# This clementine orange is an oblate spheroid. Earth is more rounded than this clementine, but it is still an oblate spheroid.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "This clementine orange is an oblate spheroid. Earth is more rounded than this clementine, but it is still an oblate spheroid."

Transcription

1 On Earth, each day begins at sunrise and ends at sunset. You see the Sun come up or rise in the morning and go down or set at night. When we use these phrases, what do you think they imply about the way our solar system works? Does the Sun really rise and set in the sky throughout the day? Rotation is a term that describes the motion of a spinning object. Each of the planets and moons in our solar system rotates about an axis. An axis is an imaginary line about which each planet or moon spins. This imaginary line marks the center of a planet or moon s rotation. Rotation can describe the motion of a spinning top (left). You can think of an axis as the center peg of a spinning top. This top s axis is tilted like Earth s. A globe (right) is a model of Earth that represents how the planet rotates about a tilted axis. In space, there is no such thing as up or down. An object s position can be measured only relative to other objects. The Sun is the center of our solar system. Therefore, the motion of the planets and other objects in our solar system can be measured relative to the Sun. Like the other planets, Earth rotates about an axis. Earth s axis is not a perfectly vertical, or perpendicular, line. Instead, our planet tilts at an angle of 23.5 relative to its path around the Sun. The northern end of Earth s axis, known as the geographic North Pole, always points at the North Star. A day is the amount of time a planet takes to complete one full rotation. Earth takes 24 hours to complete one full rotation, so one day on Earth is 24 hours. Because Earth rotates, different parts of the planet face the Sun at different times. When the Western Hemisphere is facing the Sun, it is daytime there and nighttime in the Eastern Hemisphere. When the Western Hemisphere is facing away from the Sun, it is nighttime there and daytime in the Western Hemisphere. This clementine orange is an oblate spheroid. Earth is more rounded than this clementine, but it is still an oblate spheroid. Even though you can t feel it, Earth rotates very fast. Earth s rotation is so fast, it causes the planet to bulge out slightly at the equator and shrink slightly at the poles. Therefore, Earth is not a perfect sphere. Earth s circumference is slightly wider at the equator than it is at the poles. This shape is called an oblate spheroid. In most photographs and diagrams that you will see, Earth probably looks like a perfect sphere. 1

2 Revolution is a term that describes the motion of one object as it moves around another object. While each planet rotates about its axis, it is also revolving around the Sun. Even though the Sun appears to move across the sky each day, Earth is actually moving around the Sun. For many years, people believed that the Sun and other planets revolved around Earth. This was called the geocentric model of the Solar System. Geomeans Earth, so geocentric means Earth-centered. Later, scientists discovered the motion of the planets makes much more sense if the Sun is the center of the solar system. This is called the heliocentric model of the solar system. Helio- means Sun, so heliocentric means Sun-centered. This is now the accepted model of the solar system. The term solar means of the Sun, so solar system means a system driven by the Sun. The Sun is the center of the solar system. All of the planets revolve around the Sun. A year is the amount of time a planet takes to complete one full revolution around the Sun. Earth takes days to complete one full revolution. We usually define one Earth year as 365 days. Because a full Earth year is actually days, every four years we have a leap year. During a leap year, we make up for this extra quarter-day by adding an extra day to the calendar. A leap year has 366 days instead of the normal 365 days. While the planets in our solar system all revolve around the Sun, each of the moons in our solar system revolves around a planet. Some planets have several moons, but Earth has just one. Earth s moon is called simply the Moon. The Moon takes 28 Earth days to complete one full revolution around Earth. We see the same side of the Moon every night as it orbits Earth. The Moon has many recognizable features, such as craters, that you can see from Earth. You may have noticed that you always see the same recognizable features every night. This means that each night the same side of the Moon is facing you. Why do you think this is? Do you think the Moon does not rotate as it revolves around Earth? If not, how else can you explain this phenomenon? You can read the scientific explanation prior to the What Do You Think? section of this companion. 2

