# 3. This room is located in a building in New York State. On which side of the building is the window located? (1) north (3) east (2) south (4) west

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1 1. The planetary winds in Earth s Northern Hemisphere generally curve to the right due to Earth s (1) orbit around the Sun (2) spin on its axis (3) magnetic field (4) force of gravity Base your answers to questions 2 and 3 on the diagram below, which shows sunlight entering a room through the same window at three different times on the same winter day. 2. The apparent change in the Sun s position shown in the diagram is best explained by (1) the Sun rotating at a rate of 15 per hour (2) Earth rotating at a rate of 15 per hour (3) the Sun s axis tilted at an angle of 23 (4) Earth s axis tilted at an angle of This room is located in a building in New York State. On which side of the building is the window located? (1) north (3) east (2) south (4) west 4. The apparent change in direction of a swinging Foucault pendulum is the result of the (1) rotation of Earth (2) revolution of Earth (3) tilt of Earth s axis (4) shape of Earth s orbit 5. The diagram below represents the direction of Earth s rotation as it appears from above the North Pole. Point X is a location on Earth s surface. The time at point X is closest to (1) 9 a.m. (3) 9 p.m. (2) 12 noon (4) 12 midnight

2 Base your answers to questions 6 through 8 on the diagram below, which represents an exaggerated view of Earth revolving around the Sun. Letters A, B, C, and D represent Earth s location in its orbit on the first day of each of the four seasons. 6. Which location in Earth s orbit represents the first day of fall (autumn) for an observer in New York State? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D 7. Earth s rate of revolution around the Sun is approximately (1) 1 per day (3) 15 per hour (2) 360 per day (4) 23.5 per hour 8. Which observation provides the best evidence that Earth revolves around the Sun? 1. Stars seen from Earth appear to circle Polaris. 2. Earth s planetary winds are deflected by the Coriolis effect. 3. The change from high ocean tide to low ocean tide is a repeating pattern. 4. Different star constellations are seen from Earth at different times of the year. 9. Earth is farthest from the Sun during the Northern Hemisphere s summer, and Earth is closest to the Sun during the Northern Hemisphere s winter. During which season in the Northern Hemisphere is Earth s orbital velocity greatest? (1) winter (3) summer (2) spring (4) fall 10. Terrestrial planets move more rapidly in their orbits than the Jovian planets because terrestrial planets are (1) rotating on a tilted axis (2) more dense (3) more massive (4) closer to the Sun

3 11. The diagram below represents Earth at a specific position in its orbit as viewed from space. The shaded area represents nighttime. Which Earth latitude receives the greatest intensity of insolation when Earth is at the position shown in the diagram? (1) 0 (3) 66 N (2) 23 N (4) 90 N 12. On June 21, where will the Sun appear to rise for an observer located in New York State? (1) due west (3) north of due east (2) due east (4) south of due east 13. The diagram below shows the noontime shadow cast by a vertical post located in New York State. Which letter indicates a location south of the post? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D

4 14. The diagram below shows the shadow cast by a telephone pole on March 21 at solar noon at a location in New York State. Which shadow was cast by the same telephone pole on June 21 at solar noon? 15. From which New York State location would Polaris be observed to have an altitude closest to 43 above the northern horizon? (1) Binghamton (3) Watertown (2) Utica (4) New York City

5 16. The diagram below shows Earth on a particular day in its orbit around the Sun. The dashed line represents Earth s axis. Which date is represented by the diagram? (1) March 21 (3) September 23 (2) June 21 (4) December 21 Base your answers to questions 29 and 30 on the diagram below, which shows numbered positions of the Sun at four different times along the Sun s apparent daily path, as seen by an observer in New York State. Numbers 1 through 4 represent apparent positions of the Sun. 17. The observer had the longest shadow when the Sun was at position (1) 1 (3) 3 (2) 2 (4) During which day of the year is the Sun most likely to follow the apparent path shown? (1) March 1 (3) October 1 (2) July 1 (4) December 1

