Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18)

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1 GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and meter stick. Objectives: you should be able to describe the appearance of the solar system when it is viewed along the plane of the ecliptic; summarize the distances and spacing of the planets in the Solar System; summarize and compare the physical characteristics of the terrestrial and Jovian planets; and describe the motions of the planets in the Solar System. THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS REFER TO CHAPTER 18 IN YOUR MANUAL (Read the questions from your manual and place your answers in the following spaces provided.) Table 18.1 Planetary Data: (Use this data to answer the following questions.) (I have included data for Pluto for comparison) 30 Pluto yr Mean Surface Temp. (C) h 56 m h 30 m h 07 m 14 Pluto 6.4 d ~ * AU = astronomical unit, Earth s mean distance from the sun ** Includes all satellites discovered as of December 2013 Eccentricity is a measure of the amount an orbit deviates from a circular shape. The larger the number, the less circular the orbit. 1. Mercury s orbit is inclined within (4, 7 or 10) degrees? (Pick one) All of the other planets lie within (4, 7 or 10) degrees? (Pick one) 2. The orbit of the icy, dwarf planet Pluto is inclined 17 to the plane of the ecliptic. When compared to the eight major planets, Pluto s orbit is more elliptical and tilted (very little, similar to the major planets, or very much) (Pick One): 1

2 3. Considering the nebular origin of the solar system, do you think that rotation and flattening of the nebular disk had anything to do with the alignment of the major planets in our solar system? Refer to your Geology 305 lecture notes and/or handouts if necessary. (Yes or No) 4. Describe the overall composition of the inner and outer planets, i.e. what kind of materials make up these planets? A. Inner Planets: B. Outer Planets: 5. Scaling down planetary data is useful to produce a smaller model of the planets and/or Solar system. This problem will take a visual scale and convert (scale it down) it into a verbal scale. A. Measure the visual scale below in Milli-meters and then convert the distance into centimeters AU (visual scale) B. 1 AU = mm and 1AU = cm (verbal scale) C. Now draw a line that is 5.8 AUs long starting at the below: Start here-> 6. Use the space provided for you below for your scale model of the inner Solar System (see question 9 also). Use large points to represent the four terrestrial planets and place them at the appropriate distance from the Sun. Use the mean distance from the Sun in AUs listed in table 18.1 on the first page of this packet. Measure the scale below in either cm or mm to produce the scale of this model, for example if the scale measures 1.6 cm then: 1.6 cm = 0.22 AU or 1 cm = AU (for example only!). Once you have your scale calculated, you can use it as a conversion factor and convert the mean distance between the terrestrial planets and the Sun into cm and plot their location on the strip provided. Don t forget to name each planet and to include arrows to represent the orbit and spin directions for each planet. Also, write the word Asteroids in a vertical line 258 million scale miles from the Sun, keeping in mind that 1AU =93 million miles. Sun AU scale A. Measure the visual scale above in Milli-meters and then convert the distance into centimeters. B AU = mm and 0.22 AU = cm (verbal scale) C. Mercury is 0.39 AUs from the Sun, in the scale model, Mercury is. cm from the Sun. D. Venus is 0.72 AUs from the Sun, in the scale model, Venus is. cm from the Sun E. Earth is 1 AU from the Sun, in the scale model, Earth is. cm from the Sun. F. Mars is 1.52 AUs from the Sun, in the scale model, Mars is. cm from the Sun. G. The asteroid belt is 258 Million Miles (1AU =93 million miles) from the Sun or AUs and can be scaled down to. cm. 2

4 11. Which planet is the largest of the Terrestrial planets and what is its radius: 12. Which planet is the largest of the Jovian planets and what is its radius? 13. Summarize the sizes (max vs. min) of the planets within each group, using MILES; A. Radius of the Terrestrial Planets: Largest: vs. Smallest: B. Radius of the Jovian Planets: Largest: vs. Smallest: 14. Write a general statement that compares the sizes of the terrestrial planets to those of the Jovian planets. 15. Complete the following statement: The Sun is times larger than Mercury and times larger than Jupiter. You can use radius or diameter, just be consistent. 16. The diameter of the icy, dwarf planet Pluto is approximately 1,500 miles, which is about (1/3. ½, or twice) the diameter of the smallest Terrestrial planet. (Pick one) Mass is a measure of the quantity of matter an object contains. In table 18.1 the masses of the planets are given in relation to the mass of the Earth. For example, the mass of Mercury is given as 0.056, which means that it consists of only a small fraction of the quantity of matter that Earth contains. On the other hand, the Jovian planets all contain several times more matter than Earth. Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance. In table 18.1 the average densities of the planets are expressed in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm 3 ). As a reference, the density of water is approximately one gram per cubic centimeter. Using the relative masses, etc. of the planets given in table 18.1 answer the following questions. 17. Complete the following statements: A. The planet is the most massive planet in the Solar System. It is times more massive than Earth. B. The least massive Jovian planet is which and is times more massive than Earth. 18. The gravitational attraction of a planet is directly related to the mass of the planet 19. Which planet exerts the greatest pull of gravity? Which planet exerts the least pull of gravity? 4

