1 Name: Questions 1 through 3 refer to the following: Page 1 The diagram below shows two possible sequences in the life cycle of stars, beginning with their formation from nebular gas clouds in space. 1) Stars like Earth's Sun most likely formed directly from a nebula black dwarf red giant supernova 2) According to the given diagram, a star like Earth's Sun will eventually explode in a supernova become a neutron star change into a white dwarf become a black hole 3) According to the given diagram, the life-cycle path followed by a star is determined by the star's initial luminosity and structure mass and size luminosity and color temperature and origin
2 Page 2 4) The table below shows gravitational data for a planet traveling in an elliptical orbit around a star. The table shows the relative gravitational force between the star and this planet at eight positions in the orbit (letters A through H). Higher numbers indicate stronger gravitational attraction. Which diagram best represents the positions of the planet in its orbit that would produce the gravitational forces shown in the data table? 5) In the diagram below, the spectral lines of hydrogen gas from three galaxies, A, B, and C, are compared to the spectral lines of hydrogen gas observed in a laboratory. What is the best inference that can be made concerning the movement of galaxies A, B, and C? Galaxies A, B, and C are all moving toward Earth. Galaxy B is moving away from Earth, but galaxies A and C are moving toward Earth. Galaxies A, B, and C are all moving away from Earth. Galaxy A is moving away from Earth, but galaxies B and C are moving toward Earth. 6) Which planet is approximately thirty times farther from the Sun than the Earth? Saturn Uranus Jupiter Neptune
3 7) A student recorded the times of three successive high tides at one location as: Page 3 9:12 a.m. 9:38 p.m. 10:04 a.m. What is the approximate time of the next high tide? 11:04 p.m. 10:38 p.m. 10:30 p.m. 10:12 p.m. 8) Which graph best represents the force of gravity between Earth and the Sun during one revolution of Earth around the Sun? 9) According to the Luminosity and Temperature of Stars Earth Science reference table, the Sun is classified as a blue supergiant star with a temperature of approximately 20,000DC and a luminosity of 700,000 main sequence star with a temperature of approximately 6,000DC and a luminosity of 1 white dwarf star with a temperature of approximately 10,000DC and a luminosity of 0.01 main sequence star with a temperature of approximately 4,000DC and a luminosity of ) Which planet has an orbit with an eccentricity most similar to the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit around Earth? Jupiter Pluto Saturn Earth 11) A major belt of asteroids is located between Mars and Jupiter. What is the approximate average distance between the Sun and this major asteroid belt? 110 million kilometers 390 million kilometers 850 million kilometers 220 million kilometers
4 Questions 12 and 13 refer to the following: Page 4 The data table below provides information about the Moon, based on current scientific theories. 12) Which Moon feature is an impact structure? mantle terrae highland maria plain crater 13) Which statement is supported by the information in the table? The Moon was once a comet. Earth was liquid rock when the Moon was formed. 14) Earth's orbital velocity is slowest on July 5 because Earth's distance from the Sun is greatest the highest maximum temperatures occur in the Northern Hemisphere the Moon is closest to Earth Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are located along a straight line in space Questions 15 through 17 refer to the following: Earth is 4.5 billion years older than the Moon. The Moon once had saltwater oceans. The diagram below represents the elliptical orbit of a planet traveling around a star. Points A, B, C, and D are four positions of this planet in its orbit. 15) The gravitational attraction between the star and the planet will be greatest at position A B C D
5 16) The calculated eccentricity of this orbit is approximately ) As the planet revolves in orbit from position A to position D, the orbital velocity will continually decrease decrease, then increase 18) The redshift of light from distant galaxies provides evidence that the universe is remaining the same size shrinking and expanding in a cyclic pattern 19) Which object is located at one foci of the elliptical orbit of Mars? increase, then decrease continually increase shrinking, only expanding, only Earth Jupiter the Sun Betelgeuse 20) Compared to the average density of the terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars), the average density of the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) is less the same greater 21) Which statement correctly compares the size, composition, and density of Neptune to Earth? Neptune is larger, more gaseous, and less dense. Neptune is larger, more solid, and more dense. 22) The Milky Way galaxy is best described as a type of solar system a spiral-shaped formation composed of billions of stars a region in space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter a constellation visible to everyone on Earth 23) Which sequence correctly shows the relative size of the nine planets of our solar system? Page 5 Neptune is smaller, more gaseous, and less dense. Neptune is smaller, more solid, and more dense. 24) In which one of the following lists are celestial features correctly shown in order of increasing size? universe galaxy solar system planet solar system galaxy planet universe planet solar system galaxy universe galaxy solar system universe planet 25) Which planet takes more time to complete one rotation on its axis than to complete one revolution around the Sun? Jupiter Mars Venus Mercury