3 Because the Sun is so massive, it has very strong gravity. The force of the Sun s gravitational pull holds all of the objects in the solar system including the planets in its orbit. An orbit is the path an object takes as it revolves around another object. Each planet in our solar system revolves around the Sun in a predictable orbit. These orbits are not perfect circles they are elliptical, or oval shaped. This means that each planet is sometimes closer to and sometimes farther from the Sun. The diagram titled Seasons in the Northern Hemisphere, below, shows an example of an elliptical orbit. The fact that Earth s distance from the Sun changes throughout the year might seem like a good explanation for the seasons. You might think that Earth is colder when it is farther from the Sun and warmer when it is closer to the Sun. However, this explanation is incorrect. Not every part of Earth experiences the same seasons at the same time. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere. What, then, causes the seasons? If Earth s axis were not tilted, we would not experience different seasons. However, Earth s axis is tilted at a 23.5 angle. As Earth revolves around the Sun, sometimes the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun. When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, it receives more direct rays of sunlight. It is summer. In summer, days are longer and weather is warmer in the Northern Hemisphere. Plants there have plenty of sunlight for photosynthesis, and animals have plenty to eat. When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, it receives more direct rays of sunlight than the Southern Hemisphere. During this time, the Northern Hemisphere experiences summer and the Southern Hemisphere experiences winter. At the same time, the Southern Hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun and receives fewer direct rays of sunlight. As a result, days are shorter and weather is cooler in the Southern Hemisphere. It is winter. Plants there grow less actively, and many lose their leaves. Animals are also less active; some hibernate, or sleep through the winter. 3

4 When Earth reaches the opposite side of its orbit a process that takes about six months the Southern Hemisphere will be tilted toward the Sun. It will receive more direct rays of sunlight, and the Northern Hemisphere will receive fewer. As a result, the Southern Hemisphere will experience summer and the Northern Hemisphere will experience winter. Therefore, Earth s tilted axis and Earth s revolution around the Sun not Earth s distance from the Sun cause seasons. Seasons are more noticeable in places that are farther from the equator the imaginary line around the horizontal center of the planet. No matter where When the Southern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, it receives more direct rays of sunlight than the Northern Hemisphere. During this time, the Southern Hemisphere experiences summer and the Northern Hemisphere experiences winter. Earth is along its orbit, the equator is never tilted away from the Sun. It receives direct rays of sunlight year-round. This is why climates are generally warmer near the equator. While there is some variation, temperatures near the equator stay relatively constant from month to month. Summer Autum Spring Winter You can see how Earth s orbit is elliptical in this diagram. As Earth revolves around the Sun, the planet s tilted axis causes the seasons. When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun, it experiences winter. As the planet moves to the opposite end of its orbit, the northern hemisphere passes through spring into summer. During summer, the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun. It then passes through autumn (or fall), making its way back to winter. Remember: The Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere are opposites. When the Northern Hemisphere is experiencing summer in the diagram above, the Southern Hemisphere is experiencing the opposite season, which is winter. 4

5 Although Earth s axis is currently tilted at 23.5, this angle is not always constant. Earth wobbles slightly over time as it revolves around the Sun. This wobble causes the angle of Earth s tilted axis to shift between 22 and 25. This does not happen fast enough to be noticed on a human timescale. Rather, the shift between 22 and 25 takes about 41,000 years. This process is called a Milankovitch Cycle, named after the astronomer who theorized that changes in Earth s tilted axis affect the seasons. According to Milankovitch s theory, when Earth s tilt increases, there is a greater difference between summer and winter. A strong winter can lead to significant build-up of ice at the poles. This ice can reflect the Sun s radiation, blocking it from warming Earth s surface. This can cause temperatures to drop even more. Eventually, this can lead to an ice age. When Earth s tilt decreases, the seasons become milder. It is important to realize that many factors contribute to climate on Earth. Although Milankovitch cycles likely play a role in climate change, scientists do not think their effects will be strong enough to produce a new ice age during the next 50, ,000 years, and possibly longer. Why do we see the same side of the Moon every night from Earth? The answer is the Moon rotates about its axis at the same rate that it revolves around Earth. In other words, the Moon takes about 28 days to complete one rotation and about 28 days to complete one revolution. Due to its revolution, every night the Moon appears in a different part of Earth s sky. However, the Moon has rotated just enough on its axis to prevent us from seeing it from a different perspective. 5

