# EARTHS SHAPE AND POLARIS PRACTICE 2017

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1 1. In the diagram below, letters A through D represent the locations of four observers on the Earth's surface. Each observer has the same mass. 3. Which diagram most accurately shows the cross-sectional shape of the Earth? A) B) The gravitational force is weakest between the center of the Earth and the observer at location A) A B) B C) C D) D 2. The Earth is slightly flattened from a perfect spherical shape because of A) its rotation B) the pull of the sun and moon C) storms on the sun's surface D) its molten core C) D)

2 4. The diagrams below represent photographs of a large sailboat taken through a telescope over time as the boat sailed away from shore out to sea. Each diagram shows the magnification of the lenses and the time of day. Which statement best explains the apparent sinking of this sailboat? A) The sailboat is moving around the curved surface of Earth. B) The sailboat appears smaller as it moves farther away. C) The change in density of the atmosphere is causing refraction of light rays. D) The tide is causing an increase in the depth of the ocean. 5. The Earth's actual shape is most correctly described as A) a circle B) a perfect sphere C) an oblate sphere D) an eccentric ellipse 6. Which object best represents a true scale model of the shape of the Earth? A) a Ping-Pong ball B) a football C) an egg D) a pear 7. Compared to the weight of a person at the North Pole, the weight of the same person at the Equator would be A) slightly less, because the person is farther from the center of Earth B) slightly less, because the person is closer to the center of Earth C) slightly more, because the person is farther from the center of Earth D) slightly more, because the person is closer to the center of Earth 8. Precise measurements of the Earth indicate that its polar diameter is A) shorter than its equatorial diameter B) longer than its equatorial diameter C) the same length as its equatorial diameter 9. Measurements taken from space show the Earth to be A) greatest in diameter at the Equator B) greatest in diameter at the poles C) a perfect sphere D) pear shaped 10. A gravity meter is used to measure the amount of gravitational pull at the Earth's North Pole and at the Earth's Equator. How would these readings of gravitational pull compare? [Assume both readings are taken at sea level.] A) The reading would be lower at the North Pole than at the Equator. B) The reading would be higher at the North Pole than at the Equator. C) The readings would be the same at the North Pole and at the Equator. 11. The best evidence that the Earth has a spherical shape is provided by A) photographs of the Earth taken from space satellites B) the amount of daylight received at the North Pole on June 21 C) the changing orbital speed of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun D) the cyclic change of seasons

3 12. In the diagram below, letters A through D represent the locations of four observers on the Earth's surface. Each observer has the same mass. 15. Which diagram most accurately shows the cross-sectional shape of the Earth drawn to scale? A) B) C) D) The gravitational force is strongest between the center of the Earth and the observer at location A) A B) B C) C D) D 13. The table below shows the distance that an observer must travel on a north-south line along the surface of the Earth in order to change the observed altitude of Polaris by 5. The best inference about the Earth's shape that can be made from these observations is that the Earth A) is a perfect sphere B) is flattened at the Equator C) has a curved surface D) has a very smooth surface 14. The polar circumference of the Earth is 40,008 kilometers. What is the equatorial circumference? A) 12,740 km B) 25,000 km C) 40,008 km D) 40,076 km 16. An observer watching a sailing ship at sea notes that the ship appears to be sinking as it moves away. Which statement best explains this observation? A) The surface of the ocean has depressions. B) The Earth has a curved surface. C) The Earth is rotating. D) The Earth is revolving. 17. The best evidence of the Earth's nearly spherical shape is obtained through A) telescopic observations of other planets B) photographs of the Earth from an orbiting satellite C) observations of the Sun's altitude made during the day D) observations of the Moon made during lunar eclipses 18. According to the data below, what is the exact shape of the Earth? A) slightly flattened at both the Equator and the Poles B) slightly bulging at both the Equator and the Poles C) slightly flattened at the Equator and slightly bulging at the Poles D) slightly flattened at the Poles and slightly bulging at the Equator

