An Investigation of the Relationship Between Learning-style and Temperament of Senior Highschool Students in the Bahamas and Jamaica

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1 Andrews University Digital Andrews University Master's Theses Graduate Research 1984 An Investigation of the Relationship Between Learning-style and Temperament of Senior Highschool Students in the Bahamas and Jamaica Owen Anthony Roberts Andrews University This research is a product of the graduate program in Educational Psychology MA at Andrews University. Find out more about the program. Follow this and additional works at: Recommended Citation Roberts, Owen Anthony, "An Investigation of the Relationship Between Learning-style and Temperament of Senior High-school Students in the Bahamas and Jamaica" (1984). Master's Theses This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Graduate Research at Digital Andrews University. It has been accepted for inclusion in Master's Theses by an authorized administrator of Digital Andrews University. For more information, please contact

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5 ROBERTS, OWEN ANTHONY AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEARNING STYLE AND TEMPERAMENT OF SENIOR HIGH-SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE BAHAMAS AND JAMAICA ANDREWS UNIVERSITY M.A University Microfiims International 300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, M I Copyright 1585 by ROBERTS, OWEN ANTHONY All Rights Reserved

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9 Andrews U n iv e r s ity School o f G raduate S tu d ies AN INVESTIGATION OP THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEARNING-STYLE AND TEMPERAMENT OF SENIOR HIGH-SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE BAHAMAS AND JAMAICA A Thesis P resented in P a r t i a l F u lf illm e n t o f the Requirem ents o f th e Degree M aster o f A rts by Owen Anthony Roberts August 1984

10 A 11 INVESTIGA.IION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEARNING STYLE AND lemp23am2nt OF SENIOR oigk-schocl STUDENTS IN THE BAHAMAS AND JAMAICA A t h e s is p re s e n te d in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e d eg ree E a s te r o f A rts by Owen Anthony R o b e rts APPROVAL a I THE CCNHIITSE: J e ro n e 'p. ih a y e r, PaCJE., Chairman W ilfr e d F u tc h e r, P h.d. -Z 2 X t M m :S r ± - M a r io n 'J. M e rc h a n t, Ph.D. l? -<+ D ate ^approve i

11 Q Copyright by Owen A. Roberts A ll Rights Reserved

12 ABSTRACT AN INVESTIGATION OP THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEARNING-STYLE AND TEMPERAMENT OP SENIOR HIGH-SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE BAHAMAS AND JAMAICA by Owen Anthony Roberts C hairm an: Jerome D. T h a ye r/ Ph.D.

13 ABSTRACT OP GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCH T h esis Andrews U n iv e r s ity School o f Education T i t l e : INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN L EARNING-S TYLE AND TEMPERAMENT OF SENIOR HIGH-SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE BAHAMAS AND JAMAICA Name o f re s e a rc h e r: Owen Anthony Roberts Name and degree o f f a c u lt y a d v is e r: Jerome D. T h a ye r/ Ph.D. D ate Com pleted: August 1984 Problem The purpose o f t h is stu d y was to d ete rm in e w h eth er s e n io r h ig h -s c h o o l s tu d e n ts ' temperaments a re co n sid ered a s ig n if ic a n t fa c to r which a f f e c t t h e i r l e a r n i n g - s t y l e. Mechod An e.:-p o s t fa c to re s e a rc h d esig n was used. Two s ta n d a rd iz e d in s tru m e n ts ( L e a rn in g S t y le and Temperament in v e n to r ie s ) were a d m in is te re d to a t o t a l o f 326 s e n io r h ig h -s c h o o l s tu d e n ts in th e Bahamas and J a m a ic a.

14 R e s u lts 1. S ig n if ic a n t c o r r e la tio n s were found between th e s c a le s o f th e L e a rn in g S t y le and Temperament in v e n t o r ie s. 2. Bach temperament type is c h a r a c te r iz e d by a l i n e a r com bination o f le a r n in g - s t y le v a r ia b le s. 3. D iffe r e n c e s e x i s t between (a ) males and fem ales on th e le a r n in g - s t y le v a r ia b le s / and (b) Bahamian and Jam aican s tu d e n ts on th e le a r n in g - s t y le and temperament v a r ia b le s. 4. A s ig n if ic a n t c a n o n ic a l c o r r e la t io n e x is t s between th e s c a le s o f Temperament and L e a rn in g S t y le in v e n t o r ie s. C onclusions 1. S tu den ts can i d e n t i f y t h e i r p r e fe r r e d s t y le o f le a r n in g. 2. S tu d e n ts ' le a r n in g - s t y le is a fu n c tio n o f t h e i r temperament ty p e. 3. Sex d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n should be c o n sid ered when a p p ly in g le a r n in g - s t y le s to in d iv id u a liz e d and group in s tr u e t io n s. 4. Demographic d iffe r e n c e s between the Bahamian and Jam aican s tu d e n ts c o n tr ib u te d to the d iffe r e n c e s in le a r n in g - s t y le s and tem peram ents.

15 TABLE OP CONTENTS L IS T OP F I G U R E S... v i i L IS T OP TABLES... v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT... x C h a p te r I. IN T R O D U C T IO N... 1 S tatem en t o f th e Problem... 2 Purpose o f th e S t u d y... 3 Need o f th e Study... 3 Background o f th e P r o b le m... 6 Jam aica... 7 Bahamas M o d e l-b u ild in g S tatem en ts H y p o t h e s e s D e f in it io n o f O p e ra tio n a l Terms E m o tio n a lity (N e u ro tic is m ) E x t r o v e r s io n /in tr o v e r s io n F i e l d Independence v ersu s F ie ld D e p e n d e n c e L e a r n in g -S ty le s S e n io r High S c h o o l Temperament D e lim it a t io n s o f th e S t u d y L im it a t io n s o f the S t u d y B a s ic Assumptions I I. REVIEW OF THE L IT E R A T U R E T h e o rie s and T h e o ris ts o f T e m p e ra m e n t Developm ent o f Temperament C o n s tru c t The c o n c e p t i o n The b i r t h o f modern t h o u g h t s F a c to r a n a ly t ic c o n tr ib u tio n s S u m m a ry Review o f th e R e le v a n t Dimensions o f T e m p e r a m e n t E x t r o v e r s io n -In tr o v e r s io n E x tro v e rs io n and b e h a v i o r i i i

