ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS AND ALTERNATING CURRENT

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1 Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 1 A charged capacitor and an inductor are connected in series At time t = 0 the current is zero, but the capacitor is charged If T is the period of the resulting oscillations, the next time after t = 0 that the current is a maximum is: A T B T/4 C T/2 D T E 2T Section: 31 2; Difficulty: E 2 A charged capacitor and an inductor are connected in series At time t = 0 the current is zero, but the capacitor is charged If T is the period of the resulting oscillations, the next time after t = 0 that the charge on the capacitor is a maximum is: A T B T/4 C T/2 D T E 2T Section: 31 2; Difficulty: E 3 A charged capacitor and an inductor are connected in series At time t = 0 the current is zero, but the capacitor is charged If T is the period of the resulting oscillations, the next time after t = 0 that the voltage across the inductor is a maximum is: A T B T/4 C T/2 D T E 2T Section: 31 2; Difficulty: E 4 A charged capacitor and an inductor are connected in series At time t = 0 the current is zero, but the capacitor is charged If T is the period of the resulting oscillations, the next time after t = 0 that the energy stored in the magnetic field of the inductor is a maximum is: A T B T/4 C T/2 D T E 2T Section: 31 2; Difficulty: E 516 Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT

2 5 A charged capacitor and an inductor are connected in series At time t = 0 the current is zero, but the capacitor is charged If T is the period of the resulting oscillations, the next time after t = 0 that the energy stored in the electric field of the capacitor is a maximum is: A T B T/4 C T/2 D T E 2T Section: 31 2; Difficulty: E 6 The electrical analog of a spring constant k is: A L B 1/L C C D 1/C E R Section: 31 3; Difficulty: E 7 Consider the mechanical system consisting of two springs and a block, as shown Which one of the five electrical circuits (A, B, C, D, E) is the analog of the mechanical system? m k 1 k 2 A B C Section: 31 3; Difficulty: E D E Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT 517

3 8 A 150-g block on the end of a spring with a spring constant of 35N/m is pulled aside 25cm and released from rest In the electrical analog the initial charge on the capacitor is: A 015 C B 667 C C 0025 C D 40C E 35C Section: 31 3; Difficulty: M 9 A 150-g block on the end of a spring with a spring constant of 35N/m is pulled aside 25cm and released from rest In the electrical analog the maximum charge on the capacitor is 025C The maximum current in the LC circuit is: A 038 A B 0025 A C 40A D 23 A E 53 A Section: 31 3; Difficulty: M 10 A capacitor in an LC oscillator has a maximum potential difference of 15V and a maximum energy of 360µJ At a certain instant the energy in the capacitor is 40µJ At that instant what is the potential difference across the capacitor? A zero B 5V C 10V D 15V E 20V 11 Which of the following has the greatest effect in decreasing the oscillation frequency of an LC circuit? Using instead: A L/2 and C/2 B L/2 and 2C C 2L and C/2 D 2L and 2C E none of these 518 Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT

4 12 We desire to make an LC circuit that oscillates at 100Hz using an inductance of 25H We also need a capacitance of: A 1F B 1mF C 1µF D 100 µf E 1pF 13 An LC circuit consists of a 1-µF capacitor and a 4mH inductor Its oscillation frequency is approximately: A 0025 Hz B 25 Hz C 60 Hz D 2500 Hz E 15,800Hz 14 An LC circuit has an oscillation frequency of 10 5 Hz If C = 01µF, then L must be about: A 10 mh B 1mH C 25 µh D 25 µh E 1pH 15 In the circuit shown, switch S is first pushed up to charge the capacitor When S is then pushed down, the current in the circuit will oscillate at a frequency of: A 318 Hz B 001 Hz C Hz D 2000 Hz E depends on V 0 5µF V 0 50mH S Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT 519

