# Physics: Waves, Sound/Light, Electromagnetic Waves, Magnetism, Mains Electricity and the National Grid

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2 60% 6.5 Use and rearrange f = v λ 7.3 Explain how EM waves are generated and absorbed 7.4 Explain the hazardous effects of UV, X-rays and Gamma rays 8.2 Describe reflection of waves at a boundary 8.3 Construct ray diagrams to show reflection 8.10 Explain how colour of objects is determined 8.11 Explain how colour filters work 5.6 Describe how to make an electromagnet and how to increase its strength 1.5 Explain how loudspeakers and headphones work 1.6 Explain how potential difference/current can be induced in a circuit (the generator effect!) 1.7 Recall factors that can affect the size of this effect 1.8 Apply principals of the generator effect to: a dynamo, microphone, transformers (triple only) 6.6 Explain how the power of a circuit is related to potential difference, current and energy 1. Calculate the wave speed of a wave with a frequency of 100Hz and a wavelength of 2m. 2. Complete the table to show the hazards of EM waves. Wave Hazard Explanation radio waves microwaves infrared waves visible light ultraviolet light x-rays gamma rays 3. Draw a ray diagram to show how light reflects off a smooth surface using these key terms: reflected ray, incident ray, medium, normal, angle of incidence, angle of reflection, boundary. 4. Explain why an apple looks green. 5. Explain why a green object appears black if viewed through a red filter. 6. Write a method for making an electromagnet. Include a labelled diagram. 7. Which three things can we do to make the electromagnet stronger? 8. Draw a flow chart to show, step-by-step, how a loudspeaker works using these words: current, coil, magnetic field, cone, alternating, oscillate 9. Draw a labelled diagram to show the generator effect. 10. What would happen to the p.d. or current if you did the following? Increased the size of the magnetic field Increased the speed of the movement Reversed the direction of the magnetic field Reversed the direction of the movement 11. Draw a flow chart to show, step-by-step, how a microphone works using these words: sound waves, air pressure, oscillate, coil, frequency, amplitude, p.d. 12. Give the equation which links power, current and potential difference and write a sentence explaining what this relationship means in a circuit? Key Terms Longitudinal Transverse Amplitude Frequency (f) Wavelength (λ) Period (T) Wave speed (v) Medium Normal Reflection Angle of incidence (θi) Angle of reflection (θr) Refraction Total Internal Reflection Critical Angle Refractive Index Frequency Range Electromagnetic Spectrum UV Gamma (γ) X-ray Diffraction Digital Analogue Pitch Specular Diffuse Concave Convex Electromagnet Generator effect Motor effect Fleming s Left Hand Rule Flux Density Potential Difference Resistance Current Charge Alternating Current Direct Current National Grid Transformer

3 6.4 Use and rearrange T = 1/f 8.1 Describe the properties of light and explain how light travels. (triple only) 8.12 Define transparent and translucent 8.13 Explain what a sound wave is and how the ear detects them 1. A fly flaps its wings back and forth 121 times each second. The period of the wing flapping is sec. 2. Complete the following description of light using these words: opaque, electromagnetic, transparent, translucent Visible light is a type of wave that can be seen by the human eye. It can be absorbed, or transmitted. All objects either allow light through ( ), do now allow light through them ( ) or scatter light rays so objects cannot be seen clearly through them ( ) Explain how waves can be used for detection and exploration of structures (ultrasound, seismic, echo sounding) 5.5 Explain how compasses work 1.9 Draw and interpret graphs of potential difference generated in a coil against time 3. Draw a labelled diagram of the human ear and write a paragraph explaining how sound waves are created by a violin and then travel to reach the ear drum. 4. Draw a mind map to describe and explain the uses of waves in the following: echo sounding, seismic wave detection, the structure of the Earth. 5. Complete the paragraph: A magnetic compass contains a small. The compass aligns with the magnetic field. This means that the needle will always point to magnetic. 50% 5.1 Describe the properties of mains electricity in the UK (A.C., Frequency and Voltage) 5.2 Explain the difference between direct and alternating potential difference 5.3 Describe the three core cables and the wires that they are made up of and the dangers of these 7.2 Explain the role of step up and step down transformers in the national grid and use this to explain why it is an efficient system for transferring energy words: North, bar magnet, Earth s, needle 6. Sketch a graph to show how the p.d. changes over time in a generator and explain how this shows alternating current. 7. List the following properties of mains electricity: AC or DC Frequency (Hz) Voltage (V) 8. Write a definition for the following: Alternating current/p.d.: Direct current/p.d.: 9. Complete the following table to describe the three main cables found in UK mains devices: Wire name Colour Use Danger 10. Write a paragraph to explain why we need to use step-up and step-down transformers.

4 1. Give the definition of a wave and list three examples of where we would find waves. 6.1 Describe what is meant by a wave 6.2 Describe the difference between longitudinal and transverse waves giving examples for both 6.3 Describe amplitude, wavelength (λ), wave speed (v), frequency (f) and period of a wave (T) 2. Which of these examples are transverse waves and which are longitudinal waves? a. light waves, radio waves, heat b. sound waves, earthquake waves 3. Give the definition of each of the following key words: a. wavelength = b. wave speed = c. frequency = d. period = 4. Label the diagram with each of these key words: amplitude, wavelength. 40% 6.6 Identify amplitude and wavelength from diagrams of a wave 7.2 Recall the order of electromagnetic waves and recall their frequency and wavelength and give examples of the uses of these Explain the difference between a permanent and induced magnet 5.3 Describe the force between a magnet and a magnetic material 5.4 Describe the direction and strength of a magnetic field around a magnet 7.1 Describe the components of the national grid 6.1 Use and rearrange the P=IV equation (electrical power) 6.2 Use and rearrange the P=I 2 R equation (electrical power) 6.3 Describe energy transfers in electrical appliances 6.4 Use and rearrange E=Pt 6.5 Use and rearrange E=QV 5. Draw a poster to show the electromagnetic spectrum. It must include the names of each type of wave, a use of each type of wave, a danger of each type of wave and their frequency. 6. Complete the sentences by filling in the missing words: Permanent magnets produce their own Induced magnets become a magnet when placed in a. 11. Which of these is the only one which will repel a magnetic material? a. a magnet b. another magnetic material 12. Draw the magnetic field around the following magnet arrangements: a. North pole to North pole b. North pole to South pole c. South pole to South pole 13. Label the diagram of the national grid: 14. The heating element in a kettle produces an output power of 2300W when a p.d. of 230V is applied. Calculate the current flowing across the element showing your working out. 15. Work out the resistance of the same element using P=I 2 R 16. Complete the following paragraph to explain energy transfers in electrical appliances using these words: high, low, powerful, potential difference, current The power of a device depends on the across it and the flowing through it. A device with a potential difference or current will use more energy per second than one with a potential difference our current, i.e. it will be more. 17. A 2.5V bulb has a current of 1.2A flowing through it. What is the power of the bulb and how much energy would it use in 10s? 18. A 2kW heater is on for one hour. How much energy does it use? Calculate this using E=Pt 19. A bulb transfers 30J of energy in 10 seconds. During this time a charge of 12C is transferred. What is the voltage of the bulb? Calculate this using E= QV 20% 7.1 Describe what electromagnetic waves are 8.14 Recall the range of normal human hearing 1. Give a definition for an electromagnetic wave. 2. What is the hearing range of a human (Hz)? 3. Name the four magnetic materials. 5.1 Describe the polarity of magnets and list 4 magnetic materials

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