16 E x tro v e rs io n and a ro u s a l E x tro v e rs io n and le a r n in g E x t r o v e r s io n -in tr o v e r s io n and fie ld -d e p e n d e n c e /fie ld -in d e p e n d e n c e E d u c a tio n a l and V o c a tio n a l Achievements o f E x tro v e rts and I n t r o v e r t s Academic perform ance V o c a tio n a l p re fe re n c e s S u m m ary E m o tio n a lity (N e u ro tic is m ) E m o tio n a lity and b e h a v io r E m o tio n a lity and a r o u s a l a b il i t y S um m ary T h e o rie s and T h e o ris ts o f L e a rn in g -S ty le.. 52 D ic tio n a r y D e f in it io n s The C o n tin e n ta l T r a d itio n The A nglo-a m erican T r a d itio n S y n th e tic Movements R e la te d Research on L e a rn in g -S ty le E n viro n m e n ta l Elem ents S o u n d L i g h t T e m p e r a t u r e D e s i g n E m o tio n al Elem ents M o t iv a tio n / p e r s is te n c e / and r e s p o n s ib lit y S t r u c t u r e S o c io lo g ic a l Elem ents P h y s ic a l Elem ents P e rc e p tu a l s t r e n g t h s I n t a k e T i m e M o b i l i t y S u m m a ry I I I. METHODOLOGY A p p r o a c h R esearch D e s ig n V a r i a b l e s Dependent v a r ia b le In d ependent v a r ia b le M o d erato r v a r ia b le s S e le c tio n o f S u b jec ts P o p u l a t i o n S a m p l e I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n R a tio n a le f o r th e Choice o f the I n s t r u n e n t s L e a r n in g -S ty le In v e n to ry R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y iv

17 Temperament I n v e n t o r y F ie ld Procedures f o r C o lle c tin g Data O b ta in in g P erm issio n and C o operation from th e M in is t r ie s o f Education in Jamaica and th e B a h a m a s O b ta in in g P erm issio n and C o operation o f P r in c ip a ls o f the Government High S chool3 S a m p l e d O b ta in in g S p e c ia l Perm ission and C o o p eratio n from th e Independent S cho ols S a m p l e d C o lle c tio n o f D a t a M o d e l-b u ild in g S tatem ents H y p o t h e s e s D ata A n a l y s i s S u m m ary IV. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF D A T A A n a ly s is o f Data and T e s tin g o f H ypothesis Z e ro -o rd e r C o r r e la tio n "Best" Subset A l g o r i t h m D e s c rip tio n o f a l l p o s s ib le subsets R e g re ss io n : "B est" subset com puter p r i n t o u t Data A n a l y s i s P re s e n ta tio n o f "Best" Subset Models... I l l D iscussion and Summary Model Model Model Model D is c rim in a n t A n a l y s i s H ypo th esis H ypoth esis H ypoth esis H ypothesis D iscussio n and S u m m a r y C ano n ical C o r r e la tio n H ypo th esis P re s e n ta tio n o f R e s u lt o f C anonical C o r r e la tio n A n a ly s is and Hypothesis D iscu ssio n and Summary G en era l Summary V. SLMMARY, CONCLUSIONS/ AND RECOMMENDATIONS S u m m ary Purpose o f the S t u d y The Review o f R e lated L it e r a t u r e and R e s e a r c h v

18 Research D esign/ P o p u la tio n / and I n s t r u n e n t a t i o n F in d in g s o f the S t u d y Z e r o -o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n "Best" subset a l g o r i t h m D is c rim in a n t a n a ly s is H yp o th esis H yp o th esis H ypo th esis H yp o th esis C a n o n ic al c o r r e la t io n H ypo th esis D is cu s s io n o f the f i n d i n g s C o n c l u s i o n I m p l i c a t i o n s Recommendations APPENDIX A : P ercentage passes in the GCB O 'le v e l and th e CXC e x a m in a t io n s APPENDIX B : I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f th e o r g a n iz a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e o f the e d u c a tio n a l system s o f the Bahamas and J a m a i c a APPENDIX C : Com parative i l l u s t r a t i o n o f le a r n in g - s t y le p a r a d i g m s APPENDIX D : S ta n d a rd ize d in s tru m e n ts used in d a ta c o l l e c t i o n APPENDIX E : C o rre s p o n d e n c e APPENDIX F : In t e r c o r r e la t io n m a trix B IB L IO G R A P H Y v i

19 L IS T OP FIGURES 1. R e la tio n s h ip between th e C la s s ic a l Four Temperaments and R e s u lts o f Modern F a c to r A n a ly tic Methods o f P e r s o n a lity D e s c rip tio n Graph on Arousal and Perform ance LSI and TI_ C o r r e la tio n s Which Are S ig n if ic a n t "Best" Subset Model S e le c tio n v i i

20 L IS T OP TABLES 1. D ic tio n a r y D e f in it io n s o f In d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n and R e la te d E d u c a tio n a l Im p lic a tio n s C o n tin e n ta l European T r a d itio n o f Learning T h e o r y A nglo-a m erican T r a d itio n o f Learning Theory Movements Towards S yn th es is o f C o n tin e n ta l and Anglo-A m erican T r a d itio n s o f Learning T h e o rie s L i s t o f High School A ccording to L o c a tio n / Ownership# and G eo g rap h ic al Area L S I T e s t/r e te s t R e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r 100 S u b je c ts Z e ro -O rd e r C o r r e la tio n C o e ffic ie n t s o f S e le c te d T I and L S I V a r ia b le s "B est" S ig n if ic a n t L S I D e s c rip to rs o f M e la n c h o lic s "B est" S ig n if ic a n t L S I D e s c rip to rs o f C h o l e r i c s "B est" S ig n if ic a n t L S I D e s c rip to rs o f P h le g m a tic s "B e3t" S ig n if ic a n t L S I D e s c rip to rs o f Sanguines Comparison o f LSI D e s c rip to rs o f w ith Each T I V a r ia b le S ta n d a rd ize d D is c rim in a n t F u n c tio n o f LSI V a r ia b le s in D is c r im in a tin g between MaTes and Females S ta n d a rd ize d D is c rim in a n t F u n c tio n o f LSI V a r ia b le s in D is c r im in a tin g between Jamaican and Bahamian S tu dents v i i i

21 15. S ta n d a rd ize d D is c rim in a n t F u n ctio n o f TI_ V a ria b le s in D is c rim in a tin g between Jamaican and Bahamian S t u d e n t s Comparison o f LSI and TI_ V a r ia b le s as They D is c rim in a te between Sexes and Is la n d s C an on ical C o r r e la tio n and B a r t l e t t ' s t e s t o f S ig n ific a n c e C an on ical C o r r e la tio n o f L S I and TI_ V a r ia b le s ix