4 19. The north-south distance between the Earth's Equator (0º) and the North Pole (90º N) is 10,002 kilometers. The distance between 0º and 10º N is 1,106 kilometers. Which statement is best supported by this information? A) The shape of the Earth is not perfectly spherical. B) The lines of longitude are not parallel. C) The north-south distance for every 10º of latitude is a constant value. D) The Earth's equatorial radius and polar radius are equal. 20. What is the approximate altitude of Polaris at Watertown, New York? A) 44 B) 47 C) 76 D) At which New York State location would an observer measure the highest altitude of Polaris? A) Massena B) Slide Mountain C) Niagara Falls D) Plattsburgh 22. If an observer on Earth views Polaris at their Zenith, the observer is located at the A) equator (0 ) B) North Pole (90 N) C) Tropic of Cancer (23.5 N) D) Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 S) 23. What is the approximate altitude of Polaris at Massena, New York? A) 43 B) 45 C) 75 D) The altitude of Polaris measured by an observer at the Tropic of Cancer is A) 15 B) 23.5 C) 66.5 D) On April 21, the altitude of Polaris, as viewed from a location in New York State, was measured as What will the altitude of Polaris be when viewed one month later, on May 21, from the same location? A) 23.5 B) 41.3 C) 66.7 D) Which statement best explains why stars viewed from the Northern Hemisphere appear to revolve around Polaris? A) Polaris rotates on its axis. B) Earth rotates on its axis C) Polaris revolves around Earth. D) Earth revolves around Polaris. 27. The diagram below represents an observer measuring the altitude of Polaris. At which latitude is this observer located? A) 16 N B) 37 N C) 53 N D) 90 N

5 Base your answers to questions 28 through 30 on the time-exposure photograph shown below. The photograph was taken by aiming a camera at a portion of the night sky above a New York State location and leaving the camera's shutter open for a period of time to record star trails. 28. During the time exposure of the photograph, the stars appear to have moved through an arc of 60. How many hours did this time exposure take? A) 4 h B) 8 h C) 12 h D) 15 h 29. During the time exposure of the photograph, the stars appear to have moved through an arc of 120. How many hours did this time exposure take? A) 5 h B) 8 h C) 12 h D) 15 h 30. Which celestial object is shown in the photograph near the center of the star trails? A) the Sun B) the Moon C) Sirius D) Polaris 31. What is the approximate altitude of Polaris at Syracuse, New York? A) 43 B) 47 C) 76 D) If an observer on Earth views Polaris on the horizon, the observer is located at the A) equator (0 ) B) North Pole (90 N) C) Tropic of Cancer (23.5 N) D) Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 S) 33. From Utica, New York, Polaris is observed at an altitude of approximately A) 43 B) 47 C) 75 D) At which New York State location would an observer measure the highest altitude of Polaris? A) New York City B) Slide Mountain C) Niagara Falls D) Plattsburgh 35. At which location is the altitude of Polaris approximately 42? A) Niagara Falls B) Elmira C) Watertown D) Massena

6 36. The diagram below shows an observer on Earth viewing the star Polaris. What is the observer's latitude? A) 38 N B) 38 S C) 52 N D) 52 S 37. The diagram below shows an observer measuring the altitude of Polaris. What is the latitude of the observer? A) 20 N B) 20 S C) 70 N D) 70 S

7 38. Base your answer to the following question on the world map below. Letters A through D represent locations on Earth's surface. At which location could an observer not see Polaris in the night sky at any time during the year? A) A B) B C) C D) D 39. The diagram below shows an observer on Earth measuring the altitude of Polaris. 40. At which New York State location will an observer most likely measure the altitude of Polaris as approximately 42? A) Jamestown B) Plattsburgh C) Oswego D) New York City What is the latitude of this observer? A) 90 N B) 66.5 N C) 43 N D) 23.5 N