6 Earth s rotation and revolution affect day/night cycles as well as the seasons. The following diagram shows Earth at two positions in its orbit around the Sun. (This diagram is not drawn to scale.) For each position, decide whether each hemisphere is experiencing day or night and winter or summer. Write your answers in the charts below. Position 1 Position 2 NE Hemisphere NW Hemisphere NE Hemisphere NW Hemisphere Position 1 Position 2 SE Hemisphere SW Hemisphere SE Hemisphere SW Hemisphere 6

### Rotation and Revolution

On Earth, each day begins at sunrise and ends at sunset. You see the Sun come up or rise in the morning and go down or set at night. When we use these phrases, what do you think they imply about the way

### Patterns of Change on Earth

TEKS collect and analyze data to identify sequences and predict patterns of change in shadows, tides, seasons, and the observable appearance of the Moon over time Patterns of Change on Earth Patterns and

### 4. What verb is used to describe Earth s

Name: Date: 1 Read the text and then answer the questions. No matter where on Earth you live, you have day and night. That happens because of a movement of Earth called rotation. Earth rotates, or turns,

### CHAPTER 2 Strand 1: Structure and Motion within the Solar System

CHAPTER 2 Strand 1: Structure and Motion within the Solar System Chapter Outline 2.1 EARTH, MOON, AND SUN SYSTEM (6.1.1) 2.2 GRAVITY AND INERTIA (6.1.2) 2.3 SCALE OF SOLAR SYSTEM (6.1.3) 2.4 REFERENCES

### Solar System Test - Grade 5

Solar System Test - Grade 5 Multiple Choice Directions: Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Write this answer on your answer document. 1. The tilt of Earth s

### Earth, Sun, and Stars

Earth, Sun, and Stars Daily Patterns Earth Spins Earth is always moving, even though you don t feel it. One way Earth moves is by spinning around an imaginary line. One end of the line would come out of

### Earth rotates on a tilted axis and orbits the Sun.

Page of 7 KY CONCPT arth rotates on a tilted axis and orbits the Sun. BFOR, you learned Stars seem to rise, cross the sky, and set because arth turns The Sun is very large and far from arth arth orbits

### Name EMS Study Guide. Two important objects that travel around our star are: Planets are not - they don t give off light like stars do

Name EMS Study Guide Fill in the blank. 1. A is a star and the objects that travel around it. 2. A star is a huge of hydrogen and helium gas that give off its own. 3. Think about our own solar system.

### Scott Foresman Science 4.17

Genre Comprehension Skill Text Features Science Content Nonfiction Cause and Effect Captions Labels Diagrams Glossary Earth Cycles Scott Foresman Science 4.17 ISBN-13: 978-0-328-34240-2 ISBN-10: 0-328-34240-8

### Name: Earth and Space Assessment Study Guide. Assessment Date : Term Rotation Revolution

Name: Earth and Space Assessment Study Guide Assessment Date : Earth s Rotation and Revolution Term Rotation Revolution Brief Definition Earth s Time to Complete One complete spin on an axis 24 hours (or

### The Sun-Earth-Moon System

chapter 311 section 1 Earth The Sun-Earth-Moon System Before You Read What do you already know about Earth s shape, its size, and how it moves? Write what you know on the lines below. What You ll Learn

### Patterns on Earth 4.8C

Have you ever made shadow puppets? If you put your hand between a flashlight and a wall, you will make a shadow. You might have made a rabbit shape or some other animal shape with your hands. Your hand

### 1. Which continents are experiencing daytime? 2. Which continents are experiencing nighttime?

Name: Section: Astronomy 101: Seasons Lab Objective: When you have completed this lab, you will be able to describe the seasons of the year and explain the reasons for those seasons. Answer the questions

### What Is the Relationship Between Earth s Tilt and the Seasons?

Learning Set 2 Why Are There Differences in Temperature? Review Images and Graphics While reading about Earth s tilt and the seasons, pay particular attention to the graphics included. How do they help

### Earth s Rotation. reflect

reflect In ancient Greece, people believed that powerful gods were responsible for all things that happened in nature. The Greeks believed that Helios, the Sun god, drove his fiery chariot from one end

