Electrical Technology (EE101F)


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1 Electrical Technology (EE101F)
2 Contents Series & Parallel Combinations KVL & KCL Introduction to Loop & Mesh Analysis Frequently Asked Questions NPTEL Link
3 SeriesParallel esistances 1 V 3 2 There are three series sections in this circuit; sections 1 and 2 are parallel banks.
4 Series and Parallel Circuits Series Circuit Current is the same in all components. V across each series is I. V T = V 1 V 2 V 3... etc. Parallel Circuit Voltage is the same across all branches. I in each branch is V/. I T = I 1 I 2 I 3... etc.
5 Example: SeriesParallel Circuits Find all currents and voltages in the circuit given below Step 1: Find T. Step 2: Calculate main line current as I T = V T / T : educing a seriesparallel circuit to an equivalent series circuit to find the T. (a) Actual circuit. (b) 3 and 4 in parallel combined for the equivalent T.
6 Fig (c) T and 6 in series added for 13. (d) 13 and 5 in parallel combined for 18.
7 Fig. e: The 18, 1, and 2 in series are added for the total resistance of 50Ω for T.
8 Analyzing SeriesParallel Circuits with andom Unknowns In solving such circuits, apply the same principles as before: educe the circuit to its simplest possible form. Apply Ohm s Law.
9 Voltage divider rule The voltage drop across any given resistor in a series circuit is equal to the ratio of that resistor to the total resistance, multiplied by source voltage. Assume 1 is twice the size of 2. What is the voltage across 1? 8 V V S V S 12 V 1 2
10 Voltage divider Voltage dividers can be set up for a variable output using a potentiometer. In the circuit shown, the output voltage is variable. What is the largest output voltage available? 5.0 V V S 15 V 1 20 kω 2 10 kω V OUT
11 Power in Series Circuits Use the voltage divider rule to find V 1 and V 2. Then find the power in 1 and 2 and P T Ω V S 2 20 V 330 Ω Applying the voltage divider rule: V V Ω = 20 V = V 800 Ω 330 Ω = 20 V = 8.25 V 800 Ω The power dissipated by each resistor is: ( V) 2 P 1 = = 0.29 W 470 Ω ( 8.25 V) 2 P 2 = = 0.21 W 330 Ω } P T = 0.5 W
12 Circuit Ground The term ground typically means a common or reference point in the circuit. Voltages that are given with respect to ground are shown with a single subscript. For example, V A means the voltage at point A with respect to ground. V B means the voltage at point B with respect to ground. V AB means the voltage between points A and B. What are V A, V B, and V AB for the circuit shown? V A = 12 V V B = 8 V V AB = 4 V V S 12 V A kω B 2 10 kω C
13 Key Terms Circuit ground Kirchhoff s voltage law Open A method of grounding whereby the metal chassis that houses the assembly or a large conductive area on a printed circuit board is used as a common or reference point; also called chassis ground. A law stating that (1) the sum of the voltage drops around a closed loop equals the source voltage in that loop or (2) the algebraic sum of all of the voltages (drops and source) is zero. A circuit condition in which the current path is broken.
14 Key Terms Series Short Voltage divider In an electric circuit, a relationship of components in which the components are connected such that they provide a single path between two points. A circuit condition in which there is zero or an abnormally low resistance between two points; usually an inadvertent condition. A circuit consisting of series resistors across which one or more output voltages are taken.
15 OHM S LAW Ohm s law states that the voltage across a resistor is directly proportional to the current I flowing through the resistor. Mathematical expression for Ohm s Law is as follows: = esistance Two extreme possible values of : 0 (zero) and (infinite) are related with two basic circuit concepts: short circuit and open circuit.