6 19. The diagram below shows the apparent path of the Sun as viewed by an observer at a certain Earth location on March 21. At which latitude is the observer located? (1) the Equator (0 ) (3) 66 N (2) 23 1N (4)90 N 20. The redshift of light from distant galaxies provides evidence that the universe is (1) shrinking, only (2) expanding, only (3) shrinking and expanding in a cyclic pattern (4) remaining the same size 21. Which statement correctly compares the size, composition, and density of Neptune to Earth? (1) Neptune is smaller, more gaseous, and less dense. (2) Neptune is larger, more gaseous, and less dense. (3) Neptune is smaller, more solid, and more dense. (4) Neptune is larger, more solid, and more dense. 22. Which star color indicates the hottest star surface temperature? (1) blue (3) yellow (2) white (4) red 23. The time required for the Moon to show a complete cycle of phases when viewed from Earth is approximately (1) 1 day (3) 1 month (2) 1 week (4) 1 year

7 Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the diagram below, which represents a model of the sky (celestial sphere) for an observer in New York State. The curved arrow represents the Sun s apparent path for part of one day. The altitude of Polaris is also indicated. 24.According to this diagram, what is the Sun s altitude at solar noon? (1) 23.5 (3) 48 (2) 42 (4) Where is this observer most likely located? (1) Massena (3) Slide Mountain (2) Oswego (4) Mt. Marcy 26. On which date could this observation of the Sun s apparent path have been made? (1) March 21 (3) October 21 (2) July 21 (4) December The diagram below shows four different chemical materials escaping from the interior of early Earth. Which material contributed least to the early composition of the atmosphere? (1) SiO 2 (3) N 2 (2) H 2 O (4) CO 2

8 28. As a ship crosses the Prime Meridian, an observer on the ship measures the altitude of Polaris at 60. What is the ship s location? (1) 60 south latitude and 0 longitude (2) 60 north latitude and 0 longitude (3) 0 latitude and 60 east longitude (4) 0 latitude and 60 west longitude 29. Which two stars have the most similar luminosity and temperature? (1) Betelgeuse and Barnard s Star (2) Rigel and Betelgeuse (3) Alpha Centauri and the Sun (4) Sirius and Procyon B 30. The Big Bang Theory, describing the creation of the universe, is most directly supported by the (1) redshift of light from distant galaxies (2) presence of volcanoes on Earth (3) apparent shape of star constellations (4) presence of craters on Earth s Moon 31. The diagram below shows the Moon at four positions in its orbit around Earth. An observer on Earth could see a lunar eclipse when the Moon is at position (1) 1 (3) 3 (2) 2 (4) Which list of three planets and Earth s Moon is arranged in order of increasing equatorial diameter? (1) Earth s Moon,Venus, Mars, Mercury (2) Earth s Moon, Mercury, Mars, Earth (3) Mercury, Mars, Earth s Moon, Earth (4) Mars, Mercury, Earth, Earth s Moon (5)

9 Base your answers to questions 33 and 34 on the diagram below, which shows Earth in orbit around the Sun, and the Moon in orbit around Earth. M1, M2, M3, and M4 indicate positions of the Moon in its orbit. Letter A indicates a location on Earth s surface. 33. An observer at location A on Earth views the Moon when it is at position M3. Which phase of the Moon will the observer see? 34. At which Moon position could a solar eclipse be seen from Earth? (1) M1 (3) M3 (2) M2 (4) M4

10 Base your answers to questions 35 and 36 on the map below, which shows the latitude and longitude of five observers, A, B, C, D, and E, on Earth. 35. What is the altitude of Polaris (the North Star) above the northern horizon for observer A? (1) 0 (3) 80 (2) 10 (4) Which two observers would be experiencing the same apparent solar time? (1) A and C (3) B and E (2) B and C (4) D and E 37. The topographic map below shows a hill. Points X and Y represent locations on the hill s surface. Elevations are shown in meters. What is the gradient between points X and Y? (1) 40 m/km (3) 100 m/km (2) 80 m/km (4) 120 m/km