5 16 Radio receivers are usually tuned by adjusting the capacitor of an LC circuit If C = C 1 for a frequency of 600kHz, then for a frequency of 1200kHz one must adjust C to: A C 1 /2 B C 1 /4 C 2C 1 D 4C 1 E 2C1 17 An LC series circuit with an inductance L and a capacitance C has an oscillation frequency f Two inductors, each with inductance L, and two capacitors, each with capacitance C, are all wired in series and the circuit is completed The oscillation frequency is: A f/4 B f/2 C f D 2f E 4f 18 A capacitor in an LC oscillator has a maximum potential difference of 15V and a maximum energy of 360µJ At a certain instant the energy in the capacitor is 40µJ At that instant what is the emf induced in the inductor? A zero B 5V C 10V D 15V E 20V 19 In an oscillating LC circuit, the total stored energy is U The maximum energy stored in the capacitor during one cycle is: A U/2 B U/ 2 C U D U/(2π) E U/π 520 Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT

6 20 In an oscillating LC circuit, the total stored energy is U and the maximum charge on the capacitor is Q When the charge on the capacitor is Q/2, the energy stored in the inductor is: A U/2 B U/4 C (4/3)U D 3U/2 E 3U/4 ans: E 21 The total energy in an LC circuit is J If C = 15µF the charge on the capacitor is: A 082 µc B 85 µc C 12 µc D 17 µc E 24 µc 22 The total energy in an LC circuit is J If L = 25mH the maximum current is: A 10 ma B 14 ma C 20 ma D 28 ma E 40 ma 23 At time t = 0 the charge on the 50-µF capacitor in an LC circuit is 15µC and there is no current If the inductance is 20mH the maximum current is: A 15 na B 15 µa C 67 ma D 15 ma E 15A 24 An LC circuit has an inductance of 20mH and a capacitance of 50µF At time t = 0 the charge on the capacitor is 30µC and the current is 70mA The total energy is: A J B J C J D J E J Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT 521

7 25 An LC circuit has a capacitance of 30µF and an inductance of 15mH At time t = 0 the charge on the capacitor is 10µC and the current is 20mA The maximum charge on the capacitor is: A 89 µc B 10 µc C 12 µc D 17 µc E 24 µc 26 An LC circuit has an inductance of 15mH and a capacitance of 10µF At one instant the charge on the capacitor is 25µC At that instant the current is changing at the rate of: A 0 B A/s C A/s D A/s E 170 A/s ans: E 27 An LC circuit has a capacitance of 30µF and an inductance of 15mH At time t = 0 the charge on the capacitor is 10µC and the current is 20mA The maximum current is: A 18 ma B 20 ma C 25 ma D 35 ma E 42 ma 28 An RLC circuit has a resistance of 200Ω and an inductance of 15mH Its oscillation frequency is 7000 Hz At time t = 0 the current is 25 ma and there is no charge on the capacitor After five complete cycles the current is: A zero B A C A D A E A Section: 31 5; Difficulty: M 522 Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT

8 29 The graphs show the total electromagnetic energy in two RLC circuits as functions of time Which of the following statements might be true? E 1 2 t A Circuit 1 has a smaller resistance and a larger inductance B Circuit 1 has a larger resistance and a smaller inductance C Circuit 1 has the same resistance and a larger inductance D Circuit 1 has a larger resistance and a larger capacitance E Circuit 1 has the same resistance and a smaller capacitance Section: 31 5; Difficulty: E 30 An RLC circuit has an inductance of 25mH and a capacitance of 50µF The charge on the capacitor does NOT oscillate but rather decays exponentially to zero The resistance in the circuit must be: A greater than or equal to 20,000Ω B less than 20, 000Ω but greater than 10, 000Ω C less than 10, 000Ω but greater than 5, 000Ω D less than 5,000Ω but greater than 0 E 0 Section: 31 5; Difficulty: M 31 The rapid exponential decay in just a few cycles of the charge on the plates of capacitor in an RLC circuit might be due to: A a large inductance B a large capacitance C a small capacitance D a large resistance E a small resistance Section: 31 5; Difficulty: M Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT 523

