# LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS. Laplace transformation It s a transformation method used for solving differential equation.

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1 LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS Laplace transformation It s a transformation method used for solving differential equation. Advantages The solution of differential equation using LT, progresses systematically. Initial conditions are automatically specified in transformed equation. The method gives complete solution in one operation. (Both complementary function and particular Integral in one operation) The Laplace Transform of a function, f(t), is defined as Where S is the complex frequency Condition for Laplace transform to exist is Unit step function,

2 Delta function ( ) Ramp function Laplace Transform of exponential function

3 ( ) ( )

4 Laplace transform of derivative Consider a function f(t) W K T Let ( ) * + In general Laplace Transform of Integration [ ] [ ]

5 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Laplace transform of some important functions

6 These equations tell us that transform of any function delayed to begin at time t=a, is times transform of the function when it begins at t=0. This is known as shifting theorem. Initial value Theorem It states that Proof Substituting in integration we have

7 Final value theorem Since s is not a function of t Letting s on LHS Hence Wave form synthesis Unit step function

8 Delayed unit step Delayed ve unit step

9 Waveform synthesis involving unit step function Rectangular pulse Laplace transform of periodic function Let f(t) be a periodic function with period T. Let f1(t),f2(t), f3(t).be the functions describing the

10 first cycle, second cycle, third cycle. Therefore by shifting theorem Rectangular wave of time period 2T

11 * + = * + Half cycle of sine wave ( ) ( ) Show that the transform of the square wave is

12 Ramp Function Ramp with slope A/T

13 Shifted ramp Shifted ramp with negative slope Addition of two ramp function Saw tooth waveform with slope A/T

14 For the waveform shown, show that the transform of this function is

15 Hence proved Triangular Waveform Trapezoidal wave

16 Find the Laplace transform of the waveform shown in figure Solution of networks using Laplace Transform 1) Consider a series RC network as shown in figure. It is assumed that the switch K is closed at t=0. Find the current flowing through the network. Solution Applying KVL, the equation for the circuit is The transform of the equation is If the capacitor is initially uncharged, the above equation reduces to the form Therefore

17 * + 2) Consider a series RL network as shown in figure. It is assumed that the switch K is closed at t=0. Find the current flowing through the network. Solution Applying KVL, the equation for the circuit is The corresponding transformed equation is Since i(0-)= 0, we have

18 To bring I(s) expression to the standard form, to take Laplace Inverse, let us apply partial fraction expansion for I(s) It can be found that A=V/L and B= Therefore ( ) 3) Consider a series RLC circuit with the capacitor initially charged to voltage V 0 =1 volt Solution By applying KVL, the differential equation of the circuit can be written as The corresponding Transformation equation is

19 Therefore * + Substituting R=1ohm, L=1H, C=1/2 F and V 0 =1 volt we have 4) In the circuit shown in figure, steady state is reached with switch K open. Obtain the expression for current when switch K is closed at t=0. Assume R1=1Ω,R2=1 Ω, L=1H V=10V. Ω Solution Applying KVL, with the switch is closed Taking Laplace transform of the above equation yields

20 Substituting the values of R1, L and i(0-) Applying Partial fraction Expansion Solving for A and B A=10 and B= Therefore 5) Derive the expression for current i(t) for the series RLC circuit shown. Assume zero initial conditions. Solution

21 The transformed equation is * + Where [( ) ] CASE 1: The roots are real and unequal CASE2: S1=S2 CASE 3 Therefore

22 The Transformed Networks The voltage current relation of network elements can also be represented in frequency domain. Resistor For a resistor, the voltage-current relationship is The Laplace transform of the above equation is Inductor For an inductor, the voltage-current relationship is The Laplace transform of the above equation is For an inductor, the voltage-current relationship can also be written as The Laplace transform of the above equation is

23 Equations (1) and (2) can be represented by the following circuits Capacitor For a capacitor the voltage-current relationship is Laplace transform of above equation voltage-current relationship can also be written as The Laplace transform of the above equation is Equations (3) and (4) can be represented by the following circuits

24 Determine the current in the inductor L1and L2 for the circuit shown below. The switch is closed at t=0 and the circuit has attained steady state before closing the switch. V1= 1 Volt, L1=2 H, L2=3 H, R1=R2=2Ω. Solution Before closing the switch the circuit has reached steady state. Hence the current through inductor L1 is = Hence the transformed network is shown below Therefore the loop equations are

25 By applying Cramer s rule By applying partial fraction expansion ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

26 Similarly By applying partial fraction expansion Therefore

27 Solution of networks with AC Excitation For the network shown in figure find the voltage across the capacitor when the switch is closed at t=0. Let R=2Ω, C=0.25 F and V(t)=0.5cost u(t) The transformed network is shown below. ( ) Since ( ) Voltage across the capacitor is given by

28 Equating the numerators Equating the coefficients of, we ve A=0.4 B=0.2 and C=-0.4 2)Determine the current in the network when the switch is closed at t=0. Assume v(t)= 50 sin 25t, R=10 ohms, and L=5 H. Solution The transformed network is shown. Hence Since ( )

29 By applying Partial fraction expansion 3)For the network shown in figure find v(t), if the switch is closed at t=0. The transformed network is

30 By applying partial fraction expansion Evaluating the constants we have

31 For the network shown the switch has been in open position for long time and it is closed at t=0. Find the voltage across the capacitor. The transformed network at t=0- is Let us find the solution of the circuit with switch K open. Therefore V(0+)=5 V When the switch is closed at t=0 the transformed network is

32 By applying KCL we have We find In the network shown the switch is opened at t=0. Steady state is reached before t=0. Find i(t)

33 Solution At t=0- the transformed network is Applying KVL for outer loop When the switch is opened the transformed network is ( )

34 The network shown in figure has attained steady state with switch K open. The switch is closed at t=0. Determine v(t) The transformed network before closing the switch is Writing the nodal equation for V(s)

35 Now writing the nodal equation for V(s)

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