# Syosset High School Midterm Review

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1 Mass (g) Romano Name Syosset High School Midterm Review Topic 1 - Measurement and Graphing 1. As the temperature of a body of air increases, its density and the air will. (increases, decreases, remains the same?) (rise or sink?) 2. What is the density of liquid water? 3. If a sample of the mineral calcite (density = 2.3g/mL) was placed in a beaker of water, where would the piece of calcite end up? Why? 4. If the mass of a sample of an unknown mineral is 35 grams and is volume is 8mL, what would the density of that substance be? (Show all work, round to the nearest tenths, and use correct units.) 5. If the density of galena is 7.6 g/ml, What would the mass of a 150mL sample of galena measure to be? 6. The graph to the right shows the masses and volumes for 3 pieces of the same substance. What is the density of the substance? (Show work below.) Skill Check: ROUNDING NUMBERS a. Round 1.45 to the nearest tenth: b. Round.0765 to the nearest hundredth: c. Round to the nearest thousandth: d. Round 5.03 to the nearest tenth: e. Round 1.98 to the nearest tenth: Page 1

2 8. Constructing a graph according to proper format: The data table shows the concentration of air pollutants per cubic centimeter for two days over an eastern city in the United States. a. On the vertical axis, make an appropriate scale for pollutants in parts/cm 3. Label the axis. b. Using the data from the table, plot the points and construct a line graph of pollutants/cm According to the graph, approximately how many pollutants would be in the air at 3:00pm on Monday? 10. Fact: As pressure exerted on a substance increases, the density of that substance increases. Sketch a graph line to illustrate this relationship. What type of relationship is this known as? Page 2

3 temperature ( o C) Romano 11. Fact: No matter what size (volume) an object made up of one material is, the density of that object will remain the same. Sketch a graph line to illustrate this relationship. What type of relationship is this known as? 12. Fact: As altitude above the Earth s surface increases, the atmospheric pressure decreases. Sketch a graph line to illustrate this relationship. What type of relationship is this known as? 13. Give 3 examples of cyclic changes: 14. Give 3 examples of noncyclic changes: 15. What does the term rate of change mean? 16. The elevation of a hill was measured over the course of 150 years. The initial measurement of the hill showed that it had an elevation of 360 meters above seas level, but the most recent measurement indicated that the hill s elevation is now 348 meters above sea level. What is the rate of change in elevation of this hill? (Show all work, round to the nearest tenths, and use correct units.) 17. What is the rate of temperature change that occurred between 10 and 30 minutes? (1) 1.7 o C/min (2) 0.7 o C/min (3) 1.43 o C/min (4) 0.47 o C/min time (minutes) Page 3

4 18. The graph to the right shows the changes in height of ocean water over the course of 1 day at one Earth location. a. What kind of change does the pattern of data on the graph illustrate? Romano b. At what time did the first high tide on the graph occur? c. Keeping in mind that there are usually 12.5 hours between 2 high tides, at what time did the second high tide on the graph occur? d. When will the next high tide occur? Topic 2 - The Model of the Earth 19. Fill in the chart below with the correct information about the outer portions of the Earth. 20. Which layer of the atmosphere is closest to the Earth s surface? 21. What happens to the temperature as altitude increases in the stratosphere? 22. Which layer of the atmosphere contains almost all the water vapor in the air? 23. What is the altitude of the mesopause.. in kilometers? in miles? Page 4

5 24. In which layer of the atmosphere is the ozone layer located? 25. Why is the ozone layer important to human beings? 26. What chemicals released by humans have contributed to the destruction of the ozone layer? 27. What is the temperature at the tropopause? 28. What happens to the temperature as altitude increases in the troposphere? 29. What are the latitudes and longitudes of the following points? A B X 30. What is the latitude and longitude of the Easter Island Hot Spot? (don t forget to indicate proper compass directions) 31. What is the latitude and longitude of Mt. Marcy expressed in degrees and minutes? 32. What is the latitude and longitude of Jamestown expressed in degrees and minutes? 33. Which reference lines separate time zones? 34. How many degrees are there between a standard time zone? Page 5