9 32 An RLC circuit has a capacitance of 12µF, an inductance of 25mH, and a resistance of 60Ω The current oscillates with an angular frequency of: A rad/s B rad/s C rad/s D rad/s E rad/s Section: 31 5; Difficulty: M 33 The angular frequency of a certain RLC series circuit is ω 0 A source of sinusoidal emf, with angular frequency 2ω, is inserted into the circuit After transients die out the angular frequency of the current oscillations is: A ω 0 /2 B ω 0 C 2ω 0 D 15ω 0 E 3ω 0 Section: 31 6; Difficulty: E 34 The angular frequency of a certain RLC series circuit is ω 0 A source of sinusoidal emf, with angular frequency ω, is inserted into the circuit and ω is varied while the amplitude of the source is held constant For which of the following values of ω is the amplitude of the current oscillations the greatest? A ω 0 /5 B ω 0 /2 C ω 0 D 2ω 0 E None of them (they all produce the same current amplitude) Section: 31 6; Difficulty: E 35 In a purely capacitive circuit the current: A leads the voltage by one-fourth of a cycle B leads the voltage by one-half of a cycle C lags the voltage by one-fourth of a cycle D lags the voltage by one-half of a cycle E is in phase with the potential difference across the plates Section: 31 8; Difficulty: E 524 Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT

10 36 In a purely resistive circuit the current: A leads the voltage by one-fourth of a cycle B leads the voltage by one-half of a cycle C lags the voltage by one-fourth of a cycle D lags the voltage by one-half of a cycle E is in phase with the voltage ans: E Section: 31 8; Difficulty: E 37 In a purely inductive circuit, the current lags the voltage by: A zero B one-fourth of a cycle C one-half of a cycle D three-fourths of a cycle E one cycle Section: 31 8; Difficulty: E 38 A series RL circuit is connected to an emf source of angular frequency ω The current: A leads the applied emf by tan 1 (ωl/r) B lags the applied emf by tan 1 (ωl/r) C lags the applied emf by tan 1 (ωr/l) D leads the applied emf by tan 1 (ωr/l) E is zero Section: 31 8; Difficulty: M 39 A series RC circuit is connected to an emf source having angular frequency ω The current: A leads the source emf by tan 1 (1/ωCR) B lags the source emf by tan 1 (1/ωCR) C leads the source emf by tan 1 (ωcr) D lags the source emf by tan 1 (ωcr) E leads the source emf by π/4 Section: 31 8; Difficulty: M 40 The reactance in ohms of a 35-µF capacitor connected to a 400-Hz generator is: A 0 B 0014 C 0088 D 11 E 71 Section: 31 8; Difficulty: M Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT 525

11 41 A 35-µF capacitor is connected to a source of sinusoidal emf with a frequency of 400Hz and a maximum emf of 20V The maximum current is: A 0 B 028 A C 18 A D 230 A E 1400 A Section: 31 8; Difficulty: M 42 A 45-mH inductor is connected to a source of sinusoidal emf with a frequency of 400Hz and a maximum emf of 20V The maximum current is: A 0 B 018 A C 11 A D 360 A E 2300 A Section: 31 8; Difficulty: M 43 An electric motor, under load, has an effective resistance of 30 Ω and an inductive reactance of 40Ω When powered by a source with a maximum voltage of 420V, the maximum current is: A 60 A B 84 A C 105 A D 120 A E 140 A Section: 31 8; Difficulty: M 44 An RL series circuit is connected to an ac generator with a maximum emf of 20V If the maximum potential difference across the resistor is 16 V, then the maximum potential difference across the inductor is: A 2V B 4V C 12V D 256 V E 36V Section: 31 8; Difficulty: M 526 Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT

12 45 In an RLC series circuit, which is connected to a source of emf E m cos(ωt), the current lags the voltage by 45 if: A R = 1/ωC ωl B R = 1/ωL ωc C R = ωl 1/ωC D R = ωc 1/ωL E ωl = 1/ωC Section: 31 9; Difficulty: M 46 The impedance of an RLC series circuit is definitely increased if: A C decreases B L increases C L decreases D R increases E R decreases Section: 31 9; Difficulty: E 47 An RLC series circuit has R = 4Ω, X C = 3Ω, and X L = 6Ω The impedance of this circuit is: A 5Ω B 7Ω C 98 Ω D 13Ω E 78 Ω Section: 31 9; Difficulty: M 48 The impedance of the circuit shown is: 50Ω 020H 150µF 50Hz, 240V rms A 21Ω B 50Ω C 63Ω D 65Ω E 98Ω Section: 31 9; Difficulty: M Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT 527

13 49 When the amplitude of the oscillator in a series RLC circuit is doubled: A the impedance is doubled B the voltage across the capacitor is halved C the capacitive reactance is halved D the power factor is doubled E the current amplitude is doubled ans: E Section: 31 9; Difficulty: E 50 When the frequency of the oscillator in a series RLC circuit is doubled: A the capacitive reactance is doubled B the capacitive reactance is halved C the impedance is doubled D the current amplitude is doubled E the current amplitude is halved Section: 31 9; Difficulty: E 51 In an RLC series circuit, the source voltage is leading the current at a given frequency f If f is lowered slightly, then the circuit impedance will: A increase B decrease C remain the same D need to know the amplitude of the source voltage E need to know whether the phase angle is larger or smaller than 45 Section: 31 9; Difficulty: E 52 An RLC series circuit has L = 100mH and C = 1µF It is connected to a 1000-Hz source and the source emf is found to lead the current by 75 The value of R is: A 126 Ω B 126 Ω C 175 Ω D 1750 Ω E 1810 Ω Section: 31 9; Difficulty: M 528 Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT

14 53 In the diagram, the function y(t) = y m sin(ωt) is plotted as a solid curve The other three curves have the form y(t) = y m sin(ωt + φ), where φ is between π/2 and +π/2 Rank the curves according to the value of φ, from the most negative to the most positive y(t) t A 1, 2, 3 B 2, 3, 1 C 3, 2, 1 D 1, 3, 2 E 2, 1, 3 Section: 31 9; Difficulty: M 54 An RLC series circuit is driven by a sinusoidal emf with angular frequency ω d If ω d is increased without changing the amplitude of the emf the current amplitude increases If L is the inductance, C is the capacitance, and R is the resistance, this means that: A ω d L > 1/ω d C B ω d L < 1/ω d C C ω d L = 1/ω d C D ω d L > R E ω d L < R Section: 31 9; Difficulty: M Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT 529

15 55 In a sinusoidally driven series RLC circuit, the inductive reactance is X L = 200Ω, the capacitive reactance is X C = 100Ω, and the resistance is R = 50Ω The current and applied emf would be in phase if: A the resistance is increased to 100Ω, with no other changes B the resistance is increased to 200Ω, with no other changes C the inductance is reduced to zero, with no other changes D the capacitance is doubled, with no other changes E the capacitance is halved, with no other changes ans: E Section: 31 9; Difficulty: E 56 An RLC series circuit, connected to a source E, is at resonance Then: A the voltage across R is zero B the voltage across R equals the applied voltage C the voltage across C is zero D the voltage across L equals the applied voltage E the applied voltage and current differ in phase by 90 Section: 31 9; Difficulty: E 57 An RLC series circuit is connected to an oscillator with a maximum emf of 100V If the voltage amplitudes V R, V L, and V C are all equal to each other, then V R must be: A 33V B 50V C 67V D 87V E 100 V ans: E Section: 31 9; Difficulty: M 58 A resistor, an inductor, and a capacitor are connected in parallel to a sinusoidal source of emf Which of the following is true? A The currents in all branches are in phase B The potential differences across all branches are in phase C The current in the capacitor branch leads the current in the inductor branch by one-fourth of a cycle D The potential difference across the capacitor branch leads the potential difference across the inductor branch by one-fourth of a cycle E The current in the capacitor branch lags the current in the inductor branch by one-fourth of a cycle Section: 31 9; Difficulty: E 530 Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT

16 59 A coil has a resistance of 60Ω and an impedance of 100Ω Its reactance, in ohms, is: A 40 B 60 C 80 D 117 E 160 Section: 31 8, 9; Difficulty: M 60 An RLC circuit has a sinusoidal source of emf The average rate at which the source supplies energy is 5nW This must also be: A the average rate at which energy is stored in the capacitor B the average rate at which energy is stored in the inductor C the average rate at which energy is dissipated in the resistor D twice the average rate at which energy is stored in the capacitor E three times the average rate at which energy is stored in the inductor Section: 31 10; Difficulty: E 61 The rms value of an ac current is: A its peak value B its average value C that steady current that produces the same rate of heating in a resistor as the actual current D that steady current that will charge a battery at the same rate as the actual current E zero Section: 31 10; Difficulty: E 62 The rms value of a sinusoidal voltage is V 0 / 2, where V 0 is the amplitude What is the rms value of its fully rectified wave? Recall that V rect (t) = V (t) V 0 V 0 t t A V0 2/ 2 B V 0 2/2 C 2V0 D V 0 / 2 E V 0 /(2 2) Section: 31 10; Difficulty: E Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT 531

17 63 A sinusoidal voltage V (t) has an rms value of 100V Its maximum value is: A 100 V B 707 V C 707 V D 141 V E 200 V Section: 31 10; Difficulty: M 64 An ac generator produces 10V (rms) at 400rad/s It is connected to a series RL circuit (R = 173Ω, L = 0025H) The rms current is: A 050A and leads the emf by 30 B 071A and lags the emf by 30 C 140A and lags the emf by 60 D 050A and lags the emf by 30 E 058A and leads the emf by 90 Section: 31 10; Difficulty: M 65 An ac generator producing 10V (rms) at 200rad/s is connected in series with a 50-Ω resistor, a 400-mH inductor, and a 200-µF capacitor The rms current in amperes is: A 0125 B 0135 C 018 D 020 E 040 Section: 31 10; Difficulty: M 66 An ac generator producing 10V (rms) at 200rad/s is connected in series with a 50-Ω resistor, a 400-mH inductor, and a 200-µF capacitor The rms voltage (in volts) across the resistor is: A 25 B 34 C 67 D 100 E 108 Section: 31 10; Difficulty: M 532 Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT

18 67 An ac generator producing 10V (rms) at 200rad/s is connected in series with a 50-Ω resistor, a 400-mH inductor, and a 200-µF capacitor The rms voltage (in volts) across the capacitor is: A 25 B 34 C 67 D 100 E 108 Section: 31 10; Difficulty: M 68 An ac generator producing 10V (rms) at 200rad/s is connected in series with a 50-Ω resistor, a 400-mH inductor, and a 200-µF capacitor The rms voltage (in volts) across the inductor is: A 25 B 34 C 67 D 100 E 108 ans: E Section: 31 10; Difficulty: M 69 The ideal meters shown read rms current and voltage The average power delivered to the load is: I V unknown load A definitely equal to V I B definitely more than V I C possibly equal to V I even if the load contains an inductor and a capacitor D definitely less than V I E zero, as is the average of any sine wave Section: 31 10; Difficulty: E Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT 533