6 26) The diagram below represents two planets in our solar system drawn to scale, Jupiter and planet A Page 6 Planet A most likely represents Saturn Uranus Venus Earth 27) Which planet has an orbital eccentricity most like the orbital eccentricity of the Moon? Mercury Saturn Mars Pluto 28) In each diagram below, the mass of the star is the same. In which diagram is the force of gravity greatest between the star and the planet shown? 29) The graph below represents the brightness and temperature of stars visible from Earth. Which location on the graph best represents a star with average brightness and temperature? A B C D 30) Three planets that are relatively large, gaseous, and of low density are Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn Mars, Jupiter, and Uranus 31) Which celestial feature is largest in actual size? Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus Venus, Jupiter, and Neptune the Milky Way Jupiter the Moon the Sun
7 Page 7 32) Which graph best represents the change in gravitational attraction between the Sun and a comet as the distance between them increases? 33) In a Doppler red shift, the observed wavelengths of light from distant celestial objects appear closer to the red end of the spectrum than light from similar nearby celestial objects. The explanation for the red shift is that the universe is presently alternating between contracting and expand ing remaining constant in size 34) Compared to Pluto, Mercury moves more rapidly in its orbit because Mercury is more dense is closer to the Sun 35) Which star color indicates the hottest star surface temperature? expanding, only contracting, only has a more elliptical orbit is larger red white blue yellow 36) The diagram below illustrates three stages of a current theory of the formation of the universe. A major piece of scientific evidence supporting this theory is the fact that wavelengths of light from galaxies moving away from Earth in stage 3 are observed to be shorter than normal (a red shift) longer than normal (a blue shift) 37) How do Jupiter's density and period of rotation compare to Earth's? Jupiter is less dense and has a longer period of rotation. Jupiter is more dense and has a shorter period of rotation. Jupiter is less dense and has a shorter period of rotation. Jupiter is more dense and has a longer period of rotation. longer than normal (a red shift) shorter than normal (a blue shift)
8 38) Which graph best represents the relative periods of rotation of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars? Page 8 39) Stars are believed to undergo evolutionary changes over millions of years. The flowchart below shows stages of predicted changes in the Sun. According to the Luminosity and Temperature of Stars Earth Science reference table and the flowchart above, the Sun will become hotter and brighter in stage 2, then cooler and dimmer in stage 3 hotter and dimmer in stage 2, then cooler and brighter in stage 3 cooler and brighter in stage 2, then hotter and dimmer in stage 3 cooler and dimmer in stage 2, then hotter and brighter in stage 3 40) The apparent rising and setting of the Sun, as viewed from Earth, is caused by the Sun's revolution Earth's rotation 41) Which star is cooler and many times brighter than Earth's Sun? the Sun's rotation Earth's revolution Sirius Rigel Barnard's Star Betelgeuse 42) The Sun's position in space is best described as the approximate center of a constellation our solar system 43) The apparent daily path of the Sun changes with the seasons because Earth's distance from the Sun changes the Sun rotates the Milky Way galaxy the universe Earth's axis is tilted the Sun revolves 44) The time required for the Moon to show a complete cycle of phases when viewed from Earth is approximately 1 year 1 week 1 day 1 month 45) Surface ocean currents curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere because Earth spins on its axis Earth travels in an orbit around the Sun the Moon spins on its axis the Moon travels in an orbit around Earth
9 Page 9 46) The table below shows the altitude and compass direction of one planet, as viewed by an observer in New York State at 10 p.m. on the first day of each month from April through November. Which graph best represents a plot of this planet's apparent path, as viewed by the observer over the 7-month period? 47) The diagram below shows the Moon orbiting Earth as viewed from space above the North Pole. The Moon is shown at eight different positions in its orbit. At which two positions of the Moon is an eclipse of the Sun or Moon possible? 3 and 7 4 and 8 1 and 5 2 and 6
10 Page 10 48) The diagram below shows some examples of how surface winds are deflected in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres because of Earth's rotation. Earth's rotation causes winds to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and left in the Southern Hemisphere left in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres right in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres left in the Northern Hemisphere and right in the Southern Hemisphere 49) On June 21, where will the Sun appear to rise for an observer located in New York State? north of due east south of due east due west due east 50) The diagram below shows the shadow cast by a telephone pole on March 21 at solar noon at a location in New York State. Which shadow was cast by the same telephone pole on June 21 at solar noon? 51) Which observable change would occur in New York State if Earth's rate of rotation were one-half its present rate? The seasonal changes would not occur. The time needed to complete a cycle of Moon phases would be greater. The Sun would rise in the southwest each day. The length of a day would be longer.