### Rotation - Earth spinning on its axis

What is a Cycle? The Tilted Earth TEK 8.7A the student knows the effects resulting from cyclical movements of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The student is expected to model and illustrate how the tilted Earth

### The Reason for Seasons

activity 19 The Reason for Seasons BROWARD COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCIENCE BENCHMARK PLAN Grade 4 Quarter 2 Activity 19 SC.E.1.2.1 The student knows that the tilt of the Earth on its own axis as it rotates and

### ì<(sk\$m)=beacee< +^-Ä-U-Ä-U

Space and Technology Genre Comprehension Skill Text Features Science Content by Carol Levine Nonfiction Main Idea and Details Captions Labels Diagrams Glossary Earth and Space Scott Foresman Science 6.19

### Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earth s Motion Lesson 2 Earth s Moon Lesson 3 Eclipses and Tides Chapter Wrap-Up. Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earth s Motion Lesson 2 Earth s Moon Lesson 3 Eclipses and Tides Chapter Wrap-Up Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images What natural phenomena do the motions of Earth and the Moon

### 1. The bar graph below shows one planetary characteristic, identified as X, plotted for the planets of our solar system.

1. The bar graph below shows one planetary characteristic, identified as X, plotted for the planets of our solar system. Which characteristic of the planets in our solar system is represented by X? A)

### Science Space Lessons 1-5 Notes

Science Space Lessons 1-5 Notes The Planets in order from the Sun are: Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune To help us remember, we use the sentence: My Very Excited Mother Just Served

### Earth & Space. Learning Target:

Earth & Space Learning Target: Most of the cycles and patterns of motion between the Earth and sun are predictable. You understand this when you know: 1) 1 Revolution of the Earth takes approximately 365

### STANDARD. S6E1 d. Explain the motion of objects in the day/night sky in terms of relative position.

STANDARD S6E1 d. Explain the motion of objects in the day/night sky in terms of relative position. S6E2 b. Explain the alignment of the earth, moon, and sun during solar and lunar eclipses. c. Relate the

### Astronomy Practice Test

Name: ate: 1. In laska, there are fewer hours of daylight in the winter than in the summer. Which statement best explains why this difference occurs?. The Sun burns hotter in the summer.. The Sun moves

### Define umbra and penumbra. Then label the umbra and the penumbra on the diagram below. Umbra: Penumbra: Light source

Lesson 3 Eclipses and Tides LA.8.2.2.3, SC.8.E.5.9, SC.8.N.1.1 Skim or scan the heading, boldfaced words, and pictures in the lesson. Identify or predict three facts you will learn from the lesson. Discuss

### Earth in Space. The Sun-Earth-Moon System

in Space The --Moon System What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with the statement or a D if

### Unit 6 Lesson 1 How Do the Sun, Earth, and Moon Interact? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 6 Lesson 1 How Do the Sun, Earth, and Moon Interact? Night and Day Earth rotates, or turns like a top. Earth s rotation causes day and night. Earth rotates around an imaginary line called an axis,

### Astronomy#2 - Notebook

Name Test Date Hour Astronomy#2 - Notebook Planet Earth LEARNING TARGETS I can describe a sphere and give evidence used to prove Earth is spherical. I can explain the difference between rotation and revolution.

### 8.7A Seasons and Day/Night. October 21st-28th

8.7A Seasons and Day/Night October 21st-28th Day One- Friday October 21th,2016 TEK 8.7A Model and illustrate how the tilted Earth rotates on its axis, causing day and night, and revolves around the Sun

### Earth s Rotation. How often does the day-and-night cycle occur on Earth?

How often does the day-and-night cycle occur on Earth? Earth moves through space in several important ways. One type of motion is called rotation. A rotation is a spin around a center. For example, imagine

### Aim: What causes Seasons?

Notepack 28 Aim: What causes Seasons? Do Now: What is the difference between revolution and rotation? Earth s rotation The Earth rotates on its axis (imaginary vertical line around which Earth spins) every

### Seasons Page 520. A. What Causes Seasons?

Seasons Page 520 A. What Causes Seasons? 1. Seasons are caused by the tilt of the earth s axis as it moves around the sun. 2. Seasons happen because the Earth is tilted on its axis at a 23.5 angle. 3.