22 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Any s c h o la s tic e f f o r t is a p ro d u c t o f the c o n tr ib u tio n o f many p e o p le. T h is th e s is is no e x c e p tio n. So many in d iv id u a ls have c o n trib u te d to th is stu dy d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y and w ith o u t t h e i r h e lp and encouragement t h i s stu d y could n o t have m a te r ia liz e d in i t s p re s e n t fo rm. I t is w ith h e a r t f e l t g r a t it u d e / th e r e fo r e / th a t I acknow ledge th e fo llo w in g persons: D r. Jerome D. Thayer f o r h is e x p l i c i t and d i l i g e n t e f f o r t s as th e s is chairm an and academ ic a d v is o r. A s p e c ia l thanks to D r. W ilfr e d G. A. B utcher f o r h is i n s p ir a t io n / g u id a n c e / e x p e r tis e / and u n tir in g e f f o r t s as com m ittee member and p ro fe s s o r. D r. M arion Merchant f o r h er encouragement and h e lp fu l in p u t as com m ittee member. M in is t r y o f E d u c a tio n / Jam aica/ w ith s p e c ia l m ention to Mr. C e c il T u rn e r/ Permanent S e c re ta ry / M rs. P h y llis C a r g i l l / A c tin g C h ie f E v a lu a tio n O f f i c e r / and Mrs. Faye Green f o r t h e i r c o -o p e ra tio n and support in e x e c u tin g t h is s tu d y. M in is t r y o f E d u c a tio n / Bahamas/ w ith s p e c ia l m ention to th e Permanent S e c re ta ry and Mrs. C aro lyn Hanna f o r t h e i r c o -o p e ra tio n and s u p p o rt. x

23 P r in c ip a ls, te a c h e rs, and s tu d e n ts o f th e p a r t i c i p a t i n g s ch o o ls f o r t h e i r c o -o p e ra tio n and c o u r te s ie s extended d u rin g th e c o lle c t io n o f d a ta. A s p e c ia l thanks to John C arey f o r h is su p p o rt and in v a lu a b le tim e expended in c o lle c t in g d a ta f o r t h i s s tu d y in th e Bahamas. D r. R obert C ru is e, D r. G ertru d e Jo rd an, and M rs. V iv ia n A h le rs f o r t h e i r f r i e n d l y encouragem ent, v a lu a b le s u g g e s tio n s, and s u p p o rt. P erso n nel o f James W hite L ib r a r y, Andrews U n iv e r s ity, f o r t h e i r h e lp i n lo c a tin g the l i t e r a t u r e reso u rce f o r t h is s tu d y. P erson n el o f th e academ ic computing and s t a t i s t i c a l com puting s e r v ic e s, Andrews U n iv e r s ity, f o r t h e i r te c h n ic a l h e lp. M rs. Joyce Jones f o r h e r e d i t o r i a l e x p e r t is e. P a s to r and M rs. M elbourne fo r t h e i r f r i e n d l y encouragem ent and counsel d u rin g our s ta y a t Andrews U n iv e r s it y. A v e r y s p e c ia l bouquet f o r the th re e most im p o rta n t persons who have g iv e n me th e reason to s t r i v e f o r e x c e lle n c e. My m o th e r, f o r h e r lo v e, encouragem ent, p r a y e r s, and f in a n c ia l su p p o rt d u rin g the p u r s u it o f my c a r e e r ; S h e ila, my w if e, f o r h er lo v e, p a tie n c e, u n d e rs ta n d in g, and e d i t o r i a l and ty p in g s k i l l s ; and Jerem y, x i

24 my sori/ f o r h is p a tie n c e and u n d erstan d in g w h ile dad was s tu d y in g. God is good and I th a n k Him fo r p ro v id in g me th e c h a lle n g e / s tr e n g th / and w i l l n e c e s s a ry to see t h i s p a p e r and program th ro u g h to the en d. May t h i s s tu d y e n r ic h s tu d e n ts and e d u c a to rs who a re engaged in making e d u c a tio n more m e an in g fu l and e n ric h in g to the q u a l i t y o f the e d u c a tio n a l e x p e rie n c e s in West In d ia n s c h o o ls. x i i

25 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The s u b je c t o f l e a r n i n g - s t y l e has been the to p ic o f many re s e a rc h s tu d ie s / e d u c a tio n a l c o n fe re n c e s / and te a c h e r-fo ru m s d u rin g the p a s t f o r t y y e a rs. However/ d u rin g the l a s t decade th e re has been a re n ais sa n c e in e d u c a tio n a l re s e a rc h which fo cuses on the need fo r in d iv id u a liz in g in s t r u c t io n a t the e le m e n ta ry and secondary l e v e l s. T h is a re a o f s tu d y has p ro v id e d much in fo rm a tio n t h a t has proven u s e fu l to te a c h e rs / c o u n s e lo rs / e d u c a tio n s p e c i a li s t s / and e d u c a to rs. The s u b je c t o f tem peram ent has a ls o re c e iv e d much a t t e n t i o n. S e v e ra l s tu d ie s have in d ic a te d th a t an i n d i v i d u a l 's temperament is a m a jo r f a c t o r in in flu e n c in g h is /h e r a t t i t u d e s / in t e r e s t s / and g e n e ra l l i f e - s t y l e. Much o f th e re s e a rc h c o n cern in g le a r n in g - s t y le and tem peram ent/ however/ has focused on the N o rth American p o p u la tio n. T h is p re s e n t stu d y i s concerned w ith the r e la t i o n s h i p between temperament and le a r n in g - s t y le o f g ra d es 11 and 12 Jamaican and Bahamian s e n io r h ig h -s c h o o l s tu d e n ts w ith im p lic a tio n s f o r s c h o la s tic p erform ance/