11 52) The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? Page 11 Moon Earth Polaris Sun 53) The diagram below shows the relative positions of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth when an eclipse was observed from Earth. Positions A and B are locations on Earth's surface. Which statement correctly describes the type of eclipse that was occurring and the position on Earth where this eclipse was observed? A solar eclipse was observed from position B. A lunar eclipse was observed from position B. 54) The motion of a Foucault pendulum provides evidence of Earth's rotation Earth's revolution 55) The best evidence that Earth spins on its axis is provided by eclipses of the Moon apparent shifts in the swing of a Foucault pendulum A solar eclipse was observed from position A. A lunar eclipse was observed from position A. the Sun's rotation the Sun's revolution 56) Predictable changes in the direction of swing of a Foucault pendulum provide evidence that Earth's magnetic poles reverse over time Earth's orbit is slightly elliptical changes in the position of sunspots on the Sun variations in atmospheric density Earth is tilted on its axis Earth rotates on its axis
12 Page 12 57) The graph below shows the maximum altitude of the Moon, measured by an observer located at a latitude of 43D N during June in a particular year. The names and appearance of the four major Moon phases are shown at the top of the graph, directly above the date on which the phase occurred. Which diagram best represents the Moon's phase observed on June 11? 58) In which direction on the horizon does the Sun appear to rise on July 4 in New York State? south of due east due south north of due east due north 59) The diagram below shows the latitude-longitude grid on an Earth model. Points A and B are locations on the surface. On Earth, the solar time difference between point A and point B would be 24 hours 12 hours 1 hour 5 hours 60) Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered (geocentric) and Sun-centered (heliocentric) models of our solar system? Polaris the Moon Venus the Sun
13 61) The length of an Earth year is based on Earth's rotation of 15D/hr rotation of approximately 1D/day revolution of 15D/hr revolution of approximately 1D/day Page 13 62) The passage of the Moon into Earth's shadow causes a lunar eclipse full Moon solar eclipse new Moon 63) Which model best represents the apparent path of the Sun observed at various times during the year at the Equator? 64) Which observation provides the best evidence that Earth rotates? The length of the shadow cast by a flagpole at noontime changes from season to season. The location of the constellations in relationship to Polaris changes from month to month. The direction of swing of a freely swinging pendulum changes during the day. The position of the planets among the stars changes during the year. 65) The Coriolis effect provides evidence that Earth has seasons revolves rotates has a tilted axis 66) The diagram below shows Earth, the Moon, and the Sun's rays as viewed from space. For observers on Earth, which one of the following phases of the Moon is represented by the diagram?
14 Page 14 67) The diagram below shows the Moon in different positions as it revolves around Earth, as observed from above the North Pole (NP). Which image correctly represents the Moon at position 8, as observed from Earth? 68) The apparent shift in the direction of swing of a Foucault pendulum is caused by Earth's revolution rotation tilted axis spherical shape 69) A cycle of Moon phases can be seen from Earth because the Moon spins on its axis Moon's axis is tilted Moon's distance from Earth changes at a predictable rate Moon revolves around Earth 70) The diagram below shows the Moon at four positions in its orbit around Earth as viewed from above the North Pole. Beginning with the Moon at position X (the new-moon phase), which sequence of Moon phases would be seen by an observer on Earth during 1 month?