### 1st Grade. Slide 1 / 90. Slide 2 / 90. Slide 3 / 90. The Sun, Moon, Earth and Stars. Table of Contents The Sun.

Slide 1 / 90 Slide 2 / 90 1st Grade The Sun, Moon, Earth and Stars 2015-11-20 www.njctl.org Table of Contents Slide 3 / 90 Click on the topic to go to that section The Sun The Moon The Stars The Seasons

### SPI Use data to draw conclusions about the major components of the universe.

SPI 0607.6.1 - Use data to draw conclusions about the major components of the universe. o Stars are huge, hot, brilliant balls of gas trillions of kilometers away. A Galaxy is a collection of billions

### THE SUN, THE MOON AND OUR SOLAR SYSTEM TEACHER NOTES TO SHARE WITH STUDENTS

THE SUN, THE MOON AND OUR SOLAR SYSTEM TEACHER NOTES TO SHARE WITH STUDENTS The Sun is the biggest feature in our solar system. It is the largest object and contains approximately 98% of the total solar

### Go to Click on the first animation: The north pole, observed from space

IDS 102 The Seasons on a Planet like Earth As the Earth travels around the Sun, it moves in a giant circle 300 million kilometers across. (Well, it is actually a giant ellipse but the shape is so close

### 4 th Grade: Sun, Moon, and Earth Unit Assessment Study Guide

Name: Teacher: Test Date: 4 th Grade: Sun, Moon, and Earth Unit Assessment Study Guide Vocabulary: Solar System: A group of objects that revolve around a single star. Sun: The central (and only) star in

### The Sun-Earth-Moon System

CHAPTER 20 The un-earth-moon ystem LEO 1 Earth s Motion What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree

### Rotation and Revolution

Lesson 2 Rotation and Revolution Earth has circled around the Sun for about 4.6 billion years. What has kept Earth in its path around the Sun for so long? 422 ENGAGE ESS.41 Explain why the Moon, Sun, and

### SC.8.E.5.9. Summer and Winter Gizmo

8 th Grade Science Quarter 1 Recovery Packet SC.8.E.5.9 DAYS/YEARS/SEASONS Go to www.explorelearning.com and search for the Summer and Winter Gizmo. Answer the following questions: Gizmo Warm-up Summer

### Earth s Motion. Lesson Outline LESSON 1. A. Earth and the Sun 1. The diameter is more than 100 times greater than

Lesson Outline Earth s Motion LESSON 1 A. Earth and the Sun 1. The diameter is more than 100 times greater than Earth s diameter. a. In the Sun, atoms combine during, producing huge amounts of energy.

### A. the spinning of Earth on its axis B. the path of the Sun around Earth

stronomy 1 Packet Write answers on your own paper 1. The Sun appears to move across the sky each day. What causes this?. the spinning of Earth on its axis. the path of the Sun around Earth. the production

### Full Moon. Phases of the Moon

Phases of the Moon The Moon takes 29.5 days to orbit Earth. This is a lunar month. The gravity of the Earth keeps the Moon in orbit. The Moon does not produce light. We see the Moon because it reflects

### Day, Night, Year, and Seasons

Welcome Astronomers to the Sun, Moon, and Earth! The relationship between the Sun, Moon, and Earth is very important to the existence of life on Earth. Our quest is to find out how their relationships

### Chapter 15 & 16 Science Review (PATTERNS IN THE SKY, OUR SOLAR SYSTEM)

Chapter 15 & 16 Science Review (PATTERNS IN THE SKY, OUR SOLAR SYSTEM) The Milky Way the galaxy that contains our solar system Our solar system is a speck in the Milky Way galaxy Pluto is now considered

### Earth in Space Chapter 1

Earth in Space Chapter 1 Section 1 Earth in Space How does Earth move in space? What causes the cycle of seasons on Earth? How the Earth Moves The study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space is

### UNIT 3: EARTH S MOTIONS

UNIT 3: EARTH S MOTIONS After Unit 3 you should be able to: o Differentiate between rotation and revolution of the Earth o Apply the rates of rotation and revolution to basic problems o Recall the evidence