26 te a c h in g m e th o d o lo g ie s / c a r e e r g u id a n c e / and te a c h e r e d u c a tio n. 2 S ta te m e n t o f th e Problem The problem to which t h is re s e a rc h addresses i t s e l f is th a t o f in v e s tig a tin g the r e la t io n s h ip between temperament and le a r n in g - s t y le o f g rad es 11 and 12 Jamaican and Bahamian s e n io r h ig h -s c h o o l s tu d e n ts. The aim o f t h is s tu d y is to p ro v id e an u n d e rstan d in g as to how a r e p r e s e n ta tiv e sample o f th e p o p u la tio n o f stu d e n ts le a r n / and to en ab le b e t t e r p la n n in g by te a c h e rs and school c o u n selo rs w ith re g a rd s to program p la ce m en t/ in s t r u c t io n a l s t r a t e g ie s / and c a re e r g u id a n ce. The ta s k o f e d u c a tin g youths to be fu n c tio n a l l i t e r a t e s in o rd e r to f i l l the employment needs o f these young d e v e lo p in g West In d ia n com m unities i s a c h a lle n g in g one which r e q u ir e s educated p la n n in g and s t r a t e g ie s. E f f o r t s a re b ein g made on th e p a r t o f the Jamaican and Bahamian governm ents to meet the c o n tin u in g c h a lle n g e / p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the p rim a ry and secondary l e v e ls. The problem o f f i t t i n g youths f o r h ig h e r s c h o la s tic perform ances and u lt im a t e ly f o r the w o rld o f work w i l l be made e a s ie r and more e f f e c t i v e i f the ed u cato rs o f the West In d ie s a re aware o f the p e rs o n a liz e d ways in which s tu d e n ts le a r n and how le a r n in g is a ffe c te d by modes o f tem peram ent. By t h is aw areness/ program o f f e r in g s and teach in g m eth o do lo g ies can be designed to m eet the needs o f

27 3 s tu d e n ts. In a d d it io n, s tu d e n ts cou ld be channeled through c a r e e r guidance to pursue c a re e rs c o m p a tib le w ith t h e i r p e r s o n a litie s and n a tio n a l p ro fe s s io n a l needs and in t e r e s t s. S ince no p re v io u s s tu d ie s have been done to in v e s tig a te th e r e la t io n s h ip o f tem peram ent to le a r n in g - s t y le o f Jamaican and Bahamian s e n io r h ig h school s tu d e n ts, th e p re s e n t stu d y c o u ld prove u s e fu l to e d u c a tio n a l p la n n ers f o r th e secondary l e v e l and secondary te a c h e r e d u c a tio n. Purpose o f th e S tudy The purpose o f t h i s re s e a rc h was to in v e s tig a te w h ether g rade 11 and 12 Jam aican and Bahamian s e n io r h ig h - school s tu d e n ts ' temperament had a s ig n if ic a n t r e la t io n s h ip w ith t h e ir l e a r n i n g - s t y l e, and w hether temperament and le a r n in g - s t y le d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the sexes and between Jamaican and Bahamian s tu d e n ts. Need f o r the Study In d iv id u a liz in g o r p e rs o n a liz in g in s tr u c t io n s im p ly focuses th e emphasis o f the in s t r u c t io n a l process on each in d iv id u a l s tu d e n t h is /h e r s k i l l s, a b i l i t i e s, i n t e r e s t s, l e a r n in g - s t y le s, m o tiv a tio n, g o a ls, r a t e o f le a r n in g, s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e, p ro b le m -s o lv in g a b i l i t y, d e g ree o f r e t e n t io n, p a r t i c i p a t i o n, s tr e n g th s, weaknesses, and prognosis f o r moving ahead in v a rio u s c u rric u lu m area s and p r o je c ts. The te a c h e r becomes more p r o fe s s io n a l and assumes th e fu n c tio n s

28 4 o f le a r n in g f a c i l i t a t o r / g u id e / c o n s u lta n t/ p ro fe s s io n a l d ia g n o s tic ia n and p r e s c r ib e r o f le a r n in g re s o u rc e s / a c t i v i t i e s / e v a lu a tio n p ro c e d u re s / and t o t a l le a rn in g packages f o r each s tu d e n t. The process p la c e s more respons i b i l i t y f o r le a r n in g on the s tu d e n t and makes b e t t e r use o f h i s /h e r in d iv id u a l in t e r e s t s / g o a ls / and s tr e n g th s. Once Bahamian and Jam aican e d u c a to rs in g e n e ra l re co g n ize t h a t c h ild r e n a re d i f f e r e n t from each o th e r in t h e i r a b i l i t y to le a r n / t h e i r in t e r e s t s and m o tiv a tio n / t h e i r a b i l i t y to s u s ta in c o n c e n tra tio n and be s e l f - d is c ip lin e d / and in t h e i r p e rc e p tu a l s tre n g th s and w eaknesses/ th e y would be one s te p on t h e i r way to b e tte r understand each c h i l d 's p e c u lia r l e a r n i n g - s t y l e. E v e n tu a lly / th e y would g e ar in s t r u c t io n and the t o t a l le a rn in g environm ent to e f f e c t i v e l y f u l f i l l the needs and in t e r e s t s o f each c h i ld. The need f o r in d iv id u a liz in g in s t r u c t io n has been a p p a re n t f o r many y e a rs. The process o f a c h ie v in g i t / however/ is le s s obvious and n o t f u l l y r e a l i z e d. Schools th ro u g h o u t the E n g lis h -s p e a k in g West In d ie s seem to be d e f i n i t e l y in need o f an educated d ia g n o s tic and p r e s c r ip t iv e approach to le a rn in g and the t o t a l e d u ca tio n o f t h e i r yo uths in o rd e r to a c h ie v e fo u r m ajo r g o a ls : 1. To p ro v id e an e d u c a tio n a l environm ent in which le a r n in g can be in d iv id u a liz e d : t h a t i s / each s tu d e n t become an a c t iv e p a r t ic ip a n t in the e d u c a tio n a l process which changes and shapes h is /h e r b e h a v io r by v ir t u e o f

29 h i s /h e r in te r e s ts # s k i l l s # a b i l i t i e s # 1e a r n i n g - s t y l e # m o tiv a tio n # p e rs o n a l and s o c ia l g oals# r a t e o f le a rn in g # and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e. 2. To make le a r n in g e x p e rie n c e s more c r e a t iv e and s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g as a means to f a c i l i t a t e i n t r i n s i c m o tiv a tio n and m axim ize e d u c a tio n a l achievem ent f o r each s tu d e n t. 3. To be used as a to o l by e d u c a tio n a l p la n n e rs and p r a c t it io n e r s in s te e r in g the e d u c a tio n a l p o lic ie s # program, and processes o f th e school system in f u l f i l l i n g p e rs o n a l and n a tio n a l needs. 4. To g iv e a more d e f i n i t e meaning to a c c u ltu r a te d West In d ia n e d u c a tio n as opposed to the t r a d i t i o n a l# neoc o lo n ia l B r it is h - o r ie n t e d e d u c a tio n. A l a t e r c h a p te r d e s c rib e s how an u n d erstan d in g o f s tu d e n ts ' le a r n in g - s t y le and temperament can c o n tr ib u te to a c h ie v in g these g o a ls. F in a lly # one l a s t p o in t must be made to f u r t h e r s u b s ta n tia te the need f o r th is s tu d y. For many y e a rs now th e re has been a grow ing concern by s tu d en ts# p a ren ts# te a ch e rs # and the M in is t r ie s o f Education w ith re g a rd s to the h ig h p e rce n ta g e o f f a i l u r e s in the G eneral C e r t i f i c a t e o f E ducatio n (GCE) e x a m in a tio n O rd in a ry l e v e l and more r e c e n t ly th e C aribbean E xam ination C o u n c il (CXC) G e n e ra l and Basic e x a m in a tio n s. The s t a t i s t i c s o f Jam aican s tu d e n ts in appendix A in d ic a t e th a t# f o r the y e a rs # the median p e rce n ta g e pass fo r the s u b je c ts l i s t e d in

