Properties of Capacitors and its DC Behavior


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1 LABORATORY Experiment 2 Properties of Capacitors and its DC Behavior 1. Objectives To investigate the /V characteristics of capacitor. To calculate the equivalent capacitance of capacitors connected in series and in parallel. To measure the voltdrops of a capacitor voltage divider. To measure the dissipation factor of different types of capacitors and calculate their quality factor. 2. Apparatus and Components 1. D.C. Power Supply ( x 1) 2. Digital Multimeter (Fluke) ( x 1) 3. Multimeter (VOM) ( x 1) 4. LCR Meter (LCR815B) ( x 1) 1. Variable Capacitor (VC) (x1) kΩ, 100µF and 470µF (x1) 3. Capacitors with different types of dielectric (1 each) 4. Bread board 3. Background 3.1 Definition of Capacitance A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by an insulator. The capacitance is a figure to measure the charge storing capacity of a capacitor, which is defined as below: C = (Equation 1) V where C= capacitance, farads = charge, coulombs V= applied voltage, volts Laboratory Experiment 1 1
2 For parallelplate capacitor, the equation of capacitance is: ξ A C o ξ = r d (Equation 2) where C= capacitance, farads A= area, m 2 d= distance of separate, m ξ o r = absoluate permitivity of air/vacuum ξ = relative permitivity of dielectric 3.2 Series / Parallel Connection of Capacitors and Capacitor Voltage Divider Most often, the wanted capacitance value is not commercial available. To achieve the desired capacitance, the parallel/serial technique is commonly used. The resultant capacitance is therefore described in the below equations: a) Capacitors connected in series = + + (Equation 3) Ct C1 C2 C3 b) Capacitors connected in parallel Ct = C1+ C2+ C3 (Equation 4) c) Capacitor voltage divider C V1 = V x T (Equation 5) C1 2 Experiment 2 Laboratory
3 4. Procedure 4.1 Capacitors in series and in parallel (a) Connect 3 capacitors with different value in series and in parallel (b) Calculate the equivalent capacitance. (c) Use the LCR Meter to measure their equivalent capacitance. (d) Repeat the procedures (a) to (b) for other group of capacitors. (e) Tabulate the results into the table below. Table 1  Capacitors connected in series Capacitor values C1= 10uF C2= 100uF C3= 220uF by calculation with Equation (3) by measurement. C1= 470uF C2= 1000uF C3= 2200uF Table 2  Capacitors connected in parallel Capacitor values C1= 2.2uF C2= 1uF C3= 10uF by calculation with Equation (4) by measurement. Laboratory Experiment 1 3
4 Capacitor values C1= 2.2uF C2= 1uF C3= 100uF by calculation with Equation (4) by measurement. 4.2 The Charge/Voltage Characteristics of Capacitor C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 V1 V 2 V 3 V 4 V 5 10 V (a) Connect five different capacitor of ceramic or plastic type to a power supply in a circuit shown above. (b) Adjust the supply voltage slowly to 10V. (c) Measure the voltdrops across the capacitors by DMM. (d) Tabulate the result into the following table. (e) Draw the curve on graph paper provided. Table 3 Charge/Voltage Characteristics of Capacitor Value of Capacitor Voltdrop (V) (Measured) Voltdrop (V) (Calculated) Experiment 2 Laboratory
5 4.3 Capacitance of Parallelplate Capacitor (a) (b) (c) Use three different sets of metal plates to form three parallelplate capacitors as shown below. Insert a dielectric block into the space between the parallel plates. Use LCR meter to measure the capacitance of the parallel plate capacitor for each set of setup. LCR Meter d metal plates (different sizes) dielectric Table 4 Capacitance of Parallelplate Capacitor Area of parallel plates = d (mm) Capacitance (without dielectric) Capacitance (with dielectric) Calculated relative permittivity, ξ r Area of parallel plates = d (mm) Capacitance (without dielectric) Capacitance (with dielectric) Calculated relative permittivity, ξ r Laboratory Experiment 1 5
6 Area of parallel plates = d (mm) Capacitance (without dielectric) Capacitance (with dielectric) Calculated relative permittivity, ξ r 5. Discussion 5.1 From the experimental results of Part 4.1, explain and show the best way of connecting three capacitors in order to store the highest value of electric charge by using Equation (1). 5.2 From the experimental results of Part 4.2, prove the Equation (5) for voltage divider. 5.3 Based on the experimental results of Part 4.3, discuss how the capacitance varies with the distance of separation (d) and area of parallel plates (A). 6 Experiment 2 Laboratory
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