### Tilted Earth Lab Why Do We Have Seasons?

Name Class Tilted Earth Lab Why Do We Have Seasons? Purpose: In this investigation, you are going to figure out how the axis (or tilt) of the Earth, combined with the revolution (orbit) of Earth around

### Intro to Astronomy. Looking at Our Space Neighborhood

Intro to Astronomy Looking at Our Space Neighborhood Astronomy: The Original Science Ancient cultures used the movement of stars, planets and the moon to mark time Astronomy: the study of the universe

### Daylight Data: Days and Nights Around the World

Days & Nights 1 Name Daylight Data: Days and Nights Around the World Purpose: To investigate the number of hours of daylight received by countries at different latitudes. Materials: Daylight data sheet

### Heat Transfer. Energy from the Sun. Introduction

Heat Transfer Energy from the Sun Introduction The sun rises in the east and sets in the west, but its exact path changes over the course of the year, which causes the seasons. In order to use the sun

### Geography Class 6 Chapters 3 and

CHAPTER 3 MOTIONS OF THE EARTH The Earth is always travelling in Space. That makes each person on Earth, a Space Traveller. No one feels the movement of the Earth because humans are too tiny when compared

### TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 3 TUTORIAL QUIZ

TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 3 TUTORIAL QUIZ 1. When Neap tides are occurring, a. a person experiences the lowest tides close to sunset and sunrise. b. the Sun and the Moon are separated by

### Part I: What Time Is It? A Model of Day and Night

Part I: What Time Is It? A Model of Day and Night Find a place in a circle around the lamp where no one is between you and the lamp. Once you face the lamp, answer questions 1-3 below. 1. If the sticker

### ì<(sk\$m)=cdfdhh< +^-Ä-U-Ä-U

Standards Preview Earth Sciences Standard Set 4. Earth Sciences 4. Objects in the sky move in regular and predictable patterns. As a basis for understanding this concept: 4.a. Students know the patterns

### Studying Earth and Space

Studying Earth and Space The Sun Stars are made of hot, glowing gases. The Sun is a star. It is made of hot, glowing gases. The Sun is the closest star to Earth. This is why it looks bigger and brighter

### Viewed from Earth's north pole, the rotation of Earth and its moon are counter-clockwise.!

The Earth rotates around once in 24 hours The time it takes for the Earth to rotate completely around once is what we call a day. It's Earth's rotation that gives us night and day. Viewed from Earth's

### Astronomy 100 Section 2 MWF Greg Hall

Astronomy 100 Section 2 MWF 1200-1300 100 Greg Hall Leslie Looney Phone: 217-244-3615 Email: lwl @ uiuc. edu Office: Astro Building #218 Office Hours: MTF 10:30-11:30 a.m. or by appointment Class Web Page

### UNIT 1: THE PLANET EARTH

UNIT 1: THE PLANET EARTH How many planets are there in our Solar System? What is the Equator? Why does life exist in our planet? Does The Earth move? What is a map? 1. Planet Earth TOPICS 2. Movements

### Astronomy 101 Lab: Seasons

Name: Astronomy 101 Lab: Seasons Pre-Lab Assignment: In class, we've talked about the cause of the seasons. In this lab, you will use globes to study the relative positions of Earth and the Sun during

### What is in outer space?

What is in outer space? Celestial Objects are any natural objects that move through space. Star:_a huge sphere of gas in space _Nuclear fusion within stars give off enormous amounts of energy such as light

### S CIENCE O VERVIEW. 59 Lesson Plan. Standards Benchmarks. Science Overview. Lesson Overview. Answer Key. Resources. My Angle on Cooling ME S S EN G ER

S CIENCE O VERVIEW There are many different ways to cope with being in the presence of a hot object. A familiar one is to move away from it so that you do not feel its heat as strongly. Another is to change

### The Earth-Moon-Sun System

chapter 7 The Earth-Moon-Sun System section 2 Time and Seasons What You ll Learn how to calculate time and date in different time zones how to distinguish rotation and revolution what causes seasons Before