30 6 th e appendix f o r the GCE O 'L e v e l is p e r c e n t, w h ile on th e CXC f o r th e p e rio d i t is p e r c e n t. The e x te n t to w hich such academ ic perform ance ( i. e., th e h ig h r a t e o f f a i l u r e in th e GCE and CXC) is the r e s u l t o f a s in g le v a r ia b le o r a s e t o f v a r ia b le s is undeterm in ed (UNESCO R e p o rt, 1983, pp ). However, t h i s s tu d y has proposed th a t an u n d erstan d in g and a p p lic a tio n o f le a r n in g - s t y le p r in c ip le s may h e lp to im prove the c u r r e n t academic tr e n d. Background o f the Problem An o v erv iew o f th e seco n d a ry-sc h o o l system in Jam aica and the Bahamas puts in to c o n te x t the problem which is the focus o f th is s tu d y. T h is d is c u s s io n i s l im it e d to Jam aica and the Bahamas sin ce th e y were the two is la n d s s e le c te d f o r the s tu d y and a re r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f th e so cioeconom ic, c u l t u r a l, p o l i t i c a l, and e d u c a tio n a l mosaic o f West In d ia n l i f e. For c l a r i t y, i t must be understood th a t th e re s e a rc h e r has no in te n tio n to equ ate Jamaica + Bahamas = West In d ie s, n o r is the west In d ia n community homogenous so th a t i t can be d e fin e d w ith re s p e c t to two West In d ia n n a tio n s. In s te a d, th e re s e a rc h e r having liv e d in both c o u n trie s and being exposed to many o th e r West In d ia n is la n d s assumed th a t b o th c o u n trie s to g e th e r possess s u f f i c i e n t s ig n if ic a n t c h a r a c t e r is t ic s w hich a re common to E n g lis h -s p e a k in g West In d ia n is la n d s.

31 7 Jam aica A s a l i e n t and s t r i k i n g fe a tu r e o f secondary e d u c a tio n in Jamaica is i t s m u l t i p l i c i t y o f form s. One fin d s n o t one b u t s e v e ra l secondary system s. These a re th e High S ch o o ls, th e A ll-a g e S cho ols, th e A g r ic u ltu r a l High S ch o o ls, and th e Trade and V o c a tio n a l S chools. Bach one o f these types o f secondary sch oo ls c a te r s to a d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t e l e, has a d i f f e r e n t c u rric u lu m and d i f f e r e n t e n tra n c e re q u ire m e n ts, and o f f e r s d i f f e r e n t chances o f e m p lo y a b ility and t r a i n a b i l i t y to g rad es 11 and 12 le a v e r s. The reason fo r th is d i v e r s i t y can be a t t r ib u t e d to the h i s t o r i c a l develo p n ent o f e d u c a tio n in Jam aica, alo n g w ith th e p re s s in g s o c ia l demands o f the p a s t ten to f i f t e e n y e a rs. H i s t o r i c a l l y, the C h r is tia n church has played a m ajor r o le i n the d e ve lo p n e n t o f e d u c a tio n in Jam aica. Through i t s le a d e r s h ip, e d u c a tio n developed and grew in to the e le m e n ta ry -s c h o o l system, l a t e r taken o ver by the governm ent. Secondary, fe e -c h a rg in g p r iv a te schools grew from the need to educate the c h ild r e n o f the upper and m id d le c la s s who could n o t go "Home", i. e., to Europe, to s c h o o l. T h is d u a l system o f e d u c a tio n con tin u ed f o r some tim e and i t s in flu e n c e is s t i l l being f e lt, a lth o u g h many changes have been in s t i t u t e d w ith in the l a s t c e n tu ry. The p re s e n t A ll-a g e School is a tr u e descendant o f the e le m e n ta ry school and the High School has as i t s a n c e s to r the c la s s i c a l- o r ie n t e d, academ ic, fe e -c h a rg in g s c h o o l.

32 8 O r i g in a l l y, many o f th ese sch o o ls were run by churches and t r u s t s. I n i t i a l l y a id e d by g ra n ts from the g overnm ent, th e y were l a t e r c o m p le te ly funded by th e governm ent. The in flu e n c e o f th e o r i g i n a l bodies (c h u rc h o r t r u s t ) can now o n ly be f e l t th ro u g h th e co m p o sitio n o f th e school boards and the im p act o f th e board i t s e l f on the l i f e o f the s c h o o l. For many y e a rs, th e c u rric u lu m o f the High Schools was s tr o n g ly in flu e n c e d by what was ta u g h t in th e school system in E n g la n d --L a tin, F ren ch, E n g lis h, h is t o r y, geography, and some s c ie n c e. At the end o f f i v e y e a rs, the s tu d e n ts s a t f o r th e coveted Cambridge School C e r t i f i c a t e O rd in a ry Level and a mere h an d fu l went on to th e Cambridge H ig h e r School C e r t i f i c a t e w hich was ta k en two y ea rs l a t e r. N a t u r a lly, o v e r th e y e a rs, th e r e has been a s h i f t tow ards a more West In d ia n -o r ie n te d c u r r ic u lu m. In th e l a t e 1950s, s o c ia l p re ss u re s and the commitment o f the M in is te r o f Education to expand secondary e d u c a tio n le d to an in tr o d u c tio n o f the Common E ntrance E xam in atio n by w hich many more c h ild r e n aged 11+ were g iv e n th e o p p o rtu n ity f o r p o s t-p rim a ry e d u c a tio n. The m a jo r it y o f c h ild r e n aged were s t i l l in th e A ll-a g e S ch o o ls. From the p o s t-e m a n c ip a tio n p e r io d, e d u c a to rs in Jam aica have been concerned w ith a g r ic u lt u r e and te c h n ic a l e d u c a tio n. I t was f e l t t h a t in a th en p re d o m in a n tly a g r i c u l t u r a l c o u n try, a g r ic u lt u r e should be ta u g h t a t a l l l e v e l s, b u t j u s t how and to what end was never c l e a r l y