6 Use the coordinate grid to answer questions What are the latitude and longitude of point X? 36. What are the latitude and longitude of point Y? 37. How many hours difference is there between points x and y? 38. If the time at point y is 7:00pm, what time is it at point x? 39. One city is located at 30 o N, 120 o W. Another city is located at 60 o N, 90 o W. How many hours difference is there between the two cities? 40. The Big Dipper, part of the star constellation Ursa Major, is shown. a. Circle the two pointer stars used to find Polaris. b. Put a box around the letter of the point that represents Polaris. 41. As the latitude of an observer increases, that altitude of Polaris 42. What would the altitude of Polaris be as viewed from Slide Mountain? 43. Where on Earth would one have to go to observe Polaris at his or her zenith? Page 6

7 44. Create a field map using the data to the right and an interval of 10 o F. Romano Topic 3 - Field Maps and Isolines 45. State the compass direction of the map that would have the greatest temperature gradient? 46. Calculate the temperature gradient between points A and B. (Show all work, round to the nearest tenths, and use correct units.) Base your answers to questions 47 through 49 on the topographic map to the right. 47. What is a possible elevation of point A? (1) 575 meters (3) 655 meters (2) 600 meters (4) 710 meters 48. In which general direction does Flint Creek flow? (1) southwest (3) northwest (2) southeast (4) northeast 49. What is the approximate gradient along the straight dashed line between points X and Y? (1) 50 m/km (3) 150 m/km (2) 100 m/km (4) 300 m/km Page 7

8 The map shows the depth of Lake Ontario. Isoline values indicate water depth, in feet. Points A, B, and C represent locations on the shoreline of Lake Ontario. Points D and E represent locations on the bottom of the lake. 50. On the grid provided below, draw a profile of the bottom of western Lake Ontario by plotting the depth of the water along line AB. Plot each point where an isoline showing depth is crossed by line AB. Connect the plots with a line, starting at A and ending at B, to complete the profile. 51. What is the approximate depth of the lake at point E? (don t forget units) 52. Which side of the lake has the steepest gradient? (1) north (2) northeast (3) west (4) southeast Page 8

9 Topic 4a - Modern Astronomy 53. What unit of measurement do we use to measure distances between stars and galaxies? 54. How far away is Mars from the Sun? 55. The Sun is the closest star to the Earth. The next closest star is Proxima Centauri, which is 4.2 light years away from Earth. Translate what this really means. 56. What is the definition of a galaxy? 57. How are galaxies classified? 58. What is the name of our galaxy? 59. To the right is a picture of our galaxy. Indicate where our Sun and Solar System would be located in the galaxy. 60. What are the two evidences used to help support the Big Bang Theory? a. b. 61. a. What is the process by which stars makes their own energy? b. What is the chemical formula for this process? Page 9

10 62. Compare the temperature and luminosity of a red giant star to a white dwarf star. 63. What is the approximate temperature of the star Spica? 64. State three main differences between the terrestrial and Jovian planets. Terrestrial Jovian 65. What gas in Venus atmosphere causes it to have a greenhouse effect? 66 The diagram below represents the bright-line spectrum for an element. The spectrum of the same element observed in the light from a distant star is shown below. The shift in the spectral lines indicates that the star is moving (1) toward Earth (3) in an elliptical orbit around the Sun (2) away from Earth (4) in a circular orbit around the Sun Page 10

11 Use the two diagrams below to answers questions Romano Topic 4b - Earth Motions (some Insolation questions as well ) 67. Which motion of the Earth is shown by the curved arrow(s) in each of the two diagrams? 68. What two pieces of evidence did scientists use to prove the Earth motion that is shown? 69. What is the rate of the motion shown in the diagram? 70. What is the approximate time of day at point X in diagram 1? 71. What date is represented by diagram 2? 72. Which lettered position on Earth would have the greatest duration of insolation in diagram 2? 73. How many hours of daylight would the South Pole experience in diagram 2? 74. Label each diagram of the Solar System as either the geocentric or heliocentric model? Page 11