### 8 th Grade Earth, Moon and Sun Systems Review

8 th Grade Earth, Moon and Sun Systems Review #1 Click on the link to learn What causes Seasons? A #2 H G B D C What is season A in this diagram? E F A: Summer B: Fall C: Winter D: Spring D. Spring A #3

### Lecture 2: Motions of the Earth and Moon. Astronomy 111 Wednesday August 30, 2017

Lecture 2: Motions of the Earth and Moon Astronomy 111 Wednesday August 30, 2017 Reminders Online homework #1 due Monday at 3pm Labs start next week Motions of the Earth ASTR111 Lecture 2 Observation:

### 7 th Grade Science DO NOW. OBJECTIVES: By the end of today s lesson, you will be able to

7 th Grade Science Unit: Earth, Sun, and Moon Lesson: ESM 4_Rotation and Revolution Name: Date: Monday, October 24, 2016 Homeroom: DO NOW SWBAT define and identify lines of latitude and longitude. SWBAT

### Exploration Phase What are the differences between these pictures?

Light Power and seasons Exploration Phase What are the differences between these pictures? 1 Lab Activity: Lab Activity Obtain a Styrofoam ball. This will represent the earth. Stick a push pin into the

### Astronomy Section 2 Solar System Test

is really cool! 1. The diagram below shows one model of a portion of the universe. Astronomy Section 2 Solar System Test 4. Which arrangement of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth results in the highest high

### EARTH S REVOLUTION -and- EARTH S ROTATION

EARTH S REVOLUTION -and- EARTH S ROTATION Earth s Revolution Have you ever noticed that your classroom globe is tilted? This is no accident. Globes are made to be replicas, or models, of the Earth. Earth

### Reasons for the Seasons

Regents Earth Science Name: Unit 6: Astronomy Date: Section: LAB # Reasons for the Seasons Introduction: The units of time that mankind has devised are all imaginary. We base them on seasonal changes and

### Physical Science. Chapter 22 The Earth in Space. Earth s Rotation

Physical Science Chapter 22 The Earth in Space Earth s Rotation Axis imaginary line passing through the North and South Pole Earth s axis is tilted at 23 ½ degrees Rotation: the Earth spinning on its axis

### Physical Science. Chapter 22 The Earth in Space

Physical Science Chapter 22 The Earth in Space Earth s Rotation Axis imaginary line passing through the North and South Pole Earth s axis is tilted at 23 ½ degrees Rotation: the Earth spinning on its axis

Academic Year 2017-2018 Second Term Science Revision Sheet Grade 6 Name: Grade Date: Section: Part A. Science Practice. Circle the letter of your answer. 1. When the moon is waxing, its lighted part appears

### Seasons and Ecliptic Simulator

Overview: In this lesson, students access an online simulator to aid in understanding the relationship between seasons and Earth s tilt and the day/night cycle caused by Earth s rotation. Objectives: The

### The following terms are some of the vocabulary that students should be familiar with in order to fully master this lesson.

Lesson 211: EARTH'S SEASONS Students learn the complex geometry and planetary motions that cause Earth to have four distinct seasons. Fundamental Questions Attempting to give thorough and reasonable answers

### The. Astronomy is full of cycles. Like the day, the month, & the year In this section we will try to understand these cycles.

Understanding The Sky Astronomy is full of cycles Like the day, the month, & the year In this section we will try to understand these cycles. For Example Why do we think of stars as nighttime objects?

### Name Period Chapter 12 &13 Study Guide

Name Period Chapter 12 &13 Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When are tides highest? a. during the moon s first quarter phase

### What Patterns Can Be Observed in a Year?

LESSON 3 What Patterns Can Be Observed in a Year? From this vantage point, you can see the moon, sun, stars, and Earth. From Earth s surface, there are patterns to how the sun, moon, and stars appear in

### C) the seasonal changes in constellations viewed in the night sky D) The duration of insolation will increase and the temperature will increase.

1. Which event is a direct result of Earth's revolution? A) the apparent deflection of winds B) the changing of the Moon phases C) the seasonal changes in constellations viewed in the night sky D) the

### 2nd Grade Changing of Earth

Slide 1 / 133 Slide 2 / 133 2nd Grade Changing of Earth 2015-11-23 www.njctl.org Slide 3 / 133 Table of Contents: Changing of Earth Earth and Moon Cycles Weather Cycles The Rock Cycle Defined Events Gradual

### November 20, NOTES ES Rotation, Rev, Tilt.notebook. vertically. night. night. counterclockwise. counterclockwise. East. Foucault.