33 9 s ta te d. I t was n o t u n t i l the 1920s and 1930s th a t th e re was any a l l - o u t a tte m p t to in tro d u c e te c h n ic a l e d u c a tio n a t th e secondary l e v e l. The tremendous grow th in te c h n o lo g y th ro u g h o u t the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n trie s had in e v it a b ly a f f e c t e d J am a ica. S k i l l e d workmen were needed to s e rv ic e and r e p a ir m ach in ery and o th e r tr a in e d persons were r e q u ire d to f i l l jo b s in in d u s tr y. In the 1960s / the d e v e lo p n e n t o f in d u s tr y w ith i t s jo b o p p o r tu n itie s f o r a w ide v a r i e t y o f te c h n ic ia n s found the c o u n try s e r io u s ly la c k in g in these a r e a s. The e x is tin g secondary te c h n ic a l s ch o o ls had to be u p -g rad ed and o th e r te c h n ic a l sch o o ls had to be b u i l t to s a t i s f y t h i s need. Because o f the d e s ir e f o r secondary e d u c a tio n / p r iv a t e sch o o ls have alw ays flo u ris h e d in Jam aica. They run the gamut from v e ry bad to e x c e lle n t. They a re c a lle d "independ ent" because th e y g e t no g ra n t from the government b u t have to s u b s is t e n t i r e l y on fe e s paid by the p u p ils. The b e t t e r schools can u s u a lly a t t r a c t w e l l - q u a l i f i e d te a c h e rs by paying h ig h e r s a la r ie s than the p u b lic schoo ls p lu s o th e r p e r q u is ite s to boost s a l a r i e s. N o rm a lly / the fe e s charged by th ese sch o o ls a re c o rre s p o n d in g ly h ig h. In th e p o o rer s c h o o ls / th e q u a l i t y o f the te a c h e rs le a v e s much to be d e s ir e d. P r e v io u s ly / th e re was l i t t l e o r no governm ent c o n tr o l o f th ese s ch o o ls / b u t w ith in c re a se d s t a f f in th e M in is t r y / th e re has been a d eterm ined e f f o r t to ensure th a t adequate e d u c a tio n a l s ta n d ard s be m a in ta in e d. In 1973/ th e Independent Schools R e g u latio n

34 10 was passed. This is an a tte m p t " to g u aran tee th a t e d u c a tio n o f equal q u a l it y is a v a ila b le to e v e ry c h ild (P rim e M in is te r 1 2 /1 1 / )". A l l independent schools have to a p p ly to be r e g is t e r e d. They a re v is it e d an d / i f ap pro ved, th e y a re then r e g is te r e d. W ith the g ra n tin g o f independence in th e 1960s, the need f o r u n ify in g the people became even more u rg e n t. E ducatio n i t s e l f w ith i t s d u a l system had been a d iv is iv e f a c t o r. The Common E ntrance Exam ination had made i t p o s s ib le f o r a grow ing number o f c h ild r e n to go to Secondary High School b u t th is b e n e fite d m a in ly m id d le c la s s s tu d e n ts. The p ressu re fo r more seco n d ary-sch o o l p laces in c re a s e d. There were a few S e n io r Schools where some secondary work was being ta u g h t. T h is was not enough. In 1967, about f o r t y J u n io r Secondary Schools (g rad es 7-9 ) were c re a te d to g iv e more p u p ils drawn from a w ider s o c ia l sp ectru n the o p p o rtu n ity f o r secondary e d u c a tio n. The c u rric u lu m in these schoo ls was designed to g iv e s tu d en ts some academic and some v o c a tio n a l t r a in in g in p re p a ra tio n fo r the w orld o f w o rk. These s tu d e n ts would n o rm a lly le a v e the system a f t e r grade 9, b u t the Grade Nine Achievement T e s t, a t th a t tim e, allo w ed a few s tu d e n ts to e n te r High Sc hoo ls. In the 1970s, a lth o u g h em ployers were d e sp e ra te fo r s k i l l e d w o rke rs, te c h n ic ia n s, and a l l c a te g o rie s o f w o rk e rs, the products o f the e d u c a tio n a l system were unable to supply these needs e it h e r q u a l i t a t i v e l y or

35 11 q u a n t i t a t i v e l y. New s tr a te g ie s were needed. In 1974/ grades 10 and 11 were added to the J u n io r Secondary Schools which were renamed New Secondary S ch o o ls. The c u rric u lu m fo r these two grades had been c a r e f u lly p re p are d by the M in is t r y. T h is was a s e t o f g u id e lin e s based on v o c a tio n a l and p re v o c a tio n a l c h o ic e s. The in t e g r a t io n o f work and stu d y was the b a s is o f th is program. P ro b ab ly the s in g le most ap p are n t weakness o f th is system was the la c k o f a u n if ie d / c le a r l y d e fin e d secondary c u rric u lu m / which re s u lte d in a number o f e d u c a tio n a l m a lp ra c tic e s (UNESCO R eport Jam aica: D evelopnent o f Secondary E d u c atio n / A p r il 1983/ p. 6-7 ). In appendix B is i l l u s t r a t e d th e o r g a n iz a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e o f the Jamaican e d u c a tio n a l system. Bahamas The o v erv iew o f the seco n dary-sch o ol system in the Bahamas is based on two a v a ila b le so u rces. The Bahamian secondary-school system faced the in h e re n t e d u c a tio n a l drawbacks and impediments o f an a lie n system which narrowed le a rn in g and le a rn in g e x p e rie n c e s to the t r a d i t i o n a l c o lo n ia l id e a ls ( W hite P ap er on E d u c a tio n / ). S tep s a re being taken a t p re s e n t to d evelo p a system which embraces a p h ilo so p h y which is c h a r a c t e r is t ic o f the n a t io n 's id e a ls / v a lu e s / b e l i e f s / and custom s. C u r r e n tly / the M in is tr y o f Education and C u ltu re is ta k in g d e c is iv e s te p s to d evelo p a u n ifie d com prehensive