15 Page 15 71) The diagram below shows the positions of the Moon and the Sun at sunset during an evening in New York State. Points A, B, C, and D represent positions along the western horizon. At sunset on the following evening, the Moon will be located at what position? A B C D 72) The planetary winds in Earth's Northern Hemisphere generally curve to the right due to Earth's orbit around the Sun force of gravity spin on its axis magnetic field 73) The diagram below represents the major stars of the constellation Orion, as viewed by an observer in New York State. Which statement best explains why Orion can be observed from New York State on December 21 but not on June 21? Orion has an eccentric orbit around the Sun. Earth revolves around the Sun. Earth rotates on its axis. Orion has an eccentric orbit around Earth.
16 Questions 74 and 75 refer to the following: Page 16 The diagram below shows numbered positions of the Sun at four different times along the Sun's apparent daily path, as seen by an observer in New York State. Numbers 1 through 4 represent apparent positions of the Sun. 74) During which day of the year is the Sun in the given diagram most likely to follow the apparent path shown? December 1 October 1 July 1 March 1 75) The observer in the given diagram had the longest shadow when the Sun was at position ) The length of an Earth day is determined by the time required for approximately one Sun revolution Earth revolution Sun rotation Earth rotation 77) Which diagram sequence correctly shows the order of Moon phases, as viewed from Earth, for a period of 1 month? [Note that some phases have been omitted.] 78) The diagram below shows Earth as viewed from above the North Pole. Points A and B are locations on Earth's surface. At location A, the time is 12 noon. What is the time at location B? 6 a.m. 12 midnight 3 p.m. 6 p.m.
17 79) What is represented by the diagram below? Page 17 stages in an eclipse of the Moon changing phases of the Moon 80) The best evidence that Earth rotates is provided by the stages in an eclipse of the Sun changing phases of the Sun rate of uranium-238 decay and changes in atmospheric composition pattern of changing seasons and the depth of meteor impacts location of mid-oceanic ridge volcanoes and the distribution of index fossils movement of Foucault pendulums and the Coriolis effect on air movement 81) Which diagram correctly shows the apparent motion of Polaris from sunset to midnight for an observer in northern Canada? 82) Which event is a direct result of Earth's revolution? the daily rising and setting of the Sun the seasonal changes in constellations viewed in the night sky the changing of the Moon phases the apparent deflection of winds
18 Questions 83 through 85 refer to the following: Page 18 The world map below, shows regions of Earth where a solar eclipse was visible on May 20, Locations A, B, C, and D are on Earth's surface. 83) At which location on the map could an observer have viewed the total solar eclipse if the skies were clear? A B C D 84) Which diagram best represents the positions of Earth (E), the Sun, and the Moon (M) that created the solar eclipse shown in the diagram? (Diagrams are not drawn to scale.) 85) Which statement best describes the visibility of this eclipse from locations in New York State? A partial eclipse was visible only from noon until sunset. Neither a partial nor a total eclipse was visible. A total eclipse was visible only from noon until sunset. A total eclipse was visible all day. 86) In the Northern Hemisphere, planetary winds blowing from north to south are deflected, or curved, toward the west. This deflection is caused by the unequal heating of land and water surfaces spinning of Earth on its axis orbiting of Earth around the Sun movement of low-pressure weather systems
19 Page 19 87) The diagram below represents the Sun's apparent paths and the solar noon positions for an observer at 42D N latitude on December 21, September 23, and June 21. According to the given diagram, in which direction will sunrise occur on June 21? south of due east south of due west north of due west north of due east Questions 88 and 89 refer to the following: The diagram below shows the Moon, Earth, and the Sun's rays as viewed from space. Letter A indicates a certain position of the Moon in its orbit. 88) Which diagram below represents the phase of the Moon, as seen by an observer on Earth, when the Moon is located at position A in its orbit?