NOTES ES, Rev,.notebook, and Rotates on an imaginary axis that runs from the to the South North Pole Pole vertically North The of the axis points to a point in space near day Pole Polaris night Responsible

### 2nd Grade. Earth and Moon Cycles. Slide 1 / 133 Slide 2 / 133. Slide 3 / 133. Slide 4 / 133. Slide 5 / 133. Slide 6 / 133.

Slide 1 / 133 Slide 2 / 133 2nd Grade Changing of Earth 2015-11-23 www.njctl.org Slide 3 / 133 Slide 4 / 133 Table of Contents: Changing of Earth Earth and Moon Cycles Click on the topic to go to that

### Fall equinox means 12 hours of sunlight for everyone, everywhere

Fall equinox means 12 hours of sunlight for everyone, everywhere By Washington Post, adapted by Newsela staff on 09.28.17 Word Count 738 Level 1130L Sunset over the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean.

### The Reasons for the Seasons. By Allegra Dickson

The Reasons for the Seasons By Allegra Dickson Vocabulary of the Seasons: 1. Axis- a line from the North Pole to the South Pole which is the fxed point around which the Earth rotates. The axis of the Earth

### Reason for the Seasons

Names Absent Reason for the Seasons Part One Read This First! Today your group will model the Earth s orbit around the Sun! Look at the position of the stickers on the table. Each dot is labeled with a

Your web browser (Safari 7) is out of date. For more security, comfort and the best experience on this site: Update your browser Ignore Activitydevelop Family Version THE REASO N FO R THE SEASO NS How

### Motions of the Earth

Motions of the Earth Our goals for learning: What are the main motions of the Earth in space? How do we see these motions on the ground? How does it affect our lives? How does the orientation of Earth's

### Chapter 4 Earth, Moon, and Sky 107

Chapter 4 Earth, Moon, and Sky 107 planetariums around the world. Figure 4.4 Foucault s Pendulum. As Earth turns, the plane of oscillation of the Foucault pendulum shifts gradually so that over the course

### Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2013 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2013 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

### Q25: Record the wavelength of each colored line according to the scale given.

C. Measurement Errors and Uncertainties The term "error" signifies a deviation of the result from some "true" value. Often in science, we cannot know what the true value is, and we can only determine estimates

### THE EARTH AND ITS REPRESENTATION

UNIT 7 THE EARTH AND ITS REPRESENTATION TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 THE EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM... 2 2 THE EARTH S MOVEMENTS... 2 2.1 Rotation.... 2 2.2 The revolution of the Earth: seasons of the year....

### THE SEASONS PART I: THE EARTH S ORBIT & THE SEASONS

THE SEASONS To observers on earth, it appears that the earth stands still and everything else moves around it. Thus, in trying to imagine how the universe works, it made good sense to people in ancient

Your web browser (Safari 7) is out of date. For more security, comfort and the best experience on this site: Update your browser Ignore Activitydevelop Educator Version THE REASO N FO R THE SEASO NS How

Seasons Quiz Please Do Not Write on this Paper Obrigado Use this diagram of the sun and Earth's path around the sun to answer the next two questions. The N indicates North and Earth is traveling from A

Passwords ScienceVocabulary F To the Student Mitosis. Apogee. Ion. Sometimes it seems that scientists speak a language all their own. Passwords: Science Vocabulary will help you learn the words you need

### PHAS 1511: Foundations of Astronomy

PHAS 1511: Foundations of Astronomy Dr Roger Wesson Research interests: deaths of stars. Planetary nebulae, novae and supernovae. Astronomy: some maths You can see that distances in astronomy are huge.

### Chapter: The Earth-Moon-Sun System

Chapter 7 Table of Contents Chapter: The Earth-Moon-Sun System Section 1: Earth in Space Section 2: Time and Seasons Section 3: Earth s Moon 1 Earth in Space Earth s Size and Shape Ancient Measurements