36 12 and f l e x i b l e secondary c u rric u lu m fo r New Providence and th e fa m ily is la n d s (S eco n d ary-s ch o o l S y lla b i and Bahamas J u n i o r - C e r t i f i c a t e S y l l a b i ). The sec o n d a ry-sc h o o l system is d iv id e d in to two le v e ls : J u n io r Secondary Schools and S e n io r High S cho ols. The b a s ic c h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f the ju n io r s e c o n d a ry-sc h o o ls a re : 1. There is no s e le c tio n fo r e n tr y to ju n io r s e c o n d a ry -s c h o o l. 2. A l l p u p ils a t the ju n io r secondary s ta g e are p ro v id ed w ith the same b a s ic c u rric u lu m and le a rn in g e x p e rie n c e s w hich a re a c o n tin u a tio n o f p rim a ry e d u c a tio n. The o v e r a ll c u rric u lu m aim here rem ains the c o n tin u a tio n o f a g e n e ra l e d u c a tio n fo r a l l p u p ils. 3. At th e end o f the ju n io r secondary s ta g e, th e re a re n a tio n a l e x a m in a tio n s (Bahamas J u n io r C e r t i f i c a t e, B JC), t e s t in g, and assessm ents o f a tta in m e n t, in t e r e s t s, and p o t e n t ia l fo r a l l p u p ils. Th is a s s is ts the t r a n s f e r to and p ro v is io n o f p ro p e r p re -v o c a tio n a l e d u c a tio n in s e n io r High S chools. The aim s o f the s e n io r High Schools is to p ro v id e s tu d e n ts w ith a v a r i e t y o f im m ediate g o a ls and e x p e rien ce s so as to h e lp them i d e n t i f y and d e v e lo p t h e i r needs, i n t e r e s t s, t a l e n t s, and a b i l i t i e s, b e a rin g in mind the socio-econom ic needs o f the n a tio n. The s e n io r High Schools have th e fo llo w in g b a s ic g o a ls :

37 13 1. The programs o f these s ch o o ls a re endeavoring to c a te r to th e com plete range o f a b i l i t i e s and a p titu d e s so t h a t th e y r e f l e c t and a d m in is te r to th e needs and a s p ir a tio n s o f the lo w e r stra tu m o f the s o c ie ty. 2. The programs p ro v id e e x p e rie n c e s w hich in c lu d e academic and f in e a r t s courses as w e ll as p r e -v o c a tio n a l e x p e rie n c e s. 3. At th e end o f the s e n io r high sch o o l s ta g e, p u p ils a re re q u ire d to w r it e the G en eral C e r t i f i c a t e o f E ducatio n e x a m in atio n (GCE) O rd in a ry L evel ( W hite P aper on E d u c a tio n / ). In appendix B is i l l u s t r a t e d the o r g a n iz a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e o f the Bahamian e d u c a tio n a l system. Both e d u c a tio n a l systems a re under e x te n s iv e r e v is io n so as to make each one more e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e in acco m p lish in g i t s r e s p e c tiv e g o a ls. In acc o m p lish in g the o b je c t iv e o f t h is study fo u r m o d e l-b u ild in g s ta te m e n ts and f i v e re s e a rc h hypotheses were fo rm u la te d. The fo u r m o d e l-b u ild in g s ta te m e n ts examine the l i n e a r c o n b in a tio n s o f le a rn in g s t y le v a r ia b le s which "best" d e s c rib e each temperament v a r ia b le, nam ely, m e la n c h o lic, c h o le r ic, p h le g m a tic, and s an g u in e. The f i v e hypotheses a re te s te d in o rd e r to d e te rm in e i f s ig n if ic a n t d iffe r e n c e s and r e la t io n s h ip s e x i s i t between the le a rn in g s t y le v a r ia b le s and th e temperament v a r ia b le s.

38 14 M o d e l-b u ild in g S ta te m en ts 1. There is a s ig n if ic a n t l i n e a r c o n b in a tio n o f le a r n in g s ty le v a r ia b le s which b e s t d e s c rib e s m e la n c h o lie s. 2. There is a s i g n if ic a n t l i n e a r com bination o f le a r n in g - s t y le v a r ia b le s which b e s t d e s c rib e s c h o le r ic s. 3. There is a s ig n if ic a n t l i n e a r com b in atio n o f le a r n in g - s t y le v a r ia b le s which b e st d e s c rib e s p h le g m a tic s. 4. There is a s i g n if ic a n t l i n e a r com bination o f le a r n in g - s t y le v a r ia b le s which b e s t d e s c rib e s san g u in es. Hypotheses 1. There is a l i n e a r com bination o f the le a r n in g - s t y le v a r ia b le s w hich s i g n i f i c a n t l y d is c r im in a te s between males and fem ales in grades 11 and There is a lin e a r com bination o f the temperament v a r ia b le s which s i g n i f i c a n t l y d is c r im in a te s between males and fem ales in grades 11 and There is a li n e a r com bination o f the le a r n in g - s t y le v a r ia b le s w hich s i g n i f i c a n t l y d is c r im in a te s between Bahamian and Jam aican s tu d e n ts in grades 11 and There is a li n e a r com bination o f the temperament v a r ia b le s w hich s ig n i f i c a n t l y d is c r im in a te s between Bahamian and Jam aican s tu d e n ts in grades 11 and There is a s ig n if ic a n t r e la tio n s h ip between th e temperament and le a r n in g - s t y le o f Bahamian and Jam aican s e n io r h ig h -s c h o o l s tu d en ts in grades 11 and 12.

39 15 Bach re s e a rc h h y p o th esis was te s te d s t a t i s t i c a l l y to d eterm in e w h ether o r n o t d iffe r e n c e s e x is te d. D e f i n i t i o n o f O p e ra tio n a l Terms E m o tio n a lity (N e u ro tic is m ) E m o tio n a lity is a p e r s o n a lit y t r a i t which r e f e r s to th e degree o f s e n s iv it y c o n tr o lle d by th e neuro-horm onal mechanism o f an in d iv id u a l in response to in t e r n a l o r e x te r n a l s tim u la tio n. Eysenck and Eysenck ( ) in d ic a te d t h a t such s e n s i t i v i t y may be p r e d is p o s itio n and hence is lin k e d to h e r e d ita r y. Ex tr o v e r s io n /In tr o v e r s io n E x tro v e rs io n and In tr o v e r s io n a re two extrem e phenomena alo ng a continuum which o p e ra te s as a fu n c tio n o f p e r s o n a lity. T h e ir te n d e n c ie s appear e a r l i e r in c h ild h o o d and evid en ce more s t a b i l i t y through the developm ental y e a r s. The ty p ic a l e x t r o v e r t is o u tg o in g / th a t i s, s o c ia b le / has many f r ie n d s / needs to have people to t a l k to / is g ro u p -o rie n te d / c rav e s e x c ite m e n t/ is im p u ls iv e / c a r e fr e e / o p t im is t ic / h ig h ly k in e s t h e t ic / tends to be a g g re s s iv e, and does n o t keep h is fe e lin g s under t i g h t c o n t r o l. The ty p ic a l i n t r o v e r t is re s e rv e d / th a t i s / a r e t i r i n g s o r t o f p erso n / in t r o s p e c t iv e / fond o f books r a th e r than p e o p le / is n o t im p u ls iv e / takes m a tte rs o f eve ry d ay l i f e w ith p ro p e r s e rio u s n e s s / keeps h is fe e lin g s

