sky between early spring and early fall. The reason these two constellations can be viewed only at these times is a direct result of Earth's A) spin on its axis B) movement around the Sun C) axis having a 23.5 tilt D) distance from the Sun Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the diagram below which shows twelve constellations that are visible in the night sky to an observer in New York, over the course of a year. Different positions of Earth are represented by letters A through D. The arrows represent the direction of Earth's motion around the Sun. 50. Which constellations are both visible at midnight to an observer in New York when Earth is located at position D? A) Aries and Taurus B) Pisces and Libra C) Leo and Virgo D) Aquarius and Scorpio 51. The constellations observed from New York when Earth is at position A are different from the constellations observed when Earth is at position C because A) Earth moves in its orbit B) Earth is tilted on its axis C) the lengths of day and night are different D) the stars move around Earth as shown by star trails

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