20 89) Which diagram below correctly shows the direction of Earth's rotation and revolution? Page 20 Questions 90 and 91 refer to the following: The diagram below shows a pin perpendicular to a card. The card was placed outdoors in the sunlight on a horizontal surface. The positions of the pin's shadow on the card were recorded several times on March 21 by an observer in New York State. 90) In the given diagram, the changing location of the pin's shadow on March 21 is caused by the Sun's rotation Earth's rotation Earth's revolution the Sun's revolution
21 Page 21 91) Based on the original diagram, which of the following diagrams best represents the length of the pin's shadow at 2 p.m. on March 21? Questions 92 and 93 refer to the following: The diagram below has lettered arrows showing the motions of Earth and the Moon. 92) Which two motions in the diagram are completed in about the same amount of time? A and B C and D A and D B and C 93) Which lettered arrow in the diagram represents the motion that causes the Moon to show phases when viewed from Earth? A B C D
22 Page 22 94) The diagram below shows the Moon orbiting Earth, as viewed from space above Earth's North Pole. The Moon is shown at eight positions in its orbit. Spring ocean tides occur when the difference in height between high tide and low tide is greatest. At which two positions of the Moon will spring tides occur on Earth? 4 and 8 3 and 7 2 and 6 1 and 5 95) As viewed from Earth, most stars appear to move across the sky each night because Earth revolves around the Sun Earth rotates on its axis Questions 96 through 98 refer to the following: stars revolve around the center of the galaxy stars orbit around Earth A NEWLY DISCOVERED PLANET: Scientists studying a Sun-like star named Ogle-Tr-3 discovered a planet that is, on the average, 3.5 million kilometers away from the star's surface. The planet was discovered as a result of observing a cyclic decrease in the brightness of Ogle-Tr-3 every 28.5 hours. The changing brightness is the result of the planet blocking some of the starlight when it is between Ogle-Tr-3 and Earth. This observation allowed scientists to find not only the planet, but also to determine the planet's mass and density. The mass has been calculated to be approximately 159 times the mass of Earth. The planet is only 20% as dense as Jupiter. Scientists think that this low density is the result of being very close to Ogle-Tr-3. 96) The planet described in the reading passage was discovered when it passed between Earth and the star Ogle-Tr-3. Which event in our solar system results from a similar type of alignment of the Moon between Earth and the Sun? lunar eclipse winter solstice summer solstice solar eclipse 97) Compared to the period of revolution of Mercury and Venus, the newly discovered planet described in the reading passage has a period of revolution that is longer than Mercury's but shorter than Venus' shorter than Mercury's but longer than Venus' shorter than both Mercury's and Venus' longer than both Mercury's and Venus' 98) The density of the discovered planet described in the reading passage has been estimated to be approximately 1.3 g/cm g/cm g/cm g/cm 3
23 Page 23 99) The diagram below shows Earth's orbit around the Sun and different positions of the Moon as it travels around Earth. Letters A through D represent four different positions of the Moon. An eclipse of the Moon is most likely to occur when the Moon is at position A B C D 100) The diagram below represents a swinging Foucault pendulum. This pendulum will show an apparent change in the direction of its swing due to Earth's revolution tilted axis curved surface rotation 101) The diagram below represents the constellation Lyra. Which statement best explains why Lyra is visible to an observer in New York State at midnight in July but not visible at midnight in December? Earth spins on its axis. Earth orbits the Sun. 102) What causes the Coriolis effect? the spin of Earth on its axis the orbital motion of Earth around the Sun Lyra orbits Earth. Lyra spins on its axis. Earth's tilt on its axis the orbital motion of the Moon around Earth
24 103) Which sequence of Moon phases could be observed from Earth during a 2-week period? Page 24 Questions 104 and 105 refer to the following: The United States time zone map below shows dashed lines that represent meridians (lines of longitude). 104) Based on the time zone map, if the time in Buffalo, New York, is 5 a.m., what time would it be in San Francisco, California? 8 a.m. 4 a.m. 2 a.m. 3 a.m. 105) The basis for the time difference between the adjoining time zones shown on the map is Earth's 1D per hour rate of revolution 15D per hour rate of revolution 15D per hour rate of rotation 1D per hour rate of rotation
