The Basic Capacitor. Dielectric. Conductors


 Gilbert Barber
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1 Chapter 9
2 The Basic Capacitor Capacitors are one of the fundamental passive components. In its most basic form, it is composed of two conductive plates separated by an insulating dielectric. The ability to store charge is the definition of capacitance. Conductors Dielectric
3 Dielectric Plates Leads Electrons B A Initially uncharged B A Charging B A V S Fully charged B A V S Source removed The charging process A capacitor with stored charge can act as a temporary battery. The Basic Capacitor
4 Capacitance Capacitance is the ratio of charge to voltage Q C = V Rearranging, the amount of charge on a capacitor is determined by the size of the capacitor (C) and the voltage (V). Q = CV If a 22 µf capacitor is connected to a 10 V source, the charge is 220 µc
5 Capacitance An analogy: Imagine you store rubber bands in a bottle that is nearly full. You could store more rubber bands (like charge or Q) in a bigger bottle (capacitance or C) or if you push them in more (voltage or V). Thus, Q = CV
6 Capacitance A capacitor stores energy in the form of an electric field that is established by the opposite charges on the two plates. The energy of a charged capacitor is given by the equation where W = 1 CV 2 W = the energy in joules C = the capacitance in farads V = the voltage in volts 2
7 Capacitance The capacitance of a capacitor depends on three physical characteristics. 12 r C F/m A ε = d C is directly proportional to the relative dielectric constant and the plate area. C is inversely proportional to the distance between the plates
8 Capacitance Find the capacitance of a 4.0 cm diameter sensor immersed in oil if the plates are separated by 0.25 mm. ε = 4.0 for oil 12 ε r F/m A C = d The plate area is A = πr = π 0.02 m = m The distance between the plates is C ( ) ( )( m 2 ) 12 = F/m = m ( ) r m 178 pf
9 Capacitor types Mica Mica capacitors are small with high working voltage. The working voltage is the voltage limit that cannot be exceeded. Foil Mica Foil Mica Foil Mica Foil
10 Capacitor types Ceramic disk Ceramic disks are small nonpolarized capacitors They have relatively high capacitance due to high ε r. Lead wire soldered to silver elec trode Solder Ceramic dielectric Dipped phenolic c oating Silv er elec trodes deposited on top and bottom of ceramic disk
11 Capacitor types Plastic Film Plastic film capacitors are small and nonpolarized. They have relatively high capacitance due to larger plate area. Plastic film dielec tric Highpurity foil electrodes Outer wrap of polyester film Capacitor section (alternate strips of film dielectric and Lead wire foil electrodes) Solder coated end
12 Capacitor types Electrolytic (two types) Electrolytic capacitors have very high capacitance but they are not as precise as other types and tend to have more leakage current. Electrolytic types are polarized. Al electrolytic _ Ta electrolytic Symbol for any electrolytic capacitor
13 Capacitor types Variable Variable capacitors typically have small capacitance values and are usually adjusted manually. A solidstate device that is used as a variable capacitor is the varactor diode; it is adjusted with an electrical signal.
14 Capacitor labeling Capacitors use several labeling methods. Small capacitors values are frequently stamped on them such as.001 or.01, which have implied units of microfarads. Electrolytic capacitors have larger values, so are read as µf. The unit is usually stamped as µf, but some older ones may be shown as MF or MMF)..022 VTT VTT 47 MF
15 Capacitor labeling A label such as 103 or 104 is read as 10x10 3 (10,000 pf) or 10x10 4 (100,000 pf) respectively. (Third digit is the multiplier.) When values are marked as 330 or 6800, the units are picofarads What is the value of each capacitor? Both are 2200 pf.
16 Series capacitors When capacitors are connected in series, the total capacitance is smaller than the smallest one. The general equation for capacitors in series is C T = C C C C T The total capacitance of two capacitors is C T = C C 1 2 or you can use the productoversum rule
17 Series capacitors If a µf capacitor is connected in series with an 800 pf capacitor, the total capacitance is 444 pf C 1 C 湩 800 pf
18 Parallel capacitors When capacitors are connected in parallel, the total capacitance is the sum of the individual capacitors. The general equation for capacitors in parallel is CT = C1 C2 C3... Cn If a µf capacitor is connected in parallel with an 800 pf capacitor, the total capacitance is 1800 pf C 1 C 湩 800 pf
19 The RC time constant When a capacitor is charged through a series resistor and dc source, the charging curve is exponential. R V final 0 (a) Capacitor c harging voltage I initial t C 0 (b) Charging current t
20 The RC time constant V initial When a capacitor is discharged through a resistor, the discharge curve is also an exponential. (Note that the current is negative.) R I initial 0 (a) Capacitor disc harging voltage t C 0 (b) Disc harging current t
21 The RC time constant The same shape curves are seen if a square wave is used for the source. What is the shape of the current curve? R V S V C V S C V R The current has the same shape as V R.
22 Universal exponential curves Specific values for current and voltage can be read from a universal curve. For an RC circuit, the time constant is τ = RC Percent of final value 100% 80% 60% 40% 63% 37% 86% 99% 98% 95% Rising exponential Falling exponential 20% 14% 5% 2% 1% 0 0 1τ 2τ 3τ 4τ 5τ Number of time constants
23 Universal exponential curves The universal curves can be applied to general formulas for the voltage (or current) curves for RC circuits. The general voltage formula is v =V F (V i V F )e t/rc V F = final value of voltage V i = initial value of voltage v = instantaneous value of voltage The final capacitor voltage is greater than the initial voltage when the capacitor is charging, or less that the initial voltage when it is discharging.
24 Capacitive reactance Capacitive reactance is the opposition to ac by a capacitor. The equation for capacitive reactance is X C = 1 2πfC The reactance of a µf capacitor when a frequency of 15 khz is applied is 226 Ω
25 Capacitive phase shift When a sine wave is applied to a capacitor, there is a phase shift between voltage and current such that current always leads the voltage by 90 o. V C 0 I 0 90 o
26 Power in a capacitor Energy is stored by the capacitor during a portion of the ac cycle and returned to the source during another portion of the cycle. Voltage and current are always 90 o out of phase. For this reason, no true power is dissipated by a capacitor, because stored energy is returned to the circuit. The rate at which a capacitor stores or returns energy is called reactive power. The unit for reactive power is the VAR (voltampere reactive).
27 Power supply filtering There are many applications for capacitors. One is in filters, such as the power supply filter shown here. 60 Hz ac Rectifier C Load resistance The filter smoothes the pulsating dc from the rectifier.
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