16 Branches, Nodes, Loops A branch represents a single element such as a voltage source or a resistor. A node is the point of connection between two or more branches. A loop is any closed path in a circuit. A network with b branches, n nodes, and l independent loops will satisfy the fundamental theorem of network topology: b=ln1
17 Original Circuit Network schematics or graph How many branches, nodes and loops are there?
18 Kirchhoff s Current Law Kirchhoff s current law (KCL) states that the algebraic sum of currents entering a node (or a closed boundary) is zero. ΣI = 0
19 Kirchhoff s Voltage Law Kirchhoff s voltage law (KVL) states that the algebraic sum of all voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero. ΣVi= 0
20 Kirchhoff s Voltage Law: Example Applying the KVL equation for the circuit of the figure below. va v1 vb v2 v3 = 0 V1 = I 1 ; v2 = I 2 ; v3 = I 3 vavb = I (1 2 3) I= (Va Vb)/ (1 2 3)
21 KICHHOFF VOLTAGE LAW ONE OF THE FUNDAMENTAL CONSEVATION LAWS IN ELECTICAL ENGINEING THIS IS A CONSEVATION OF ENEGY PINCIPLE ENEGY CANNOT BE CEATED NO DESTOYED
22 KICHHOFF VOLTAGE LAW (KVL) KVL IS A CONSEVATION OF ENEGY PINCIPLE A POSITIVE CHAGE GAINS ENEGY AS IT MOVES TO A POINT WITH HIGHE VOLTAGE AND ELEASES ENEGY IF IT MOVES TO A POINT WITH LOWE VOLTAGE W = q( V B VA) B V B A THOUGHT EXPEIMENT W = qv AB q V V A AB V CA B V B W = qv CA V BC V C W = qv BC q V A IF THE CHAGE COMES BACK TO THE SAME INITIAL POINT THE NET ENEGY GAIN MUST BE ZEO (Conservative network) q q a c V ab V cd b d LOSES W = qv ab GAINS W = qv cd OTHEWISE THE CHAGE COULD END UP WITH INFINITE ENEGY, O SUPPLY AN INFINITE AMOUNT OF ENEGY q( V V V ) = 0 AB BC CD KVL: THE ALGEBAIC SUM OF VOLTAGE DOPS AOUND ANY LOOP MUST BE ZEO A V B A VOLTAGE A NEGATIVE A ( V ) B ISE IS DOP
23 KVL (Kirchhoff s Voltage Law) The sum of the potential differences around a closed loop equals zero. Sum of the Voltage drops across resistors equals the Supply Voltage in a Loop.
24 Voltages from Mesh Currents V V I 2 I 1 I 1 V = I 1 V = (I 1 I 2 ) 24
25 Example : KVL Around Mesh 1 1kΩ 1kΩ 1kΩ V 1 I 1 I 2 V 2 V 1 I 1 1kΩ (I 1 I 2 ) 1kΩ = 0 I 1 1kΩ (I 1 I 2 ) 1kΩ = V 1 25
26 KVL Around Mesh 2 1kΩ 1kΩ 1kΩ V 1 I 1 I 2 V 2 (I 2 I 1 ) 1kΩ I 2 1kΩ V 2 = 0 (I 2 I 1 ) 1kΩ I 2 1kΩ = V 2 26
27 Steps of Mesh Analysis 1. Identify mesh (loops). 2. Assign a current to each mesh. 3. Apply KVL around each loop to get an equation in terms of the loop currents. 4. Solve the resulting system of linear equations. 27
28 Matrix Notation The two equations can be combined into a single matrix/vector equation. 1k Ω 1kΩ 1kΩ 1kΩ I 1kΩ 1kΩ I 1 2 = V1 V 2 28
29 29 = ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( I I E E = ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( E E I Cramer s ule
30 30 = ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( E E I
31 Another Example 2kΩ 2mA 1kΩ 12V 2kΩ 4mA I 0 31
32 1. Identify Meshes 2kΩ 2mA Mesh 3 1kΩ 12V Mesh 1 2kΩ Mesh 2 4mA I 0 32
33 2. Assign Mesh Currents 2kΩ 2mA I 3 1kΩ 12V 2kΩ I 1 I 2 4mA I 0 33
34 Current Sources The current sources in this circuit will have whatever voltage is necessary to make the current correct. We can t use KVL around any mesh because we don t know the voltage for the current sources. What to do? 34
35 Current Sources The 4mA current source sets I 2 : I 2 = 4 ma The 2mA current source sets a constraint on I 1 and I 3 : I 1 I 3 = 2 ma We have two equations and three unknowns. Where is the third equation? 35
36 Supermesh The Supermesh surrounds this source! 2mA 2kΩ I 3 1kΩ The Supermesh does not include this source! 12V 2kΩ I 1 I 2 4mA I 0 36
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