25 Questions 106 through 108 refer to the following: Page 25 The diagram below shows Earth in orbit around the Sun, and the Moon in orbit around Earth. M 1, M 2, M 3, and M 4 indicate positions of the Moon in its orbit. Letter A indicates a location on Earth's surface. 106) At which Moon position in the given diagram could a solar eclipse be seen from Earth? M 4 M 1 M 3 M 2 107) An observer at location A in the given Earth diagram views the Moon when it is at position M 3. Which phase of the Moon will the observer see? 108) An observer at location A in the given diagram noticed that the apparent size of the Moon varied slightly from month to month when the Moon was at position M 4 in its orbit. Which statement best explains this variation in the apparent size of the Moon? The Moon's period of rotation is equal to its period of revolution. The Moon shows complete cycles of phases throughout the year. The Moon's distance from Earth varies in a cyclic manner. The Moon expands in summer and contracts in winter. 109) In October, observers in New York State looking due south at the night sky would see a different group of constellations than they had seen in March. What is the best explanation for this change in the night sky? Earth revolves around the Sun. The Sun revolves around the center of our galaxy. 110) A Foucault pendulum is used to prove that Earth revolves around the Sun the Sun revolves around Earth Constellations revolve around Earth. Constellations revolve around the Sun. Earth rotates on its axis the Sun rotates on its axis 111) A Foucault pendulum appears to change its direction of swing over a period of several hours because of Earth's revolution gravity rotation tilted axis
26 112) The best evidence that Earth spins on its axis is the motion of a wind vane a Foucault pendulum Polaris tectonic plates 113) The apparent change in direction of a swinging Foucault pendulum is the result of the revolution of Earth rotation of Earth 114) A Foucault pendulum appears to change its direction of swing due to the movement of Earth in its orbit around the Sun deflection of Earth's planetary winds shape of Earth's orbit tilt of Earth's axis spin of Earth on its axis tilt of Earth's axis Page ) Diagram 1 shows the Moon in its orbit at four positions labeled A, B, C, and D. Diagram 2 shows a phase of the Moon as viewed from New York State. At which labeled Moon position would the phase of the Moon shown in diagram 2 be observed from New York State? A B C D 116) The Coriolis effect provides evidence that Earth revolves around the Sun rotates on its axis 117) The spinning of Earth on its axis causes the apparent rising and setting of the Moon and some stars, only Sun and the Moon, only 118) The Coriolis effect causes winds in New York State to generally curve to the right of the direction of travel downward toward Earth's surface has a slightly eccentric orbit undergoes cyclic tidal changes Sun, only Sun, the Moon, and some stars to the left of the direction of travel upward away from Earth's surface 119) The diagram below represents the direction of Earth's rotation as it appears from above the North Pole. Point X is a location on Earth's surface. The time at point X is closest to 12 midnight 12 noon 6 p.m. 6 a.m.
27 120) The same side of the Moon always faces Earth because the Moon rotates once as it completes one revolution around Earth Moon does not rotate as it completes one revolution around Earth Moon's period of rotation is longer than its period of revolution around Earth Moon's period of rotation is shorter than its period of revolution around Earth 121) The diagram below shows the equipment used to demonstrate a Foucault pendulum Page 27 In the demonstration, a student swings the weight hanging in the pail and then spins the stool. The stool represents convection currents the rotating Earth 122) The map below shows Earth's planetary wind belts. the Coriolis effect the revolving Earth The curving of the planetary winds detailed on the map shown is the result of Earth's gravitational pull on the Moon Earth's rotation on its axis the unequal heating of Earth's surface the unequal heating of Earth's atmosphere
28 Page ) The diagram below shows the apparent daily path of the Sun, as viewed by an observer at a certain latitude on three different days of the year. At which latitude were these apparent Sun paths most likely observed? 0D 66.5D N 43D N 23.5D N 124) The diagram below represents the Sun's rays striking Earth and the Moon. Numbers 1 through 4 represent positions of the Moon in its orbit around Earth. The highest tides on Earth occur when the Moon is in positions 4 and 1 3 and 2 1 and 3 2 and 4 125) Which sequence correctly lists the relative sizes from smallest to largest? Milky Way Galaxy, universe, our solar system Milky Way Galaxy, our solar system, universe our solar system, universe, Milky Way Galaxy our solar system, Milky Way Galaxy, universe 126) One factor responsible for the strength of gravitational attraction between a planet and the Sun is the amount of insolation given off by the Sun planet's period of rotation distance between the planet and the Sun degree of tilt of the planet's axis