12 75. What are two causes of seasons experienced on Earth? 76. Which Earth motion causes day and night? 77. What observations did scientist use to help prove the Earth is revolving? Use the diagram below to answer questions What is the term used for the orbital motion of the Earth shown in the diagram? 79. How long does it take the Earth to complete one trip in its orbit? 80. Which position represents winter in the Northern Hemisphere? 81. Which position represents the vernal equinox? 82. How many daylight hours would NY experience when the Earth is at position C? 83. Which position represents the Earth at perihelion? 84. Which position represents the Earth at aphelion? Page 12

13 Use the diagram to the right to answer questions The diagram shows the apparent path of the Sun as viewed from a location near New York City on four different days during the year. 85. Path A is the day with the lowest angle of insolation. What date does path A represent? 86. Path D is the day with the highest angle of insolation. What date does path D represent? 87. What date(s) does path C represent? 88. Name one month during the year that could be the path B could represent? 89. Sketch the path that the Sun would appear to have during the month of April. 90. Which path represents the date with the greatest intensity of insolation? 91. Which direction must observers look to see their shadows when it is solar noon? 92. Which noon Sun (A, B, C, or D) would cause objects to have the longest shadows? 93. Put an X in the diagram to represent the position of the Sun at 3pm on June 21st. 94. What direction does the Sun rise on December 21st? 95. Keeping in mind that the observer that is viewing this celestial sphere is doing so from a location near NYC, plot the point on the celestial sphere that the observer would see Polaris. Label the point Polaris Page 13

14 Topic 4c Laws of Planetary Motions and The Moon Use the diagram to the right to answer questions In which position would the Earth have the greatest orbital velocity? 97. In which position would gravitational attraction between the the Earth and Sun be the least? 98. What will happen to the apparent diameter of the Sun as the Earth moves in its orbit from position 3 to position 1? 99. Calculate the eccentricity of the ellipse shown. Write the formula, substitute data, and round final answer to the nearest thousandths place. (find a centimeter ruler to make your measurements...) 100. How does the eccentricity of the orbit above compare to the eccentricity of Earth s orbit? 101. Which two factors influence the gravitational attraction between two celestial objects? Page 14

15 Use the diagram to the right to answer questions Why would an observer on Earth see a complete cycle of phases of the Moon in approximately 1 month? (1) The Moon rotates on its axis. (2) The Moon revolves around the Earth. (3) The Earth rotates on its axis. (4) The Earth revolves around the Sun Correctly shade in the circles to show the correct Moon phase at each position indicated a. Which positions would the Moon be in to produce the greatest difference between high and low tides on Earth? b. What is the name given to this type of tide? 105. Which position would the Moon be in to produce a neap tide? 106. Which position of the Moon could result in a solar eclipse?. a lunar eclipse? Page 15

16 Topic 5 - Energy and Insolation 107. Heat always flows from a source to a sink. What does this mean? 108. a. Use arrows to draw a convection cell in the room. b. Explain the direction of the arrows that you drew by discussing the density of the air in the different parts of the convection cell Compare the wavelength of visible light to the wavelength of infrared radiation Water has a high specific heat. How does this affect the rate of heating and cooling of liquid water? 111. How much energy must be released by 1 gram of water while it freezes? 112. Which phase change of water requires the addition of the most amount of heat energy? 113. a. Name a substance that will heat up and cool down quickly? b. Explain your answer to part a Why is the Equator hotter than the Poles? Page 16

17 115. Give three qualities of a surface that makes a good absorber of light Draw a graph that illustrates the following: (make sure to label each axis) As the amount of water vapor and CO2 increases, the amount of heat absorbed by the atmosphere increases In New York State, ski trails that are constructed on a north facing slope usually retain their snow later in the spring than those on a south facing slope. This is chiefly because (1) the northern slope is protected from the prevailing south winds (2) the southern slope has darker soil (3) snowfall is greater on the northern slope (4) the rays of the Sun are more direct on the southern slopes 118. Which diagram shows the most direct Sun s rays? 119. The paragraph below explains how the greenhouse effect works. Fill in the blanks. (the words to use are: re-radiated, methane, visible, absorbed, infrared ) Shorter wave light enters the Earth s atmosphere and reaches the Earth. That energy is by the Earth s surface and then as longer wave energy. This energy gets absorbed by the greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, water vapor, and a. What time during the day does a location in NY get the most intense insolation? b. What time of day are the highest temperatures? Page 17

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