40 16 under c lo se c o n tr o l/ is r e l i a b l e / somewhat p e s s im is tic / and p la c e s g r e a t v a lu e on e t h ic a l s ta n d a rd s. F ie ld Independence versus F ie ld Dependence F ield -in d ep en d en ce is an a n a ly t ic a l approach in p e rc e iv in g item s o r elem ents as d is c r e te from t h e i r backgrounds and th e r e fo r e overcomes the in flu e n c e o f an embedding c o n te x t/ w h ile fie ld -d e p e n d e n c e is a g lo b a l approach in which the embedding c o n te x t is p e rc e iv e d to be congurent w ith the item s o r elem ents (H. A. W itk in / ). L e a r n in g -S ty le s L e a r n in g -s ty le s a re th e unique ways in which an in d iv id u a l searches fo r m eaning. They c o n s is t o f d i s t i n c t i v e / o b s erv a b le b e h a v io rs th a t p ro v id e c lu es to the fu n c tio n in g o f p e o p le 's minds and how th e y r e la t e to the w o rld. In d iv id u a ls a re a ffe c te d by f i v e types o f v a r ia b le s : ( 1 ) e n v iro n m e n ta l (sound/ l i g h t / te m p e ra tu re / and the need fo r e it h e r a fo rm al o r in fo rm a l d e s ig n ); (2) e m o tio n a l (m o tiv a tio n p e r s is te n c e / r e s p o n s i b i l it y / and the need f o r e it h e r s tr u c tu r e o r o p tio n s ); ( 3 ) s o c io lo g ic a l ( s e l f / p a ir / p e e r/ team / a d u l t / o r v a r ie d ) ; (4 ) p h y s ic a l p re fe re n c e s (p e rc e p tu a l s tr e n g th s / need fo r in ta k e / tim e o f day o r n ig h t/ and need f o r m o b ilit y ) ; and (5 ) p s y c h o lo g ic a l ( a n a ly t ic or g lo b a l/ c e re b a l dominance/ and im p u ls iv e or r e f l e c t i v e ).

41 17 S e n io r High School S e n io r High School i s an e d u c a tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n w hich p ro v id e s secondary e d u c a tio n from grades 10 th ro u g h 12. In th e Bahamas/ s e n io r h ig h -s c h o o ls a re s e p a ra te from j u n io r h ig h -s c h o o ls / w h ile in Jam aica/ seco n d a ry-sc h o o ls a re r e fe r e d to as High S ch o o ls/ New Secondary S ch o o ls/ T e c h n ic a l High S cho ols/ o r Comprehensive High S cho ols/ a l l o f w hich a re in c lu s iv e o f g rades 7 through 12. T h e re fo re / s e n io r h ig h -s c h o o l in Jamaica r e fe r s to th e s e n io r le v e ls (g ra d e s ) o f each o f these types o f secondary sch o o ls named. Temperament A l l p o r t 's ( ) f i r s t d e f i n i t i o n o f temperament is com prehensive fo r the purpose o f th is s tu d y. o f Temperament r e f e r s to th e c h a r a c t e r is t ic phenomena an i n d i v i d u a l 's n a tu re in c lu d in g h is s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to e m o tio n a l s tim u la tio n : h is custom ary s tre n g th and speed o f response/ the q u a l i t y o f h is p r e v a ilin g mood/ and a l l th e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f f lu c t u a t io n and i n t e n s it y o f mood/ these being phenomena regarded as dependent on c o n s t it u t io n a l make-up/ and th e re fo re la r g e ly h e r e d ita r y in o r i g i n. ( / p. 34) D e lim it a t io n s o f the S tudy T h is stud y is concerned o n ly w ith s tu d e n ts in governm ent and independent h ig h -3 c h o o ls in Bahamas and J a m a ic a. Th is is a p r e lim in a r y stu d y fo r a f i n a l stu d y w hich w i l l in v e s tig a te the fin d in g s o f th is s tu d y r e l a t i v e to th e sampled s tu d e n ts ' perform ances on th e exa m in atio n s s p e c ifie d below. The sample was s e le c te d from s tu d e n ts in

42 18 grades 11 and 12 who were c u r r e n t ly p re p a rin g to w r it e the G e n e ra l C e r t i f i c a t e o f E ducation (GCE) a n d /o r th e Caribbean E xam in atio n C o u n cil (CXC) e x a m in a tio n s. L im it a t io n s o f th e S tu dy The l i m it a t io n s o f t h is s tu d y a re as fo llo w s : 1. Due to th e complex n a tu re o f r e le v a n t v a r ia b le s ( e. g. / so cio -eco n o m ic/ typ e o f school a tte n d e d / p a re n ta l a t t i t u d e toward s c h o o l/ e t c. ) which m ight have a s ig n if ic a n t e f f e c t on th e le a rn in g s ty le s o f s e n io r h ig h - schoo l s tu d e n ts in Jamaica and the Bahamas and the f i n a n c ia l c o n s tr a in ts o f t h is s tu d y / o n ly two demographic v a r ia b le s (sex and i s l a n d ) / a s e t o f le a r n in g - s t y le v a r ia b le s / and a s e t o f p e r s o n a lity v a r ia b le s (tem peram ent) were i d e n t i f i e d to be s tu d ie d. 2. The s tr u c tu r e and o p e ra tio n o f the schools sampled and tim e had a c o n s tra in in g in flu e n c e on the r e p re s e n ta tiv e n e s s o f th e s tu d e n ts s e le c te d. B a s ic Assum ptions T h is stu d y makes the fo llo w in g assum ptions: 1. That Bahamian and Jam aican g rade 11 and 12 s tu d e n ts can c l e a r l y in d ic a te t h e i r le a r n in g - s t y le s and temperaments when asked to do so on th e re s e a rc h i n s t r u n en ts. 2. That Bahamian and Jam aican 11 and 12 grade s tu d e n ts w i l l p ro v id e r e l i a b l e in fo rm a tio n concerning t h e ir

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