19 70 The average power supplied to the circuit shown passes through a maximum when which one of the following is increased continuously from a very low to a very high value? R E, f C A Source emf E B R C C D Source frequency f E None of these Section: 31 10; Difficulty: E 71 In a series RLC circuit the rms value of the generator emf is E and the rms value of the current is i The current lags the emf by φ The average power supplied by the generator is given by: A (ie/2) cos φ B ie C i 2 /Z D i 2 Z E i 2 R ans: E Section: 31 10; Difficulty: M 72 The units of the power factor are: A ohm B watt C radian D ohm 1/2 E none of these ans: E Section: 31 10; Difficulty: E 73 A series circuit consists of a 15-Ω resistor, a 25-mH inductor, and a 35-µF capacitor If the frequency is 100Hz the power factor is: A 0 B 020 C 045 D 089 E 10 Section: 31 10; Difficulty: M 534 Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT

20 74 In a sinusoidally driven series RLC circuit the current lags the applied emf The rate at which energy is dissipated in the resistor can be increased by: A decreasing the capacitance and making no other changes B increasing the capacitance and making no other changes C increasing the inductance and making no other changes D increasing the driving frequency and making no other changes E decreasing the amplitude of the driving emf and making no other changes Section: 31 9, 10; Difficulty: E 75 The main reason that alternating current replaced direct current for general use is: A ac generators do not need slip rings B ac voltages may be conveniently transformed C electric clocks do not work on dc D a given ac current does not heat a power line as much as the same dc current E ac minimizes magnetic effects Section: 31 11; Difficulty: E 76 A step-down transformer is used to: A increase the power B decrease the power C increase the voltage D decrease the voltage E change ac to dc Section: 31 11; Difficulty: E 77 Iron, rather than copper, is used in the core of transformers because iron: A can withstand a higher temperature B has a greater resistivity C has a very high permeability D makes a good permanent magnet E insulates the primary from the secondary Section: 31 11; Difficulty: E 78 The core of a transformer is made in a laminated form to: A facilitate easy assembly B reduce i 2 R losses in the coils C increase the magnetic flux D save weight E prevent eddy currents ans: E Section: 31 11; Difficulty: E Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT 535

21 79 A generator supplies 100V to the primary coil of a transformer The primary has 50 turns and the secondary has 500 turns The secondary voltage is: A 1000 V B 500 V C 250 V D 100 V E 10V Section: 31 11; Difficulty: M 80 The resistance of the primary coil of a well-designed, 1 : 10 step-down transformer is 1Ω With the secondary circuit open, the primary is connected to a 12 V ac generator The primary current is: A essentially zero B about 12A C about 120A D depends on the actual number of turns in the primary coil E depends on the core material Section: 31 11; Difficulty: M 81 The primary of an ideal transformer has 100 turns and the secondary has 600 turns Then: A the power in the primary circuit is less than that in the secondary circuit B the currents in the two circuits are the same C the voltages in the two circuits are the same D the primary current is six times the secondary current E the frequency in the secondary circuit is six times that in the primary circuit Section: 31 11; Difficulty: M 82 The primary of a 3 : 1 step-up transformer is connected to a source and the secondary is connected to a resistor R The power dissipated by R in this situation is P If R is connected directly to the source it will dissipate a power of: A P/9 B P/3 C P D 3P E 9P Section: 31 11; Difficulty: M 536 Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT

22 83 In an ideal 1 : 8 step-down transformer, the primary power is 10kW and the secondary current is 25A The primary voltage is: A 25,600V B 3200 V C 400 V D 50V E 625 V Section: 31 11; Difficulty: M 84 A source with an impedance of 100 Ω is connected to the primary coil of a transformer and a resistance R is connected to the secondary coil If the transformer has 500 turns in its primary coil and 100 turns in its secondary coil the greatest power will be dissipated in the resistor if R =: A 0 B 025 Ω C 40 Ω D 50Ω E 100 Ω Section: 31 11; Difficulty: M Chapter 31: ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS & ALTERNATING CURRENT 537

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