29 127) The diagram below represents the shape of the Milky Way Galaxy Page 29 The Milky Way Galaxy is best described as circular irregular spiral elliptical 128) Compared to the terrestrial planets, the Jovian planets are smaller and have lower densities larger and have lower densities Questions 129 and 130 refer to the following: larger and have greater densities smaller and have greater densities The diagram below shows an inferred sequence in which our solar system formed from a giant interstellar cloud of gas and debris. Stage A shows the collapse of the gas cloud, stage B shows its flattening, and stage C shows the sequence that led to the formation of planets. 129) After the young Sun shown in the given diagram formed, the disk of gas and dust eventually formed into planets became larger in diameter 130) From stage B to stage C in the given diagram, the young Sun was created by outgassing from Earth's interior when gravity caused the center of the cloud to contract by outgassing from the spinning interstellar cloud when gravity caused heavy dust particles to split apart became spherical in shape formed a central bulge
30 131) Which list shows stars in order of increasing temperature? Procyon B, Alpha Centauri, Polaris, Betelgeuse Aldebaran, the Sun, Rigel, Procyon B Rigel, Polaris, Aldebaran, Barnard's Star Barnard's Star, Polaris, Sirius, Rigel 132) Compared to the temperature and luminosity of the star Polaris, the star Sirius is hotter and more luminous hotter and less luminous 133) Which object is closest to Earth? cooler and less luminous cooler and more luminous Mars Venus the Sun the Moon Questions 134 through 137 refer to the following: The table below shows eight inferred stages describing the formation of the universe from its beginning to the present time Page ) The average temperature of the universe since stage 3 in the table shown has increased, only decreased, only increased, then decreased remained the same 135) Between which two stages shown in the table did our solar system form? 6 and 7 3 and 5 7 and 8 1 and 3 136) According to the given table, how soon did protons and neutrons form after the beginning of the universe? 13.7 billion years 10-6 second second second 137) What is the most appropriate title for the table shown? The Theory of Plate Tectonics The Big Bang Theory The Laws of Planetary Motion The Law of Superposition 138) Which process produces the energy that allows the stars of the universe to radiate visible light? radioactive decay nuclear fusion insolation convection
31 139) Which bar graph correctly shows the orbital eccentricity of the planets in our solar system? Page ) The diagrams below represent Earth's ocean tides at four different positions of the Moon. Which diagram shows the Moon position that will produce the highest high tides and the lowest low tides? [The diagrams are not drawn to scale.] 141) The Big Bang Theory, describing the creation of the universe, is most directly supported by the presence of craters on Earth's Moon apparent shape of star constellations presence of volcanoes on Earth red shift of light from distant galaxies
32 Questions 142 through 144 refer to the following: Page 32 The diagram below shows the orbits of the four inner planets and the asteroid Hermes around the Sun. Point A represents a position along Hermes' orbit. 142) How does the period of revolution of Hermes compare to the period of revolution of the planets shown in the given diagram? Hermes has a shorter period of revolution than all of the planets shown. Hermes has a longer period of revolution than all of the planets shown. Hermes has a shorter period of revolution than Mercury, but a longer period of revolution than Venus, Earth, and Mars. Hermes has a longer period of revolution than Mercury, but a shorter period of revolution than Venus, Earth, and Mars. 143) When Hermes is located at position A and Earth is in the position shown in the given diagram, the asteroid can be viewed from Earth at each of the following times except 12 noon 12 midnight sunrise sunset 144) According to the given diagram, as Hermes and the planets revolve around the Sun, Hermes appears to be a threat to collide with Earth, only Venus, Earth, and Mars, only Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars Earth and Mars, only
33 Page ) Which arrangement of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth results in the highest high tides, and the lowest low tides on Earth? [Diagrams are not drawn to scale.] 146) Which event takes the most time? one rotation of Venus on its axis one revolution of Earth around the Sun one rotation of the Moon on its axis one revolution of Venus around the Sun 147) In New York State, the constellation Pisces can be seen in the night sky between the middle of summer and the middle of winter. The constellation Scorpio can be seen in the night sky between early spring and early fall. The reason these two constellations can be viewed only at these times is a direct result of Earth's distance from the Sun movement around the Sun 148) The symbols below are used to represent different regions of space. axis having a 23.5D tilt spin on its axis Which diagram shows the correct relationship between these four regions? [If one symbol is within another symbol, that means it is part of, or included in, that symbol.] 149) The cyclic rise and fall of ocean tides on Earth is primarily caused by Earth's rotation and the gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun direction of Earth's planetary winds temperature differences in ocean currents revolution of Earth around the Sun 150) The star Algol is estimated to have approximately the same luminosity as the star Aldebaran and approximately the same temperature as the star Rigel. Algol is best classified as a red dwarf star main sequence star white dwarf star red giant star 151) Approximately how many degrees per day does Earth revolve in its orbit around the Sun? 13D 1D 23.5D 15D