5 20. Name two planets there were massive enough to attract and retain large quantities of hydrogen and helium, the lightest elements. A. B. 21. Your weight is a function of the gravitational attraction of an object on your mass. The surface gravities of Mars and Jupiter respectively are about 0.4 and 2.5 that of Earth. What would be someone with a mass of 185 pounds weigh on Mars and Jupiter? A. Mars B. Jupiter 22. Write a general statement comparing the masses and gravitational attractions of the Terrestrial planets to those of the Jovian planets. 23. Use the graph in your manual or a separate sheet of graph paper and plot the Diameter vs. the Density for each of the major planets. Plot a point on the graph where the density and diameter of the planet intersect. Your data for the Diameter (km X 1000) will be your Y-axis and your data for Density (g/cm 3 ) will be the X-axis. You should have a point for every major planet and you should also specify if the point/planet is a Terrestrial or Jovian planet. You will be using the graph to answer some of the following questions. (optional) You can also just use the data table. 24. What general relationship exists between a planet s size (e.g. Terrestrial vs. Jovian) and its density? 25. Consider the fact that the densities of the two rocks that form the majority of the Earth s surface, the igneous rocks granite and basalt, are each about 3.0 g/cm 3. Therefore the overall average density of the terrestrial planets is (greater than or less than) the density of the Earth s surface. (Pick One) 26. The term (rock, ice, or gaseous) (pick one) best describes the Terrestrial planets. 27. The term (rock, ice, or gaseous) (pick one) best describes the Jovian planets. 28. The average density of the Earth is about 5.5 g/cm 3. Considering that the densities of the surface rocks are much less than the average, what does this suggest about the density of the Earth s interior? 29. Which of the planets has a density less than water (1g/cm 3 ) and therefore would float? 5

6 30. Explain why Jupiter can have such a high mass. 31. Explain why Jupiter can have such a low density. 32. Write a general statement comparing the densities of the Terrestrial planets to the Jovian planets. 33. Why are the densities of the Terrestrial and the Jovian planets so different? 34. The mass of Pluto, about that of Earth s, although Pluto is different than both the Terrestrial or Jovian planets it is somewhat similar to the masses of the (Terrestrial or Jovian) planets (pick one), while its density of approximately 2.0 g/cm 3 is somewhat similar to the (Terrestrial or Jovian) planets (pick one),. This suggests that this dwarf planet is made of (solid rock, a rock and ice mixture, or all gas) (Pick One) 35. Write a brief statement comparing the number of known moons of the Terrestrial planets to the number orbiting the Jovian Planets. 36. What is the general relationship between the numbers of moons orbiting a planet compared to the planets mass? Suggest a reason for the relationship. 6

7 37. The giant planet Jupiter rotates once on its axis approximately every 10 hours. If an object were on the equator of the planet and rotating with it, it would travel approximately 280,000 miles (the equatorial circumference or distance around the equator) in about 10 hours. Using the above information, calculate the equatorial rotational velocity of Jupiter using the following formula: Velocity = (distance/time) = ( miles) / ( hour) = mi/hr 38. The equatorial circumference of Earth is about 24,000 miles. What is the approximate equatorial rotational velocity of Earth per hour? Hint: think about the number of hours in one day! Velocity = (distance/time) = ( miles) / ( hour) = mi/hr 39. How many times faster is Jupiter s equatorial rotational velocity than Earth s? Compare the planet s periods of rotation to their period of revolution and then complete the following statement by circling the correct responses. 40. The Terrestrial planets all have (Long or Short) days and (Long or Short) years, while the Jovian planets all have (Long or Short) days and (Long or Short) years. Circle the correct answers. 41. In one Earth year, how many revolutions will the planet Mercury complete and what fraction of a revolution will Saturn accomplish? A. Venus: Revolutions in one Earth Year B. Neptune: of a revolution in one Earth year. 42. Using Kepler s third law (a planet s orbital period squared is equal to its mean solar distance cubed) or (p 2 = d 3 ), calculate the period of revolution (in years) of a hypothetical planet that is 15 Aus from the Sun. 43. How many rotations on its axis will Mercury complete in 1 of its years? 44. Explain the relationship between a planet s period of rotation and period of revolution that would cause one side of a planet to face the Sun throughout its year. (Hint: think about our Moon, we typically only see one side of it each night.) Venus also exhibits this relationship to some extent, but it is not as perfect as that of the Moon. (Rotation < Revolution; Rotation > Revolution; Rotation = Revolution) Circle the best answer. 7

8 Extra Credit Questions from the (Summary / Report Page) at the end of chapter 18: 1. This question is similar to #6 from the first couple of pages of this packet. Once again, you will be making a scale model of the four inner Terrestrial planets of the Solar System. Use large points to represent the four terrestrial planets and place them at the appropriate distance from the Sun. Use the mean distance from the Sun in AUs listed in table 18.1 on the first page of this packet. Measure the scale below in either cm or mm to produce the scale of this model, i.e. 1cm = so many AUs or 0.18 AU = so many cm. Once you have your scale calculated you can convert the mean distance between the terrestrial planets and the Sun into mm or cm and plot their location on the strip provided. Don t forget to name each planet and to include arrows to represent the orbit and spin directions for each planet. Sun AU scale 2. Using Kepler s third law (a planet s orbital period squared is equal to its mean solar distance cubed) or (p 2 = d 3 ), calculate the period of revolution of a hypothetical planet that is 8 Aus from the Sun. Years 3. Using Kepler s third law (a planet s orbital period squared is equal to its mean solar distance cubed) or (p 2 = d 3 ), calculate the period of revolution of a hypothetical planet that is 23 Aus from the Sun. Years 4. Define the following (Keep in mind that you should not define something by itself!): Revolution: Rotation: Mass: Density: Astronomical Unit: The End!!! 8

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