11 38. Which city in New York State is closets to N by W? (1) Elmira (2) Jamestown (3) Niagara Falls (4) Rochester 39. What is the approximate latitude and longitude for Kingston, New York? (1) N by W (2) N by W (3) N by W (4) W by N 40. Letters A, B, C, D, and X on the map below represent locations on Earth. The map shows the latitude longitude grid. Solar time is based on the position of the Sun. If the solar time is 1 p.m. at location X, at which location is the solar time 5 p.m.? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D 41. The field map below shows air temperature measurements, in degrees Celsius, taken at the same elevation within

12 a closed room. Two reference points, A and B, are shown. Which temperature field map shows correctly drawn isotherms? Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the maps below. Points A, B, C, X, and Y are locations on the

13 topographic map. The small map identifies the New York State region shown in the topographic map. 42. Which graph best represents the profile from point B to point C?

14 43. What is the elevation of point A on the topographic map? (1) 1,700 ft (3) 1,600 ft (2) 1,650 ft (4) 1,550 ft 44. Compared to a maritime tropical air mass, a maritime polar air mass has a (1) higher temperature and more water vapor (2) higher temperature and less water vapor (3) lower temperature and more water vapor (4) lower temperature and less water vapor 45. Which map best represents the surface wind pattern around a Northern Hemisphere high pressure center? 46. What is the Dew point temperature when the air temperature is 29 C and the wet-bulb temperature is 23 C?

15 (1) 6 F (3) 52 F (2) 20 F (4) 60 F 47. The diagram below represents an aneroid barometer that shows the air pressure, in inches of mercury. When converted to millibars, this air pressure is equal to (1) mb (3) mb (2) mb (4) mb 48. The properties of an air mass are mostly determined by the (1) rate of Earth s rotation (2) direction of Earth s surface winds (3) source region where the air mass formed (4) path the air mass follows along a land surface 49. What is the difference between the dry-bulb temperature and the wet-bulb temperature when the relative humidity is 28% and the dry-bulb temperature is 8 C? (1) 6 C (3) 20 C (2) 16 C (4) 47 C 50. Various weather conditions at LaGuardia Airport in New York City are shown on the station model below. What were the air temperature, wind direction, and wind speed at the airport at the time of the observation? (1) 40 F, NE, and 150 Knots (2) 40 F, SW, and 15 Knots (3) 43 F, SW, and 15 Knots (4) 43 F, NE, and 15 Knots Base your answers to questions 51 through 53 on the weather map below and on your knowledge of Earth science.

16 The weather map shows a typical low-pressure system and associated weather fronts labeled A and B. The L indicates the center of the low-pressure system. A few New York State cities are shown. Symbols cp and mt represent different air masses. The wind direction at Utica and Rochester is shown on the station models. 51. Which front symbols are drawn correctly, based on the air masses shown? 52. If this weather system is following a normal storm track, the center of this low (L) is most likely moving toward which city? (1) Buffalo (3) Utica (2) Ithaca (4) Plattsburgh

17 53. Which map shows the regions that are most likely experiencing the precipitation associated with this weather system? Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the diagram below, which shows the temperature change when

18 a parcel of air warms, rises, and expands to form a cloud. Location A is at the base of the cloud. 54. Explain why the warmer air rises. [1] 55. State the relative humidity of the air at location A. [1] Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth science. Ozone in Earth s Atmosphere Ozone is a special form of oxygen. Unlike the oxygen we breathe, which is composed of two atoms of oxygen, ozone is composed of three atoms of oxygen. A concentrated ozone layer between 10 and 30 miles above Earth s surface absorbs some of the harmful ultraviolet radiation coming from the Sun. The amount of ultraviolet light reaching Earth s surface is directly related to the angle of incoming solar radiation. The greater the Sun s angle of insolation, the greater the amount of ultraviolet light that reaches Earth s surface. If the ozone layer were completely destroyed, the ultraviolet light reaching Earth s surface would most likely increase human health problems, such as skin cancer and eye damage. 56. State the name of the temperature zone of Earth s atmosphere where the concentrated layer of ozone gas exists. [1] 57. Explain how the concentrated ozone layer above Earth s surface is beneficial to humans. [1]

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