34 152) Terrestrial planets move more rapidly in their orbits than the Jovian planets because terrestrial planets are rotating on a tilted axis more massive closer to the Sun more dense 153) Which pair of shaded circles best represents the relative sizes of Earth and Venus when drawn to scale? Page ) Compared with our Sun, the star Betelgeuse is larger, hotter, and less luminous smaller, hotter, and less luminous smaller, cooler, and more luminous larger, cooler, and more luminous 155) Which planet is located approximately ten times farther from the Sun than Earth is from the Sun? Mars Uranus Saturn Jupiter 156) Compared to other groups of stars, the group that has relatively low luminosities and relatively low temperatures is the Blue Supergiants Red Giants White Dwarfs Red Dwarfs 157) The diagram below shows the elliptical orbit of a planet revolving around a star. The star and F 2 are the foci of this ellipse. What is the approximate eccentricity of this ellipse? ) Which statement provides evidence that Earth revolves around the Sun? The stars appear to circle Earth during the night. Different star constellations are visible from Earth at different seasons of the year. The Sun follows an apparent arc across the sky during the day. Winds at different latitudes are curved different amounts by the Coriolis effect. 159) Which object in our solar system has the greatest density? Jupiter Earth the Sun the Moon
35 160) The diagram below shows the spectral lines for an element Page 35 Which diagram best represents the spectral lines of this element when its light is observed coming from a star that is moving away from Earth? 161) When viewed from Earth, the light from very distant galaxies shows a red shift. This is evidence that these distant galaxies are moving toward Earth moving away from Earth revolving around the Milky Way revolving around the Sun 162) What is the main reason that the gravitational attraction between Earth and the Moon changes each day? The Moon has a spherical shape. Earth's rotational speed varies with the seasons. 163) Compared to Earth's solar system, the universe is inferred to be younger and larger older and smaller 164) Compared to the Jovian planets in our solar system, Earth is more dense and farther from the Sun less dense and farther from the Sun 165) Which statement best describes the age of our solar system and the universe? Our solar system and the universe are estimated to be 10 billion years old. Our solar system and the universe are estimated to be 5 billion years old. The universe is at least twice as old as our solar system. Our solar system is at least twice as old as the universe. 166) The reaction below represents an energy-producing process. The Moon has an elliptical orbit. Earth's axis is tilted at 23.5D. older and larger younger and smaller less dense and closer to the Sun more dense and closer to the Sun The reaction represents how energy is produced during nuclear decay from the movement of crustal plates 167) Why is evidence of asteroids striking Earth so difficult to find? when water condenses in Earth's atmosphere in the Sun by fusion Asteroids do not travel fast enough to create impact craters. Asteroids are not large enough to leave impact craters. Weathering, erosion, and deposition on Earth have destroyed or buried most impact craters. Asteroids are made mostly of frozen water and gases and are vaporized on impact.
36 168) The diagram below shows a satellite in four different positions as it revolves around a planet Page 36 Which graph best represents the changes in this satellite's orbital velocity as it revolves around the planet? 169) Compared to the surface temperature and luminosity of massive stars in the Main Sequence, the smaller stars in the Main Sequence are cooler and less luminous cooler and more luminous hotter and less luminous hotter and more luminous 170) Astronomers viewing light from distant galaxies observe a shift of spectral lines toward the red end of the visible spectrum. This shift provides evidence that the Sun is cooling Earth's atmosphere is warming orbital velocities of stars are decreasing the universe is expanding 171) The explosion associated with the Big Bang theory and the formation of the universe is inferred to have occurred how many billion years ago? less than over