Parallel Circuits. Chapter


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1 Chapter 5 Parallel Circuits Topics Covered in Chapter 5 51: The Applied Voltage V A Is the Same Across Parallel Branches 52: Each Branch I Equals V A / R 53: Kirchhoff s Current Law (KCL) 54: Resistance in Parallel 55: Conductances in Parallel 2007 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
2 Topics Covered in Chapter 5 56: Total Power in Parallel Circuits 57: Analyzing Parallel Circuits with Random Unknowns 58: Troubleshooting: Opens and Shorts in Parallel Circuits McGrawHill 2007 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3 51: The Applied Voltage V A Is the Same Across Parallel Branches Characteristics of a Parallel Circuit Voltage is the same across each branch in a parallel circuit. The total current is equal to the sum of the individual branch currents. The equivalent resistance (R EQ ) is less than the smallest branch resistance. The term equivalent resistance refers to a single resistance that would draw the same amount of current as all of the parallel connected branches. Total power is equal to the sum of the power dissipated by each branch resistance.
4 51: The Applied Voltage V A Is the Same Across Parallel Branches A parallel circuit is formed when two or more components are connected across the same two points. A common application of parallel circuits is the typical house wiring of many receptacles to the 120V 60 Hz ac power line.
5 53: Kirchhoff s Current Law (KCL) The total current I T in the main line is equal to the sum of the branch currents. This is known as Kirchhoff s current law (KCL). It applies to any number of parallel branches, whether the resistances in those branches are equal or not. I T V I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I T I T = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4
6 54: Resistance in Parallel A combination of parallel branches is called a bank. A combination of parallel resistances R EQ for the bank is always less than the smallest individual branch resistance because I T must be more than any one branch current. The equivalent resistance of a parallel circuit must be less than the smallest branch resistance. Adding more branches to a parallel circuit reduces the equivalent resistance because more current is drawn from the same voltage source.
7 54: Resistance in Parallel Fig. 57: How adding parallel branches of resistors increases I T but decreases R EQ. (a) One resistor. (b) Two branches. (c) Three branches. (d) Equivalent circuit of the three branches in (c). Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
8 54: Resistance in Parallel Total Current and Reciprocal Resistance Formulas In a parallel circuit, the total current equals the sum of the individual branch currents: I T = I 1 + I 2 + I etc. Total current is also equal to total voltage divided by equivalent resistance: I T = V T R EQ
9 54: Resistance in Parallel Total Current and Reciprocal Resistance Formulas The equivalent resistance of a parallel circuit equals the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals: R EQ = 1 R 1 Equivalent resistance also equals the applied voltage divided by the total current: R EQ = R 2 V A I T 1 R etc.
10 54: Resistance in Parallel Determining the Equivalent Resistance Fig. 58: Two methods of combining parallel resistances to find R EQ. (a) Using the reciprocal resistance formula to calculate R EQ as 4 Ω. (b) Using the total line current method with an assumed line voltage of 20 V gives the same 4 Ω for R EQ. Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
11 54: Resistance in Parallel Special Case: Equal Value Resistors If R is equal in all branches, divide one resistor s value by the number of resistors. R R EQ = N 60 kω R EQ = 3 resistors R EQ = 20 kω Fig. 59: For the special case of all branches having the same resistance, just divide R by the number of branches to find R EQ. Here, R EQ = 60 kω / 3 = 20 kω. Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
12 54: Resistance in Parallel Special Case: Two Unequal Resistors When there are only two branches in a parallel circuit and their resistances are unequal, use the formula: R EQ = R 1 R 2 R 1 + R 2 Fig. 510: For the special case of only two branch resistances, of any values, R EQ equals their product divided by the sum. Here, R EQ = 2400 / 100 = 24Ω. Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
13 54: Resistance in Parallel To find an unknown branch resistance, rewrite the formula as follows to solve for the unknown value. R X = R R EQ R R EQ These formulas may be used to simplify complex circuits.
14 55: Conductances in Parallel Conductance (G) is equal to 1 / R. Total (equivalent) conductance of a parallel circuit is given by: Determining Conductance G T = G 1 + G 2 + G etc. Each value of G is the reciprocal of R. Each branch current is directly proportional to its conductance. Note that the unit for G is the siemens (S).
15 55: Conductances in Parallel G 1 = W = 0.05 S G 1 G 2 = = 0.2 S 3 = = 0.5 S 5 W 2 W G T = = 0.75 S Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
16 56: Total Power in Parallel Circuits Total power is equal to the sum of the power dissipated by the individual resistances of the parallel branches: P T = P 1 + P 2 + P etc. Total power is equal to voltage times total current: P T = V T I T
17 56: Total Power in Parallel Circuits Determining Power P 1 = W = 10 W P 2 = W = 20 W P T = = 30 W Check: P T = V T I T = 10 V 3 A = 30 W Fig. 514: The sum of the power values P 1 and P 2 used in each branch equals the total power P T produced by the source. Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
18 57: Analyzing Parallel Circuits with Random Unknowns Example: V T is known
19 57: Analyzing Parallel Circuits with Random Unknowns
20 57: Analyzing Parallel Circuits with Random Unknowns Example: I T is known
21 58: Troubleshooting: Opens and Shorts in Parallel Circuits Opens in Parallel Circuits. In Fig (b) bulbs 2 and 3 still light. However, the total current is smaller. In Fig (a) no bulbs light. Fig. 516: Effect of an open in a parallel circuit. (a) Open path in the main line no current and no light for all the bulbs. (b) Open path in any branch bulb for that branch does not light, but the other two bulbs operate normally. Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
22 58: Troubleshooting: Opens and Shorts in Parallel Circuits A Short in a Parallel Circuit The other branches are shorted out. The total current is very high. Fig. 517: Effect of a short circuit across parallel branches. (a) Normal circuit. (b) Short circuit across points H and G shorts out all the branches. Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
23 Example  I T is known
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