8 41. Which statement about Polaris is best illustrated by the diagrams shown below? 43. The diagram below shows an observer on Earth measuring the altitude of Polaris. What is the latitude of this observer? A) 43 N B) 43 S C) 47 N D) 47 S A) Polaris is located in a winter constellation B) Polaris is located at the zenith at each location. C) Polaris' apparent movement through the sky follows a south-to-north orientation. D) Polaris' altitude is equal to a locations latitude. 42. As a ship crosses the Prime Meridian, an observer on the ship measures the altitude of Polaris at 60. What is the ship's location? A) 60 south latitude and 0 longitude B) 60 north latitude and 0 longitude C) 0 latitude and 60 east longitude D) 0 latitude and 60 west longitude

9 44. Base your answer to the following question on the map below, which shows the latitude and longitude of five observers, A, B, C, D, and E, on Earth. What is the altitude of Polaris (the North Star) above the northern horizon for observer A? A) 0 B) 10 C) 80 D) Which diagram represents the approximate altitude of Polaris as seen by an observer located Syracuse, New York? A) 46. The dashed line on the map below shows a ship's route from Long Island, New York, to Florida. As the ship travels south, the star Polaris appears lower in the northern sky each night. B) C) D) The best explanation for this observation is that Polaris A) rises and sets at different locations each day B) has an elliptical orbit around Earth C) is located directly over Earth's Equator D) is located directly over Earth's North Pole

10 47. The North Star (Polaris) can be used for navigation in Earth's Northern Hemisphere because 49. Which diagram best shows the altitude of Polaris observed near Buffalo, New York? A) Polaris is located directly over the Tropic of Cancer B) Polaris is the brightest and most easily located star C) the altitude of Polaris is equal to the observer's latitude D) the position of Polaris changes with the seasons 48. The diagram below shows a student in New York State observing Polaris. A) B) C) D) The student is located nearest to which city in New York State? 50. The diagram below shows an instrument made from a drinking straw, protractor, string, and rock. A) Plattsburgh B) Albany C) New York City D) Kingston This instrument was most likely used to measure the A) distance to a star B) altitude of a star C) mass of the Earth D) mass of the suspended weight

11 51. Which diagram best represents the location of Polaris for an observer located at the Equator? A) 52. The diagram below represents the route of a ship traveling from New York City to Miami, Florida. Each night, a passenger on the ship observes Polaris. B) C) D) Which statement best describes the observed changes in the altitude of Polaris made by the passenger during the voyage? A) Each night the altitude decreases in the northern sky. B) Each night the altitude decreases in the southern sky. C) Each night the altitude increases in the northern sky. D) Each night the altitude increases in the southern sky. 53. The diagram below shows the altitude of Polaris above the horizon at a certain location. What is the latitude of the observer? A) 10 N B) 40 N C) 50 N D) 90 N

12 54. The diagram below shows the angular altitude of Polaris above the horizon at a certain location. What is the latitude of the observer? A) 15 N B) 25 N C) 30 N D) 65 N 55. Which graph best represents the altitude of Polaris observed at northern latitude positions on the Earth's surface? A) 56. The angle of the star Polaris above the northern horizon can be used to determine an observer's A) latitude B) longitude C) solar time D) local time 57. As a person travels due west across New York State, the altitude of Polaris will A) decrease B) increase C) remain the same 58. Which graph best represents the relationship between the latitude of an observer and the observed altitude of Polaris above the northern horizon? A) B) C) D) B) C) D) 59. As a person travels northward from the Equator, the altitude of Polaris will appear to A) decrease B) increase C) remain the same 60. An observer on a moving ship notices that the altitude of Polaris increases each night. Local solar noon occurs at the same time each day. In what direction is the ship moving? A) due east B) due south C) due west D) due north 61. At which latitude will Polaris be overhead? A) 0º B) 23 ½ºN. C) 90º S. D) 90º N. 62. What could be the approximate location of an observer if he measured the altitude of Polaris to be 41 degrees above the horizon? A) Watertown B) Massena C) Buffalo D) New York City

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